# Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer. Also important is that students understand critical damping in the frequency domain. Theory Figure 9.1 Bode Diagrams: Figure 9.2 The Bode diagram, as seen in Figure 9.1, completely characterizes a linear system. You may recall that for linear systems, superposition holds. More information on what constitutes a linear system will be covered in future engineering courses. The Bode diagram shows how the system will change the magnitude and phase of pure sinusoidal inputs. For example Figure 9.1 is the Bode plot of the 2 nd order low pass RLC circuit shown in Figure 9.2.

2 At very low frequencies, the magnitude of the output is very close to 0dB (unity gain), and phase shift is almost zero. This means low frequency signals pass this filter without change. At high frequencies, the magnitude drops and the phase is shifted 180 degrees which means the signal is totally attenuated. At the maximum of the magnitude curve, a resonance is clearly indicated at the resonance frequency, where the phase shift is 90 degrees. Consult Chapter 14 in your text if you wish to explore more details on this. However, our brief description in this section is sufficient to complete this lab. Decibels and the db scale: In electronic circuits, voltages and currents can be amplified or attenuated. The values encountered for such factors in circuits can vary over orders of magnitude. It is thus convenient to use a logarithmic measure for them. Let X be a voltage or current amplification or attenuation factor. A widely used logarithmic measure is: X db = 20log X The values of X db are expressed in units called decibels, or db. For example, if X=0.1, X db =20log =-20dB. If X>1 then the decibel value should be positive. The table below gives X db for a variety of X values. However, you should be able to calculate the decibel value of amplification or attenuation. (We also call this the gain.) X XdB 1 0dB 2 3dB 1 / 2-3dB 2 or 1/2 +6 or -6dB 10 or or -20dB 100 or or -40dB Since X db is a log function, we usually plot it on a log scale. For our purposes, this means that we equally space powers of 10 in the x-axis. We call the equally spaced steps on this scale a decade. 2nd order state variable active filter: The state variable active filter is shown in Figure 9.3; it is similar to the bi-quadratic filter we used in Lab #8. When we say filter, we mean a circuit that will allow signals of certain frequencies to either been amplified or to pass through it. The filter will reject some frequencies. To a certain extent, we can control the frequencies and the gain associated with those frequencies by selecting the filter components.

3 Figure 9.3 Our active filter consists of a summing node and two identical lossless integrators. From the outputs of the three op-amps, we can obtain high pass, band pass and low pass characteristics with respect to the same input signal. For simplicity, we take R R = R = R 1 = 2 3, R 4 = R 5 = R freq, C 1 = C 2 = C. The Q of the filter is determined by the ratio between RA and RB: RA + RB Q = 3RB Therefore the central frequency f = 1 0 2πR freqc, Maximum gain of the LP, HP and BP outputs are R3 R R 2 A + RB A0, LP = = 1, A 1 R 0, HP = = A0, BP = = Q.(When R1=R2=R3) R 3R 1 1 What is the maximum gain in db? Be familiar with how to switch back and forth between nominal gain and the gain in db. B

4 Prelab Read the purpose, principles, and procedures sections of Lab 9. Be prepared for your lab quiz which may cover this lab or any previous lab completed this semester. 1. Perform an AC steady state analysis for the RC low pass circuit shown in Figure 9.4. Be sure to print all relevant graphs to turn in to you TA. If you have questions, consult your TA. Figure 9.4 Note: The following steps will help you perform a AC steady state analysis in PSPICE. It is also good to perform the analysis by hand before starting your PSPICE simulation. a) Put a "VAC" as the input source, Set "ACMAG"=1V as shown in Figure 9.5. Figure 9.5 b) In the 1 st order RC low-pass circuit, double click the output node; label it as Vout in the pop-up window. c) In the analysis setup dialog, select "AC Sweep" as shown in Figure 9.6: Figure 9.6

5 d). Enter the parameters as shown in Figure 9.7: Figure 9.7 e) Start the simulation. The result window will be empty for the first time because you have not yet selected traces to display. You need to manually add the "Vout" trace and set it to the db scale: i. Click "Add Trace" on the toolbar or press "Insert" on the keyboard. See Figure 9.8. Figure 9.8 ii. In the pop-up dialog box, which is shown in Figure 9.9 on the next page, click "DB()" on the right and then V(Vout) on the left until DB(V(vout)) shows up in the "Trace Expression" on the bottom.

