Investigating the Human Body On-site student activities: Years 7-8 Investigating the Human Body On-site student activities Years 7 8

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1 Investigating the Human Body On-site student activities Years 7 8 Student activity (and record) sheets have been developed with alternative themes for students to use as guides and focus material during their visit. There are four sets of materials for Years 3 4, Years 5 6, Years 7 8 and Years 9, 10 and VCE. Each of these sets of materials contains a range of themes with individual record sheets. The choice of themes will depend on the classroom focus, the curriculum requirements and individual student needs. Teachers may choose a single theme or a combination of sheets from different themes for individual student, or for small groups of students to use. A larger selection of themes may be used by larger groups of students. The information collected on the student record sheets should be used as reference material for the follow-up Classroom Activities, or for further research of the subject back at school. Alternatively, teachers may choose to develop their own student activities or have students develop their own questions to research during their visit to The Human Body exhibition. Years 7-8 on-site student activity sheets focus on the following themes: The human body: first impressions The human body: going inside Body parts and body systems Close-ups: the microscopic world of cells Our digestive system: ins and outs Our circulatory system: the round trip Our immune system: the defenders Our muscles and skeleton: the power within Our nervous system: making sense A Museum Victoria experience. 106

2 The human body: first impressions We can learn a lot about people and history by the way that they represent draw, model and map the human body. Explore the large blue wall with images and objects representing the human body, at the entrance of The Human body exhibition and have a look around the yellow area called First impressions. 1. Explore the different themes of The Human Body exhibition. Describe three ways that models, maps and images of the human body have changed over time? 2. Describe some of the reasons that humans have been measured and recorded throughout history. Source: Prentice Hall? When, and by whom, was this map of the body produced? Maps and images of the body can be made in many different ways and they focus on different details of the body. Structural maps focus on the arrangement of body parts in relation to each other. Functional maps focus on the changes that occur in the body when it is stimulated in a certain way. Look at the various maps from alternative medicine; that are presented on the wall in the First impressions ; area. 3. Are you familiar with any of these maps? 4. How are these different maps different to Western medical and anatomical maps?? What does this map tell us about the body? A Museum Victoria experience. 107

3 The human body : going inside Dissections of the human body have played an important role in understanding how our bodies work on the inside. Take a seat in the sound and light room, behind the mummy showcase. Listen to the stories and look at the pictures, instruments and dissected body parts from explorers of the human body, nearly 400 years ago. 1. Describe two interesting things that you discovered during the sound and light show. Source: Dover Publications. Inc? When and by whom was this drawing of the human body made? There are many different forms of technology available to us today, to explore the human body without cutting it open. Explore the Becoming transparent section of the exhibition and the medical images from real patients that are presented on the light box. 2. Briefly describe some of the medical conditions that can be investigated using the following imaging technologies and the features of the body that you can see. Ultra sound X-ray CT MRI Source: Monash Ultrasound.? What medical imaging technology was used to produce this image? A Museum Victoria experience. 108

4 Body parts and body systems Our bodies need to perform important functions to stay alive like getting food and oxygen inside us, delivering things to our cells, and getting rid of wastes. Cells make up the tissues and organs in our body. Many different tissues and organs work together to carry out these functions. 1. As you explore The Human Body exhibition, draw and label the major organs from each body system. 2. As you move around the gallery write down 5 interesting facts that you did not know about the body, its organs or its cells. a. b. c. d. e.? What does the immune system do? A Museum Victoria experience. 109

5 When tissues and organ work together to perform a function they are called a body system. Look at all of the different body systems in the exhibition. 3. Write down two organs that help each of the body systems carry out their function in the body. 4. Draw a line from the body systems to the different functions that the system performs in the body. Muscle & skeletal systems Digestive system Circulatory & immune systems Respiratory system Excretory system Nervous & hormonal systems helps us think, perform actions and store memories. It regulates our growth and development, gets oxygen into our bodies and gets carbon dioxide out supports our body, helps us to move and protects our insides allows human beings to continue to live on even though individuals die carries oxygen and food particles to every cell in the body; takes away waste; and moves defence cells to destroy infected or sick body parts filters the blood of waste products and eliminates it from the body. breaks our food into tiny particles that are small enough to be absorbed into the blood A Museum Victoria experience. 110

6 Close-ups: the microscopic world of cells Our bodies are made up of millions of tiny cells. The shape of cells and the role that they perform in our tissues and organs makes our bodies what they are. Explore the Closeups section of the exhibition and each of the Body parts displays and look at the different cells found in each system. 1. How many different types of cell are there in the body? 2. Choose 2 images of different cells from different parts of the body. Draw each of them in the boxes below. Name the cells and where they are found in the body. A. B. 3. During your visit (or back at school) try to find out how the design of each of cells above might help them to carry out their role in the body. 4. Look at the picture of the red blood cells on the tip of the pin, in the Cell display. Estimate how many red blood cells can fit on the tip of a pin? Draw them onto the diagram below.? What is happening to this cell? A Museum Victoria experience. 111

7 Our digestive system: the ins and outs Food travels through our body in a long tube that reaches from our mouth to our small intestine to finish at the anus. Some of our food is broken up into tiny pieces and put into the blood. The rest of it comes out in the toilet as faeces. Have a look at the digestion display. 1. Can you label each of the different parts onto the diagram below (mouth, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, anus). 2. Look at the shelf in the digestion display. Briefly describe what happens in each part of the digestive tract. The mouth The oesophagus? What is peristalsis? The stomach The small intestines? Where is the pancreas and what does it do? The large intestines Source: AMGEN Australia? Why do we have bacteria in our gut and what effect can they have on us? A Museum Victoria experience. 112

