Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System

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1 I. General Info Integration and Coordination of the Human Body A. Both the and system are responsible for maintaining 1. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions despite changes in. 2. feedback the stimulus produces a response that the original stimulus e.g. when you exercise your body temperature I. Major divisions A. Central Nervous System (CNS) 1. Nervous System II. III. 2. B. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 1. Autonomic-regulates a. Sypathetic- or b. Parasympathetic- to sympathetic 2. Somatic- regulates activities under General function of nervous system A. and functions throughout the body B. Responds to and stimuli. Neurons (Nerves) A. of the nervous system B. Structure: (need labeled picture in notebook)

2 IV. Nerve impulse pathway A. Messages are electrical signals (impulses) and chemical signals (synapses) throughout the body. B. receive signals/stimulus. C. The impulse travels down the 1. Exchange of (Na + ) and (K + ) back and forth across the membrane of the axon causes an 2. If the membrane is covered with insulation ( ) then the impulse jumps from one to another space down the axon a. Myelin sheath is a fatty covering made by D. The impulse reaches the branched end of the axon (axon terminal) with at their tips. E. Signals travel across a gap called the to the dendrites of another neuron 1. Synaptic bulbs release (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine etc.) into the synapse to excite the of the adjoining neuron V. Reflex Arc A. Receptor (A)- end of neuron that are stimulated by sensory input B. Sensory neuron (B)- carries info to (D) C. Interneuron - signal; one signal goes out neuron and the other goes to the. D. Motor neuron - carries info to or gland E. Effector - produces or action. A F C D E B

3 VI. Brain A. Major divisions 1. Cerebrum a. Responsible for the or activities of the body. b. Cerebral cortex is the outer region of the cerebrum and it is the place of higher brain functions like (give examples) c. There are two hemispheres which are connected by the coordination of voluntary and (balance) 3. a. contains the and, which the flow of between the brain and the rest of the body. b. Coordinates eye and head movement and regulation of, and B. Brain structures:

4 VII. Special Senses A. Sensory receptors-respond directly to stimuli from the environment like light, motion, chemicals, pressure and temperature. B. Five categories of receptors: 1. Pain- found and they indicate, and injury. 2. Thermoreceptors- found in, and body core and senses changes in 3. Mechanorecptors-found in, ears and blood vessels; are sensitive to, pressure,, motion and the of muscles 4. Chemoreceptors- found in the and and are to chemicals. 5. VIII. Photoreceptors in the which respond to the spectrum. Sense of Smell and Taste A. The senses of and operate together to aid in food detection and selection. B. Our taste is without the aid of. C. In order the chemicals to be detected they must first be dissolved in the surrounding the cilia. D. Olfactory receptors quickly but is long term. IX. Sense of Hearing and Balance A. Three overall regions of the ear: 1. Outer ear-directs sound waves down the ear canal to the. 2. Middle ear- consists of 3 tiny bones,, and 3. Inner ear- consists of two parts: a. canals is where is determined. b. is the

5 site of where hearing. B. Physiology of Hearing: X. Vision * use your textbook to label the following diagram of the eye which will be on your next test.

6 XI. A. The eye is a fluid-filled hollow sphere with three distinct layers. 1. The Outer layer: a. The outer layer consists of the transparent at the front of the eye, 2. The Middle Layer 3. The Retina B. Physiology of Vision: and the white of the anterior eye. a. Includes the vascular layer. Why? b. The ciliary body forms a ring around the front of the eye and contains ciliary and ciliary that hold the lens in position and change its (focus). c. The is a thin, smooth muscle that adjusts the amount of entering your eye. a. The inner layer consists of photoreceptor cells called (active in dark) and (color receptors). b. The large cavity of the eye is filled with humor. 1. Light passes through the and through the, which adjusts amounts the amount of light striking the. 2. The pulls on the lens which changes it s shape to focus the image on the in the back of the eyeball. a. As you get older the lens becomes less resulting in or farsightedness. 3. Nerve impulses are carried away from the retina by the, where they are interpreted as vision in the brain. Drugs and our Nervous System A. Stimulants like amphetamines and cocaine increase,, brain function and cause a in appetite. 1. Cocaine/crack causes release of resulting in increased activity in both and. Taking cocaine could result in a heart attack, delirium, strokes, hypertension and rapid addiction. B. Depressants like and causes suppressed CNS actions, slurred speech and impaired judgment 1. Opiates like,, or oxycodone, mimics (looks like) (morphine-like brain chemical) resulting in the. Users quickly become

7 I. General characteristics A. Two types of glands addicted and suffer severe withdrawal symptoms which causes and constipation 2. /hashish causes a temporary feeling of. Long term use results in, memory loss, attention deficit and decreased levels of 3. (PCP) - low doses results in euphoria and decreased inhibition. Large doses cause paranoia, and (schizophrenia) 4. Alcohol destroys and it is the most commonly abused drug among teens. It is associated with the majority of homicides in the US every year. Endocrine System 1. secrete chemicals directly into the 2. secrete chemicals through to the inner and outer body surfaces B. Tissues or glands use to regulate metabolic processes. 1. A hormone is a biochemical that a cell secretes that (target cell) 2. Hormones control, regulate water & electrolyte balances,, development and 3. Some Key Hormones: a. Insulin ( ) blood sugar regulation b. Testosterone/estrogen ( ) gender development & reproduction c. Epinephrine (adrenal glands) fight or flight d. Human Growth hormone (pituitary) increases of individual e. (adrenal glands) released to counteract the effects of stress f. Calcitonin ( ) regulates calcium ion concentrations g. T3 & T4 ( ) regulations of body s metabolism.

8 II. Glands of the Endocrine System

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