6 f) Measure the roll-off slope: Figure 9.9 Figure 9.10 Use the cursor function, whose button is circled in the Figure Set two cursors one decade apart, say 100k and 10k, or 50k and 5k, note down the Y difference as circled. For 1 st order RC, this roll-off slope should be about 20dB/decade. Print your schematic and the graph with the slope shown and hand it in to your TA.

7 2. Repeat for RC high pass filter below in Figure Be sure to print all relevant graphs to turn in to your TA. If you have questions, consult with your TA. Figure Perform AC analysis for the state variable active filter at the HP, BP, and LP outputs nodes from 10Hz to 100kHz as shown in Figure Measure the roll-off slopes from all three output signals. Place all three traces on one graph if you are able Again, submit all graphs for grading. Figure Change R A and R B values yet keep R A +R B constant, (they will be replaced with a potentiometer in the lab) to observe the changes with different Q. Refer to the Q equation RA + RB Q =. For example R B =0.5k, R A =1.5k will give a Q of about Capture AC 3RB response curves from the LP output node with Q=0.5,1 and Keeping R A +R B =10kOhms, calculate the R B value for critical damping Q=0.707.

8 Procedure OPAMPs 5 1kΩ resistors 2 1.6kΩ resistors 2 0.1uF capacitors Task #1 Low pass RC Filter Using R=1.6kΩ and C=0.1uF, construct the circuit in Figure 9.13 on the NI ELVIS board. Be sure to use the ground on the board correctly. You will be adding to this circuit in Task #2. Generate from the HP function generator a 2Volt peak to ppeak, 500Hz sinusoid signal for the Vin. Remember to set the function generator to High Z. Monitor both Vin and Vout through CH1 and CH2 of the Tectronix oscilloscope. The two waveforms should look similar to Figure Measure the phase difference between the two traces by using the functions associated with the "measure" button. Also find the attenuation factor between Vin p-p and Vout p-p, convert it to db scale. Record the results in Table 1. Save the graph and include it in your lab report. Gradually increase the frequency to 2kHz. The waveform should look similar to Figure Note down the phase difference and the amplitude change. Measure the attenuation factor in db as well. Comment the change of phase and amplitude of the output signal. Save the graph and include it in your lab report. Figure 9.13 Figure 9.14

9 Figure 9.15 Task #2 Using the Bode Analyzer The Bode analyzer is a very useful tool provided in the NI ELVIS system. It generates sinusoid input signal at variable frequency but constant amplitude, then compares output signal with the input, finding the change in both phase and amplitude. By this way we can find the AC steady state characteristics of the circuit under test. You will use the same circuit you did in Task #1. Leave the connections to the Tectronix Oscilloscope in place. Simple add to the circuit using the following steps: a) Connect the ELVIS function generator output to ACH0+, name this node Vin; this node will provide the variable frequency input signal, whose amplitude is sensed through the ACH0 channel. b) Name the ACH1+ as Vout, this is the node where the Bode analyzer measures the output of our circuit under test. c) Connect ACH0-, ACH1- to the ground; d) Connect the Vin, Vout and ground of the RC circuit in Figure 9.13 to the Bode analyzer, with R=1.6k, C=0.1uF. Your Bode analyzer is now ready to work. e) Invoke the Bode analyzer from the ELVIS Launcher. Set the start/stop frequency from 10Hz to 20 khz, set 10 points per decade, set input amplitude 2Vpp, set the y axis ranges as default at this time.

10 Figure 9.16 f) Click Run button to start analysis. From the oscilloscope (by using auto scale) you can see the input signal is a sinusoid with increasing frequency. The amplitude and phase difference are then be measured by the ELVIS system and plotted on the graph. After the analysis finishes, save the log files of every trace for the lab report. You can save them as files that can be imported into Excel. Save the both the graph files and the data to be used in the lab report write-up. Task #3: State Variable Filter Build the state variable filter in Figure 9.17, connect it to the bode analyzer, with the same settings above, test its HP, BP and LP outputs individually, save log files to every trace. Figure 9.17

