# TWO PORT NETWORKS h-parameter BJT MODEL

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1 TWO PORT NETWORKS h-parameter BJT MODEL The circuit of the basic two port network is shown on the right. Depending on the application, it may be used in a number of different ways to develop different models. We will use it to develop the h-parameter model. Other models may be covered in EE III. The h-parameter model is typically suited to transistor circuit modeling. It is important because: 1. its values are used on specification sheets 2. it is one model that may be used to analyze circuit behavior 3. it may be used to form the basis of a more accurate transistor model The h parameter model has values that are complex numbers that vary as a function of: 1. Frequency 2. Ambient temperature 3. Q-Point The revised two port network for the h- parameter model is shown on the right. At low and mid-band frequencies, the h- parameter values are real values. Other models exist because this model is not suited for circuit analysis at high frequencies. The h-parameter model is defined by: V 1 h 11 h 12 I1 = I 2 h 21 h 22 V 2 V1 = h11i1 +h12v2 I2 = h21i1 + h22v2 The h-parameter model for the common emitter circuit is on the right. On spec sheet: h11 = hix h12 = hrx h21 = hfx h22 = hox (KVL) (KCL) hrx and hfx are dimensionless ratios hix is an impedance <Ω> hox is an admittance <S> where x = lead based on circuit configuration e = emitter for common emitter c = collector for common collector b = base for common base Page 1

2 TWO PORT NETWORKS h-parameter BJT MODEL Short Circuit Input Impedance h11 = ZIN with output shorted <Ω> h11 = V i Ii V O = 0 1. Short terminals Apply test source Vi to terminal Measure Ii 4. Calculate h11 Open Circuit Reverse Transfer Ratio h12 <dimensionless> h12 = V i Vo I i = 0 1. Open terminals Apply test source V2 to terminal Measure Vi 4. Measure Vo 5. Calculate h12 Short Circuit Forward Transfer Ratio h21 = <dimensionless> h21 = I o Ii V O = 0 1. Short terminals Apply test source Vi to terminal Measure Ii 4. Measure Io 5. Calculate h21 Open Circuit Output Admittance h22 <Siemans> h22 = I o Vo I i = 0 1. Open terminals Apply test source V2 to terminal Measure Io 4. Measure Vo 5. Calculate h2 Page 2

3 Hybrid Model π All frequencies Better model than h parameter model since it contains frequency sensitive components. These are ac small signal parameters which are determined at the Q point Parasitic Resistances rb = rb b = ohmic resistance voltage drop in base region caused by transverse flow of majority carriers, 50 rb 500 rc = rce = collector emitter resistance change in Ic due to change in Vc, 20 rc 500 rex = emitter lead resistance important if IC very large, 1 rex 3 Parasitic Capacitances Cje0 = Base-emitter junction (depletion layer) capacitance, 0.1pF Cje0 1pF Cµ0 = Base-collector junction capacitance, 0.2pF Cµ0 1pF Ccs0 = Collector-substrate capacitance, 1pF Ccs0 3pF Cje = 2Cje0 (typical) ψ0 = τf = Cb = C µ = C cs = Cb = τf gm.55v (typical) Forward transit time of minority carriers, average of lifetime of holes and electrons, 0ps τf 530ps C 1 + C 1 + µ 0 cs0 V ψ cb 0 V ψ cs 0 Hybrid Model Pi Parameters rπ = rb e = dynamic emitter resistance magnitude varies to give correct low frequency value of Vb e for Ib rµ = rb c = collector base resistance accounts for change in recombination component of Ib due to change in Vc which causes a change in base storage cπ = Cb e = dynamic emitter capacitance due to Vb e stored charge cµ = Cb c = collector base transistion capacitance (CTC) plus Diffusion capacitance (Cd) due to base width modulation gmvπ = gmvb e = Ic equivalent current generator Page 3

4 g m = V T = g m = I C VT k T q = 300 K I C 26mV r π = (26mV) ( β) IC = β = gm rπ i c= β v π rπ = g mvπ 26mV IB r o = A where 50 V A 100 C f T = Gain Bandwidth Product (spec sheet is 300MHz) C µ corresponds approximately to C OBO (on spec sheet is 8pF for 2N2222A) τ CB r b = C π = V I = collector base time constant (spec sheet is 150ps for 2N2222A) τcb Cµ β 2 π r π f T - C µ Low and Midband Frequency Hybrid Model π At low frequencies, all Xc for hybrid model π are very large. Since they are in parallel with a much lower than their associated resistances, the XC component may be ignored (replace with an open). At frequencies over a few 100kHz, they must be considered. At high frequencies, they shunt (short) the parallel resistances. rµ is very large and may be ignored (replace with an open) rb is much smaller than rπ. Since they are in series, rb is often ignored (replaced with a short or lumped with rπ) since the current, IB the current through both, is also very small. rex is very small and is often ignored (replace with a short) unless IE is very large. ro is very large and may be ignored at low frequencies ic = io gm vπ (where vb e = vπ) Page 4

5 High Frequency Model ft transition frequency due to parasitic capacitances Apply iin, and short the output Ignore the following parameters: rb = small rex = very small rµ = very large rc << ro Since they are in parallel, ignore ro XCCS In the text and the following, s and jω are used interchangeably ω = 2πf The equivalent model with a shorted output and current source applied to the input is shown on the right. Note: in the following equations, we manipulate the equations until they are in the form s, 1 + s, etc. Remember that s = jω r π v b'e = i in 1 + r π(c π + c µ ) s io gm vb e r π i o gm i in 1 + r(c π π + c) µ s gm r π i o i in 1 + r π(c π + c µ ) s But β0 = g mrπ β0 i o i in c π + cµ β s g m i o β0 ( j ω) = β(j ω) iin c + c g π µ 1 + β0 j m ω At high frequencies, the imaginary component of the denominator dominates. Therefore: Page 5

6 β(j ω) β(j ω) T f T = β0 c π + cµ β0 g m g m (c π + c µ ) j ω β(jω) = 1 when ω = ω ω = g m c π + c µ g m 2 π c + c ( π µ ) T j ω Common Emitter Amplifier at Low and Mid-band Frequencies The circuit on the right is a common emitter amplifier using voltage divider bias with a partially bypassed emitter resistor. There is a load RL, and a source resistance RS. Note that RS is the internal resistance of vs. After we solve for the quiescent operating point, we are ready to perform calculations for voltage gain and perhaps frequency response. To do so requires us to use a model for the transistor. One model that is typically used is the hybrid model pi. In the circuit on the right, we have the equivalent circuit for the common emitter amplifier shown above. At mid band frequencies, XC1. XC2, and XCE are shorts, but XCµ and XCπ are still very large and treated as open. Since XCE is in parallel with RE2, RE2 and XCE are both replaced with a short at mid band frequencies. As discussed earlier, we will assume that the effects of rb, rex, and ro have little effect on the circuit operation due to their value and are removed. Page 6

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