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1 Electronic Circuits Prof. Nizamettin AYDIN BJT and FET Frequency Response Dr. Gökhan Bilgin 2 General Frequency Considerations Bode Plot The frequency response of an amplifier refers to the frequency range in which the amplifier will operate with negligible effects from capacitors and device internal capacitance. This range of frequencies can be called the mid-range range. At frequencies above and below the midrange, capacitance and any inductance will affect the gain of the amplifier. At low frequencies the coupling and bypass capacitors lower the gain. At high frequencies stray capacitances associated with the active device lower the gain. A Bode plot indicates the frequency response of an amplifier. The horizontal scale indicates the frequency (in Hz) and the vertical scale indicates the gain (in db). Also, cascading amplifiers limits the gain at high and low frequencies. 3 4 Cutoff Frequencies BJT Amplifier Low-Frequency Response The mid-range frequency range of an amplifier is called the bandwidth of the amplifier. The bandwidth is defined by the lower and upper cutoff frequencies. At low frequencies, coupling capacitor (C S, C C ) and bypass capacitor (C E ) reactances affect the circuit impedances. Cutoff any frequency at which the gain has dropped by 3 db. 5 6 reserved.

2 Coupling Capacitor (C S ) Coupling Capacitor (C C ) The cutoff frequency due to C S can be calculated by fls = 2π(Rs + Ri )Cs R i = R R 2 βre The cutoff frequency due to C C can be calculated with flc = 2π(Ro + RL )Cc R o = R C ro 7 8 Bypass Capacitor (C E ) BJT Amplifier Low-Frequency Response The cutoff frequency due to C E can be calculated with f LE = 2πReCE R s R e = R E ( + re ) β and R s = Rs R R 2 The Bode plot indicates that each capacitor may have a different cutoff frequency. It is the device that has the highest lower cutoff frequency (f L ) that dominates the overall frequency response of the amplifier. 9 0 Roll-Off of Gain in the Bode Plot The Bode plot not only indicates the cutoff frequencies of the various capacitors it also indicates the amount of attenuation (loss in gain) at these frequencies. The amount of attenuation is sometimes referred to as roll-off off. The roll-off is described as db loss-per-octave or db loss-per-decade. Roll-off off Rate (-db/decade) -db/decade refers to the attenuation for every 0-fold change in frequency. For attenuations at the lowfrequency end, it refers to the loss in gain from the lower cutoff frequency to a frequency that is one-tenth the cutoff value. In this example: f LS = 9kHz gain is 0dB f LS /0 =.9kHz gain is 20dB Thus the roll-off is 20dB/decade The gain decreases by 20dB/decade 2 reserved. 2

3 Roll-Off Rate ( db/octave) -db/octave refers to the attenuation for every 2-fold change in frequency. For attenuations at the lowfrequency end, it refers to the loss in gain from the lower cutoff frequency to a frequency one-half the cutoff value. FET Amplifier Low-Frequency Response At low frequencies, coupling capacitor (C G, C C ) and bypass capacitor (C S ) reactances affect the circuit impedances. In this example: f LS = 9kHz gain is 0dB f LS / 2 = 4.5kHz gain is 6dB Therefore the roll-off is 6dB/octave. This is a little difficult to see on this graph because the horizontal scale is a logarithmic scale. 3 4 Coupling Capacitor (C G ) Coupling Capacitor (C C ) The cutoff frequency due to C G can be calculated with f LC= 2π(Rsig + Ri )CG R i = R G The cutoff frequency due to C C can be calculated with flc = 2π(Ro+ RL)CC R o = R D rd 5 6 Bypass Capacitor (C S ) FET Amplifier Low-Frequency Response The cutoff frequency due to C S can be calculated with f LS = 2πReqCS Req = RS rd Ω gm The Bode plot indicates that each capacitor may have a different cutoff frequency. The capacitor that has the highest lower cutoff frequency (f L ) is closest to the actual cutoff frequency of the amplifier. 7 8 reserved. 3

4 Miller Capacitance Miller Input Capacitance (C Mi ) Any p-n junction can develop capacitance. In a BJT amplifier, this capacitance becomes noticeable across: The base-collector junction at high frequencies in common-emitter BJT amplifier configurations The gate-drain junction at high frequencies in commonsource FET amplifier configurations. These capacitances are represented as separate input and output capacitances, called the Miller Capacitances. CMi = ( A v )Cf Note that the amount of Miller capacitance is dependent on interelectrode capacitance from input to output (C f ) and the gain (A v ) Miller Output Capacitance (C Mo ) BJT Amplifier High-Frequency Response If the gain (A v ) is considerably greater than, then CMo C f Capacitances that affect the high-frequency response are Junction capacitances C be, C bc, C ce Wiring capacitances C wi, C wo Coupling capacitors C S, C C Bypass capacitor C E 2 22 Input Network (f Hi ) High-Frequency Cutoff Output Network (f Ho ) High-Frequency Cutoff and f Hi = 2πR ThiCi R Thi =Rs R R 2 R i C = C + C + C i Wi Wi be be Mi = C + C + ( A )C v bc f Ho = 2πRThoCo R Tho = RC R L ro and C o = CWo + Cce + CMo reserved. 4

5 h fe (or β) ) Variation The h fe parameter (or β) of a transistor varies with frequency fβ 2πβmidre(Cbe + Cbc ) BJT Amplifier Frequency Response Note the highest lower cutoff frequency (f L ) and the lowest upper cutoff frequency (f H ) are closest to the actual response of the amplifier FET Amplifier High-Frequency Response Input Network (f Hi ) High-Frequency Cutoff Capacitances that affect the high-frequency response are Junction capacitances C gs, C gd, C ds Wiring capacitances C wi, C wo Coupling capacitors C G, C C f Hi = 2πR Thi Ci C i = CWi + Cgs + CMi CMi = ( A v )Cgd R Thi = Rsig RG Bypass capacitor C S Output Network (f Ho ) High-Frequency Cutoff Multistage Frequency Effects f Ho = 2πR Tho Co C o = CWo + Cds + CMo CMo Cgd A = v R Tho = R D R L rd Each stage will have its own frequency response, but the output of one stage will be affected by capacitances in the subsequent stage. This is especially so when determining the high frequency response. For example, the output capacitance (C o ) will be affected by the input Miller Capacitance (C Mi ) of the next stage reserved. 5

6 Multistage Amplifier Frequency Response Square Wave Testing In order to determine the frequency response of an amplifier by experimentation, you must apply a wide range of frequencies to the amplifier. Once the cutoff frequencies have been determined for each stage (taking into account the shared capacitances), they can be plotted. One way to accomplish this is to apply a square wave. A square wave consists of multiple frequencies (by Fourier analysis: it consists of odd harmonics). Note the highest lower cutoff frequency (f L ) and the lowest upper cutoff frequency (f H ) are closest to the actual response of the amplifier Square Wave Response Waveforms If the output of the amplifier is not a perfect square wave then the amplifier is cutting off certain frequency components of the square wave. 33 reserved. 6

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