11 Task #4: Continued Analysis of the State Variable Filter: (Optional) Replace R A and R B with a 10kohm potentiometer. Adjust the circuit to critical damping. (Hint: recall the knowledge you learned in previous lab). Test the circuit with the frequency analyzer; note the shape of the AC curves around the f 0. Remove the potentiometer from the circuit, measure the resistance of the equivalent R A and R B, compare to your calculations and simulations in the pre-lab. Lab Report Requirements Be sure to include all normal requirements for the Lab Report. See your TA if you have any questions. Also include the following: 1. In Excel, import the saved log files as comma delimited text, reproduce the Bode plots in your lab report. For every roll-off slope, find two points that are 1 decade away from each other, for example 2khz and 20kHz for high frequency part, or 20 to 200 Hz for lower frequency part. Find the differences between the two marks in db. Note down the slopes in the following table. 2. Comment the difference between 1 st and 2 nd order systems. Do 2 nd order filters have a steeper or shallower slope as the gain decreases? For more information on this, consult Chapter 14 in your text. 1 st order low pass 2 nd order low pass 2 nd order high pass 2 nd order band pass lower side 2 nd order band pass higher side 3. Reproduce tables and comments in the report. Explain the theory learned from the lecture as it is reflected in the work done in the lab.

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)

Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept: circuits Time: 30 m SW Interface: 750 Windows file: RLC.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage

### Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3. AC Circuit Analysis

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 AC Circuit Analysis 3.1 Introduction The steady-state behavior of circuits energized by sinusoidal sources is an important area of study for several reasons. First, the

### Laboratory Manual. ELEN-325 Electronics

Laboratory Manual ELEN-325 Electronics Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Texas A&M University Prepared by: Dr. Jose Silva-Martinez (jsilva@ece.tamu.edu) Rida Assaad (rida@ece.tamu.edu) Raghavendra

### 30. Bode Plots. Introduction

0. Bode Plots Introduction Each of the circuits in this problem set is represented by a magnitude Bode plot. The network function provides a connection between the Bode plot and the circuit. To solve these

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### Lab 3: Introduction to Data Acquisition Cards

Lab 3: Introduction to Data Acquisition Cards INTRODUCTION: In this lab, you will be building a VI to display the input measured on a channel. However, within your own VI you will use LabVIEW supplied

### ε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied

Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and

### University of Rochester Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE113 Lab. #7 Higher-order filter & amplifier designs March, 2012

University of Rochester Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE113 Lab. #7 Higherorder filter & amplifier designs March, 2012 Writeups, due one week after the lab is performed, should provide

### CHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

ELECTRICAL CHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 1. State the fundamental concepts of Fourier analysis. 2. Determine the output of a filter for a given input consisting of sinusoidal

### Selected Filter Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller

ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Selected Filter Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 146235604 Tel (585) 4752035

### MATERIALS. Multisim screen shots sent to TA.

Page 1/8 Revision 0 9-Jun-10 OBJECTIVES Learn new Multisim components and instruments. Conduct a Multisim transient analysis. Gain proficiency in the function generator and oscilloscope. MATERIALS Multisim

### Lab 1: Introduction to PSpice

Lab 1: Introduction to PSpice Objectives A primary purpose of this lab is for you to become familiar with the use of PSpice and to learn to use it to assist you in the analysis of circuits. The software

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER

2014 Amplifier - 1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER The objectives of this experiment are: To understand the concept of HI-FI audio equipment To generate a frequency response curve for an audio

### RLC Series Resonance

RLC Series Resonance 11EM Object: The purpose of this laboratory activity is to study resonance in a resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit by examining the current through the circuit as a function

### SIMULATIONS OF PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT POWER ELECTRONICS COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY

SIMULATIONS OF PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT POWER ELECTRONICS COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 25 PURPOSE: The purpose of this lab is to simulate the LCC circuit using MATLAB and ORCAD Capture CIS to better

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### RC & RL Transient Response

EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 1. Introduction R & R Transient Response The student will analyze series R and R circuits. A step input will excite these respective circuits, producing a transient

### EE 242 EXPERIMENT 5: COMPUTER SIMULATION OF THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS USING PSPICE SCHEMATICS 1

EE 242 EXPERIMENT 5: COMPUTER SIMULATION OF THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS USING PSPICE SCHEMATICS 1 Objective: To build, simulate, and analyze three-phase circuits using OrCAD Capture Pspice Schematics under balanced

### See Horenstein 4.3 and 4.4

EE 462: Laboratory # 4 DC Power Supply Circuits Using Diodes by Drs. A.V. Radun and K.D. Donohue (2/14/07) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506 Updated

### AC CIRCUITS - CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS

EXPRIMENT#8 AC CIRCUITS - CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS NOTE: Two weeks are allocated for this experiment. Before performing this experiment, review the Proper Oscilloscope Use section of Experiment #7. Objective

### SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS

Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 1 SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES 1. Test the theoretical analysis of series-parallel networks through direct measurements. 2. Improve skills

### Analog Filters. A common instrumentation filter application is the attenuation of high frequencies to avoid frequency aliasing in the sampled data.