8 Why is it important to chew and mix your food with saliva before you swallow it? 4. List all of the functions that the liver carries out in the body? Source: Monash University.? What are goblet cells and where are they found?? Where is the liver found in the body? 5. Draw the surface of the small intestine into the box opposite. 6. What are the tiny finger-like projections in the small intestine called? How do they help with the digestion of food? 7. Explain two things that can go wrong with the digestive process. a. Small intestine b. A Museum Victoria experience. 113

9 Our circulatory system: the round trip Our body takes in oxygen through our lungs and puts it into our blood. The gas carbon dioxide moves out of the blood and into the lungs where it is breathed out of the body. Have a look at the breathing organs in the glass showcase of the Circulation section of The Human Body exhibition. 1. Look at the lungs, trachea and diaphragm in the showcase. Draw and label them in the body outline below.? What are alveoli? 2. Look at the white cast of the air spaces inside the lungs. What happen to these airways as we breathe in and out? Source: University of Melbourne? What are the spaces in this lung tissue called? What are the tiny dark cells surrounding these spaces? 3. Use arrows and labels on the diagram above to explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the lungs through the alveoli into the blood. 4. Can you find the picture of the lungs of the person who smoked? Compare and describe the look of the lung tissue with the lung tissue in the glass showcase. 5. What has happened to the alveoli in these lungs and how would this affect the individual? A Museum Victoria experience. 114

10 6. Describe what the heart does in the body? 7. Use two fingers to find your pulse at your wrist and time it for one minute. What is your pulse rate? 8. Label the four diagrams below, in order from 1 to 4, Showing how blood moves through the heart during a pump cycle. Briefly describe what is taking place in each diagram.? Can you label the parts of the heart? 10. Label the following features onto the diagrams above. (vena cava, left and right atria, left and right ventricles, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and the aorta). Blood carries oxygen from our lungs, and tiny digested food particles and nutrients from our digestive system, to every cell in our body. 11. Connect the names of each blood part to the description of what each part does. Plasma Red blood cells White blood cells attack intruders in the body carries oxygen around the body the watery part of our blood carries blood cells, dissolved nutrients and wastes Source: Monash University.? Why does blood flow in one direction in veins? A Museum Victoria experience. 115

11 Blood vessels carry blood around the body in a circuit from the heart, to every organ and tissue, back to the heart. Blood vessels are different depending on where they occur in this circulatory pathway. 12. Draw a line connecting the different blood vessels in the diagram to the functions described below. Tiny branches that carry blood cells tunnels through organs of the body in single file Carry lots of blood from the heart to different parts of the body Carry lots of blood from different parts of the body to the heart Have thick elastic walls Have valves inside that stop blood flowing backwards Have very thin wall that let oxygen and nutrients in and out? Can you label the different blood vessels artery, vein and capillaries? Blood picks up waste products from different body parts and carries them away. The kidneys filter most of the waste products out of the blood. These wastes go into the bladder and come out of the body as urine (or wee). Look at the kidneys and bladder in the glass showcase. 14. Compare the two kidneys in the Body parts showcase. How are these kidneys different to each other? 15. Draw and label a kidney into the box below. Kidney? What is a nephron? 16. What would happen to your body if your kidneys didn t work properly? A Museum Victoria experience. 116

12 Our immune system: the defenders White blood cells circulate in our blood and immune organs. White blood cells defend our bodies from infections. 1 Draw in the box below the image of a macrophage cell engulfing two dead red blood cells. Macrophage cell engulfing particles 2. How do these cells know the difference between a foreign cell or sick cell and their own cells? 3. What are some of the things that our immune cells protect us from?? Label the organs onto the diagram that help our immune system to function 3. The diagram below represents the inflammatory process. Briefly describe what is happening at each step.? What is inside the tiny sacs in white blood cells? A Museum Victoria experience. 117

13 Our muscles and skeleton: the power within Our movements depend on our muscles and skeleton. We have a bony skeleton with muscles attached. Our muscles and skeleton allow us to move, they support us and protect our inside organs. Look at the Body parts - muscles and skeletal displays. 1. As you explore the exhibition, find the names of the major bones in the skeleton. Label them onto the opposite diagram. 2. What is bone and how is it formed?? What are these structures? 3. Name the bones that protect different internal organs. 4. What stabilises our joints and stops the ends of the bones moving from side to side? 5. What are the discs made from, that help reduce friction between moving bones?? How many bones can you Explore the moving parts on the shelf in the Body parts - muscles and skeletal displays. 6. Label each of the joints below and name one moving part of the body where that joint is found. (pivot/rotating joint, saddle joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, gliding joint) A Museum Victoria experience. 118

14 Muscles cause our body parts to move by contracting and relaxing. No part of our body moves without muscles but there are several different types of muscle found in the body. 7. How do muscles to move?? Can you label the major muscles onto the diagram? 8. Look at the spinning cells in the Close-ups section of exhibition. Describe how these three types of muscle are different to each other and what causes them to contract in the body. Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Skeletal muscle A Museum Victoria experience. 119

15 Our nervous system: making sense Our nervous system co-ordinates everything that happens inside us. It makes sure that all of our body systems work together. The nervous system lets us think and make decisions, do things and store memories. 1. Find a picture of a typical nerve cell and draw and label its parts below. Nerve cell 2. What are neurotransmitters? 3. What are the names of the major parts of the brain responsible for the following functions.? Label the brain, spinal cord, and nerves onto the diagram above. associated with intelligence and complex behaviour and allows us to store memories, solve problems and organise muscles to contract allows us to remember things from our past and store our memories coordinates our movements and controls the body s balance tries to make sense of all the information coming into our brain and is involved with how we perceive things receives nerve impulses from neurons and receptors in our skin and sensory organs? Can you label the major parts of the brain onto the diagram above? A Museum Victoria experience. 120

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