Analog Filters Filters can be used to attenuate unwanted signals such as interference or noise or to isolate desired signals from unwanted. They use the frequency response of a measuring system to alter

### RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X

Objective RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X In this series of experiments, the time constant of an RC circuit will be measured experimentally and compared with the theoretical expression for

### Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007 Lab 4: Audio Playback System Introduction In this lab, you will construct,

### UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. EE105 Lab Experiments

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences EE15 Lab Experiments Bode Plot Tutorial Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Bode Plots Basics

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP Purpose: To demonstrate the relationship between the voltage and current of a capacitor. Theory: A capacitor is a linear circuit element whose

### Inductors in AC Circuits

Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum

### Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH005/105)

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PHYSICS MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY DIVISION Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH5/15) Analog Electronics Active Filters Copyright c Virgínio de Oliveira Sannibale, 23 (Revision

### PHYSICS 360 - LAB #2 Passive Low-pass and High-pass Filter Circuits and Integrator and Differentiator Circuits

PHYSICS 360 - LAB #2 Passie Low-pass and High-pass Filter Circuits and Integrator and Differentiator Circuits Objectie: Study the behaior of low-pass and high-pass filters. Study the differentiator and

### AC 2012-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY

AC 212-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY Dr. Tooran Emami, U.S. Coast Guard Academy Tooran Emami received her M.S. and Ph.D.

### Unit/Standard Number. High School Graduation Years 2010, 2011 and 2012

1 Secondary Task List 100 SAFETY 101 Demonstrate an understanding of State and School safety regulations. 102 Practice safety techniques for electronics work. 103 Demonstrate an understanding of proper

### Objectives The purpose of this lab is build and analyze Differential amplifiers based on NPN transistors (or NMOS transistors).

1 Lab 03: Differential Amplifiers (BJT) (20 points) NOTE: 1) Please use the basic current mirror from Lab01 for the second part of the lab (Fig. 3). 2) You can use the same chip as the basic current mirror;

### DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b

DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,

### = V peak 2 = 0.707V peak

BASIC ELECTRONICS - RECTIFICATION AND FILTERING PURPOSE Suppose that you wanted to build a simple DC electronic power supply, which operated off of an AC input (e.g., something you might plug into a standard

### Oscilloscope, Function Generator, and Voltage Division

1. Introduction Oscilloscope, Function Generator, and Voltage Division In this lab the student will learn to use the oscilloscope and function generator. The student will also verify the concept of voltage

### Step Response of RC Circuits

Step Response of RC Circuits 1. OBJECTIVES...2 2. REFERENCE...2 3. CIRCUITS...2 4. COMPONENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS...3 QUANTITY...3 DESCRIPTION...3 COMMENTS...3 5. DISCUSSION...3 5.1 SOURCE RESISTANCE...3

### ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EEM 102 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT 9: DIODES AND DC POWER SUPPLY OBJECTIVE: To observe how a diode functions

### Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

### Lecture 1-6: Noise and Filters

Lecture 1-6: Noise and Filters Overview 1. Periodic and Aperiodic Signals Review: by periodic signals, we mean signals that have a waveform shape that repeats. The time taken for the waveform to repeat

### Step response of an RLC series circuit

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 5 Step response of an RLC series circuit 1 Introduction Objectives

### *For stability of the feedback loop, the differential gain must vary as

ECE137a Lab project 3 You will first be designing and building an op-amp. The op-amp will then be configured as a narrow-band amplifier for amplification of voice signals in a public address system. Part

10. A ircuits* Objective: To learn how to analyze current and voltage relationships in alternating current (a.c.) circuits. You will use the method of phasors, or the vector addition of rotating vectors

### Lab 1: The Digital Oscilloscope

PHYSICS 220 Physical Electronics Lab 1: The Digital Oscilloscope Object: To become familiar with the oscilloscope, a ubiquitous instrument for observing and measuring electronic signals. Apparatus: Tektronix

### EE 1202 Experiment #4 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transient Circuits

EE 1202 Experiment #4 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transient Circuits 1. Introduction and Goal: Exploring transient behavior due to inductors and capacitors in DC circuits; gaining experience with lab instruments.

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### Measuring Impedance and Frequency Response of Guitar Pickups

Measuring Impedance and Frequency Response of Guitar Pickups Peter D. Hiscocks Syscomp Electronic Design Limited phiscock@ee.ryerson.ca www.syscompdesign.com April 30, 2011 Introduction The CircuitGear

### Lab 1: DC Circuits. Student 1, student1@ufl.edu Partner : Student 2, student2@ufl.edu

Lab Date Lab 1: DC Circuits Student 1, student1@ufl.edu Partner : Student 2, student2@ufl.edu I. Introduction The purpose of this lab is to allow the students to become comfortable with the use of lab

### Designing Stable Compensation Networks for Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators

Designing Stable Compensation Networks for Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators Technical Brief December 3 TB47. Author: Doug Mattingly Assumptions This Technical Brief makes the following assumptions:.

### Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in

### Lab #4 Thevenin s Theorem

In this experiment you will become familiar with one of the most important theorems in circuit analysis, Thevenin s Theorem. Thevenin s Theorem can be used for two purposes: 1. To calculate the current

### PCM Encoding and Decoding:

PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth

### LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012. A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742

1.1. Differential Amplifiers ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012 A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742 Differential Amplifiers

### Lock - in Amplifier and Applications

Lock - in Amplifier and Applications What is a Lock in Amplifier? In a nut shell, what a lock-in amplifier does is measure the amplitude V o of a sinusoidal voltage, V in (t) = V o cos(ω o t) where ω o

### 11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

### More Filter Design on a Budget

Application Report SLOA096 December 2001 More Filter Design on a Budget Bruce Carter High Performance Linear Products ABSTRACT This document describes filter design from the standpoint of cost. Filter

### Fig. 1 :Block diagram symbol of the operational amplifier. Characteristics ideal op-amp real op-amp

Experiment: General Description An operational amplifier (op-amp) is defined to be a high gain differential amplifier. When using the op-amp with other mainly passive elements, op-amp circuits with various

### Common Emitter BJT Amplifier Design Current Mirror Design

Common Emitter BJT Amplifier Design Current Mirror Design 1 Some Random Observations Conditions for stabilized voltage source biasing Emitter resistance, R E, is needed. Base voltage source will have finite

### CONSTRUCTING A VARIABLE POWER SUPPLY UNIT

CONSTRUCTING A VARIABLE POWER SUPPLY UNIT Building a power supply is a good way to put into practice many of the ideas we have been studying about electrical power so far. Most often, power supplies are

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### CTCSS REJECT HIGH PASS FILTERS IN FM RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AN EVALUATION. Virgil Leenerts WØINK 8 June 2008

CTCSS REJECT HIGH PASS FILTERS IN FM RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AN EVALUATION Virgil Leenerts WØINK 8 June 28 The response of the audio voice band high pass filter is evaluated in conjunction with the rejection

ECSE 4440 Control System Engineering Fall 2001 Project 3 Controller Design in Frequency Domain TA 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Controller design in Frequency domain 4. Experiment 5. Colclusion 1. Abstract

### Tutorial and Simulations for Micro-Cap IV

ELEC 380 Electronic Circuits II Tutorial and Simulations for Micro-Cap IV By Adam Zielinski (Posted at: http://wwwece.uvic.ca/~adam/) Version: August 22, 2002 ELEC 380 Electronic Circuits II - Tutorial

### What you will do. Build a 3-band equalizer. Connect to a music source (mp3 player) Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter

Audio Filters What you will do Build a 3-band equalizer Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter Connect to a music source (mp3 player) Adjust the strength of low, high, and middle frequencies

### Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers By: Gary A. Ybarra Christopher E. Cramer Duke University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Durham, NC. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to examine the properties

### Annex: VISIR Remote Laboratory

Open Learning Approach with Remote Experiments 518987-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-KA3-KA3MP Multilateral Projects UNIVERSITY OF DEUSTO Annex: VISIR Remote Laboratory OLAREX project report Olga Dziabenko, Unai Hernandez

### Lab 4 - Data Acquisition

Spring 11 Lab 4 - Data Acquisition Lab 4-1 Lab 4 - Data Acquisition Format This lab will be conducted during your regularly scheduled lab time in a group format. Each student is responsible for learning

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

### COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER

EXPERIMENT 04 Objectives: Theory: 1. To evaluate the common-source amplifier using the small signal equivalent model. 2. To learn what effects the voltage gain. A self-biased n-channel JFET with an AC

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### VCO K 0 /S K 0 is tho slope of the oscillator frequency to voltage characteristic in rads per sec. per volt.

Phase locked loop fundamentals The basic form of a phase locked loop (PLL) consists of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), a phase detector (PD), and a filter. In its more general form (Figure 1), the

### Experiment # (4) AM Demodulator

Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (4) AM Demodulator Communications Engineering I (Lab.) Prepared by: Eng. Omar A. Qarmout Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment

### Lecture 24. Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works)

Lecture 24 Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works) Copyright 2014 by Mark Horowitz 1 Roadmap: How Does This Work? 2 Processor Board 3 More Detailed Roadmap

### Lab 3 Rectifier Circuits

ECET 242 Electronic Circuits Lab 3 Rectifier Circuits Page 1 of 5 Name: Objective: Students successfully completing this lab exercise will accomplish the following objectives: 1. Learn how to construct

### LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Bridge Rectifier

LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER Full-wave Rectification: Bridge Rectifier For many electronic circuits, DC supply voltages are required but only AC voltages are available.

### Positive Feedback and Oscillators

Physics 3330 Experiment #6 Fall 1999 Positive Feedback and Oscillators Purpose In this experiment we will study how spontaneous oscillations may be caused by positive feedback. You will construct an active

### OrCAD Capture with PSpice and Allegro DE CIS with AMS Simulator. Describes how to create a PSpice Archive File with Capture

Title: Product: Summary: Creating a Project Archive OrCAD Capture with PSpice and Allegro DE CIS with AMS Simulator Describes how to create a PSpice Archive File with Capture Author/Date: Wei Ling / 03.08.2009

### EET272 Worksheet Week 9

EET272 Worksheet Week 9 answer questions 1-5 in preparation for discussion for the quiz on Monday. Finish the rest of the questions for discussion in class on Wednesday. Question 1 Questions AC s are becoming

### Tutorial www.loudsoft.com

Tutorial www.loudsoft.com In this tutorial we show several examples of simple and advanced X-over designs, using FINE X- over. In the first example we create the x-over for two drivers we have previously

### Tutorial 2: Using Excel in Data Analysis

Tutorial 2: Using Excel in Data Analysis This tutorial guide addresses several issues particularly relevant in the context of the level 1 Physics lab sessions at Durham: organising your work sheet neatly,

### How to Design 10 khz filter. (Using Butterworth filter design) Application notes. By Vadim Kim

How to Design 10 khz filter. (Using Butterworth filter design) Application notes. By Vadim Kim This application note describes how to build a 5 th order low pass, high pass Butterworth filter for 10 khz

### Understanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling

Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,

### Analog and Digital Filters Anthony Garvert November 13, 2015

Analog and Digital Filters Anthony Garvert November 13, 2015 Abstract In circuit analysis and performance, a signal transmits some form of information, such as a voltage or current. However, over a range

### Experiment 8: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits

Experiment 8: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits Answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper and turn them in before the lab 1. RLC Circuits Consider the circuit at left, consisting of an AC function

### Audio Tone Control Using The TLC074 Operational Amplifier

Application Report SLOA42 - JANUARY Audio Tone Control Using The TLC74 Operational Amplifier Dee Harris Mixed-Signal Products ABSTRACT This application report describes the design and function of a stereo

### Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

### Homework Assignment 03

Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 03 1. A 9-V dc power supply generates 10 W in a resistor. What peak-to-peak amplitude should an ac source have to generate the same

### 2. The Vector Network Analyzer

ECE 584 Laboratory Experiments 2. The Vector Network Analyzer Introduction: In this experiment we will learn to use a Vector Network Analyzer to measure the magnitude and phase of reflection and transmission

### Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

### Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits

E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter