S-DOMAIN ANALYSIS: POLES, ZEROS, AND BODE PLOTS

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1 S-DOMAIN ANAYSIS: POES, ZEROS, AND BODE POTS The main objectiveis to find amplifier voltage gain as a transfer function of the complex frequency s. In this s-domain analysis a capacitance С is replaced by an admittance sc, or equivalently an impedance /sc, and an inductance is replaced by an impedance s. Then, using usual circuit-analysis techniques, one derives the voltage transfer function T(s) = Vo(s)/V,(s). Once the transfer function T(s) is obtained, it can be evaluated for physical frequencies by replacing s by jω. The resulting transfer function T(jω) is in general a complex quantity whose magnitude gives the magnitude response (or transmission) and whose angle gives the phase response of the amplifier. In general, for all the circuits dealt with in this chapter, T(s) can be expressed in the form T a s + a s m m m m = n n s + bn s a... + b where the coefficients a and b are real numbers and m n n is called the order of the network. a m m m x + am x a Any function: 0 Can be presented in the following form: a ( x x ) ( x x ) ( x )... m x m m m where x, x x m are the roots of am x + am x a0 = 0 For example the Equation: x + 4x 5 = 0 has the roots a a 4 4 x, = ± + a 0 = ± + 5 = ± = ± 3 Or x =, x =-5 and therefore ( x ) ( x + 5) = x x + 5x + ( ) ( 5) = x + 4x 5 = 0 0 0

2 POES AND ZEROS An alternate form for expressing T(s) is T = a m ( s Z) ( s Z )... ( s Zm ) ( s P ) ( s P )... ( s P ) where Z, Z,..., Zm, are the roots of the numerator polynomial, and P, P,..., Pn are the roots of the denominator polynomial. Z, Z,..., Zm, are called the transfer-function zeros or transmission zeros, P, P,..., Pn are the transfer-function poles or the natural modes of the network. A transfer function is specified in terms of its poles and zeros The poles and zeros can be either real or complex numbers. However, since the a and b coefficients are real numbers, the complex poles (or zeros) must occur in conjugate pairs. That is, if 5+j3 is a Zero, then 5- j3 also must be a Zero. For example: x + 4x + 5 = 0 has the following roots: 4 4 x, = ± 5 = ± 4 5 = ± j If Zero is pure imaginary (±jω z ) the transfer function T(jω) to be exactly zero at ω = ω z. This is because the numerator will have the factors (s + jω z )(s - jω z ) = (s + ω z ), which for physical frequencies becomes (-ω + ω z ), and thus the transfer fraction will be exactly zero at ω = ω z. If s much greater than all the poles and zeros, the transfer function becomes T(s) a m /s n-m. Thus the transfer function has (n m) zeros at s =. n

3 First-Order Functions The first-order transfer functions can be written as of the general form T as + a0 = s +ω where ω 0 is pole frequency - the location of the real pole. The constants a 0 and a determine the type of STC network. There are two types of STC networks, low pass and high pass. For the low-pass first-order network we have T a0 = s +ω In this case the dc gain is a 0 /ω 0, and ω 0 is the corner or 3-dB frequency. this transfer function has one Zero at s =. 0 0 The first-order high-pass transfer function has a zero at dc and can be written as T as = s +ω Of specific interest are the plots of the magnitude and phase responses of the two special kinds of STC networks. Such plots can be employed to generate the magnitude and phase plots of a high-order transfer function, as explained below. 0 A simple technique exists for obtaining an approximate plot of the magnitude and phase of a transfer function given its poles and zeros. The technique is particularly useful in the case of real poles and zeros. The method was developed by H. Bode, and the resulting diagrams are called Bode plots. 3

4 Bode Plots A transfer function consists of a product of factors of the form s + a, where such a factor appears on top if it corresponds to a zero and on the bottom if it corresponds to a pole. the magnitude response in decibels of the network can be obtained by summing together terms of the form 0 log a + ω. the phase response can be obtained by summing terms of the form tan ( ω / a) arctan( ω / a). For convenience we can extract the constant a and write the typical magnitude term in the form 0log + ( ω / a). On a plot of decibels versus log frequency this term gives rise to the curve and straight-line asymptotes shown in Figure. Bode plot for the typical magnitude term. The curve shown applies for the case of a Zero. For a Pole, the high-frequency asymptote should be drawn with a -6- db/octave(-0 db/decade) slope. The low-frequency asymptote is a horizontal straight line at 0-dB level and the high-frequency asymptote is a straight line with a slope of 6 db/octave or, equivalently, 0 db/decade. The two asymptotes meet at the frequency ω = a, which is called the corner frequency. 4

5 The actual magnitude plot differs slightly from the value given by the asymptotes; the maximum difference is 3 db and occurs at the comer frequency. For a = 0 that is, a pole or a zero at s = 0 the plot is simply a straight line of 6 db/octave slope intersecting the 0-dB line at ω =. In summary, to obtain the Bode plot for the magnitude of a transfer function, the asymptotic plot for each pole and zero is first drawn. The slope of the high-frequency asymptote of the curve corresponding to a zero is +0 db/decade, while that for a pole is -0 db/decade. The various plots are then added together, and the overall curve is shifted vertically by an amount determined by the multiplicative constant of the transfer function. EXAMPE An amplifier has the voltage transfer function T = a m 0s 5 ( + s /0 ) ( + s /0 ) Find the poles and zeros and sketch the magnitude of the gain versus frequency. Find approximate values for the gain at w = 0, 0 3, and 0 6 rad/s. Solution The zeros are as follows: one at s = 0 and one at s =. The poles are as follows: one at s = -0 rad/s and one at s = -0 5 rad/s. 5

6 Bode plots for Example. Curve : Straight line with +0 db/decade slope, corresponds to the s term (that is, the zero at s = 0) in the numerator. Curve : The pole at s = -0 results in, which consists of two asymptotes intersecting at ω = 0. Curve 3: The pole at s = -0 5 is represented by, where the intersection of the asymptotes is at ω = 0 5. Curve 4: The Zero at (s= ) represents the multiplicative constant of value 0 (+0 db). Adding the four curves results in the asymptotic Bode diagram of the amplifier gain (curve 5). Note that since the two poles are widely separated, the gain will be very close to 0 3 (60 db) over the frequency range 0 to 0 5 rad/s. At the two comer frequencies (0 and 0 5 rad/s) the gain will be approximately 3 db below the maximum of 60 db. 6

7 At the three specific frequencies the values of the gain as obtained from the Bode plot and from exact evaluation of the transfer function are as follows: ω Approximate Exact Gain 0 40 db db db db db db Next consider the Bode phase Plot. The asymptotic plot consists of three straight lines: ine. the horizontal line at ϕ=0 o and extends up to ω=0. a ine. has a slope 45 o per decade and extends from ω=0. a to ω=0 a ine 3. the horizontal line at ϕ=90 o and extends up to ω=0 a Bode plot of the typical phase term tan -l (ω/a) when a is negative. 7

8 THE AMPIFIER TRANSFER FUNCTION The Three Frequency Bands The amplifier gain is almost constant over a wide frequency range called the midband. In this frequency range all capacitances (coupling, bypass, and transistor internal capacitances) have negligible effects and can be ignored in gain calculations. Frequency response for (a) a dc amplifier and (b) a capacitively coupled amplifier. The only difference between the two types is that the gain of the ac amplifier falls off at low frequencies. At the high-frequency end of the spectrum the gain drops owing to the effect of the internal capacitances of the device. On the other hand, at the low-frequency end of the spectrum the coupling and bypass capacitances no longer act as perfect short circuits and thus cause the gain to drop. The extent of the midband is usually defined by the two frequencies ω H and ω. These are the frequencies at which the gain drops by 3 db below the value at midband. The amplifier bandwidth is usually defined as BW = ω H ω 8

9 The Gain Function A(s) The amplifier gain as a function of the complex frequency д can be expressed in the general form A = AM FH F where F (s) and F H (s) are functions that account for the dependence of gain on frequency in the low-frequency band and in the high-frequency band, respectively and AM is a midband gain. Thus for ω << ω << ω H, A( s) AM the gain of the amplifier in the low-frequency band, A (s), can be expressed as A = A F M and the gain in the high-frequency band can be expressed as A H = A F M H The three frequency bands that characterize the frequency response of capacitively coupled amplifiers. For dc amplifiers, the absence of coupling and bypass capacitors causes F (s) = and f = 0, thus the midband gain extends to zero frequency. 9

10 The ow-frequency Response The function F (s), which characterizes the low-frequency response of the amplifier, takes the general form F = ω,..., ( s ωz) ( s ωz )... ( s ωzn ) ( s ω ) ( s ω )... ( s ω ) P P Pn where Z, ωz ωzn are positive numbers representing the frequencies of the n low-frequency poles ω,..., Z, ωz ωzn are positive, negative, or zero numbers representing the n zeros. Note that F as s The amplifier designer is usually particularly interested in the part of the low-frequency band that is close to the midband. Also, usually one of the poles say, ω P has a much higher frequency than all other poles. For frequencies ω close to the midband, F (s) can be approximated by F s ( s + ω ) which is the transfer function of a first-order high-pass network. In this case the low-frequency response of the amplifier is dominated by the highest frequency pole and the lower 3-dB frequency is approximately ω. equal to ω P The better estimation for the dominant-pole approximation can be obtained from the following Equation: ω ω P P + ωp ω Z ω Z 0

11 EXAMPE The low-frequency response of an amplifier is characterized by the transfer function F = s ( s + 0) ( s + 00) ( s + 5) Determine its 3-dB frequency, approximately and exactly. Noting that the highest-frequency pole at 00 rad/s and ω =: 00 rad/s. A better estimate of ω can be obtained as follows: ω = 0rad / s The exact value of W can be determined from the given transfer function as 05 rad/s. Normalized low-frequency response of the amplifier in Example. Note that this is a plot of the low-frequency response of the amplifier normalized relative to the midband gain. That is, if the midband gain is 00 db, then the entire plot should be shifted upward by 00 db.

12 The High-Frequency Response The function F H (s) can be expressed in the general form F = ω,..., ( + s / ωz) ( + s / ωz )... ( + s / ωzn ) ( + s / ω ) ( + s / ω )... ( + s / ω ) P P Pn where Z, ωz ωzn are positive numbers representing the frequencies of the n high-frequency poles ω,..., Z, ωz ωzn are positive, negative, or zero numbers representing the n high-frequency zeros. Note that F as s 0 The amplifier designer is usually particularly interested in the part of the high-frequency band that is close to the midband. If one of the highfrequency poles say, ω P is of much lower frequency than any of the other poles, then the high-frequency response of the amplifier will be dominated by this pole, and the function Fn(s) can be approximated by F ( + s / ω ) P and ωh ω P which is the transfer function of a first-order low-pass network. If a dominant high-frequency pole does not exist or the better estimation the dominant-pole approximation the upper 3-dB frequency can be obtained from the following Equation: ω H / ω + / ω +... / ω / ω P P Z Z...

13 EXAMPE The high-frequency response of an amplifier is characterized by the transfer function F H = s /0 4 4 ( + s /0 ) ( + s / 4 0 ) Determine the 3-dB frequency approximately and exactly. Solution Noting that the lowest-frequency pole at 0 4 rad/s is two octaves lower than the second pole and a decade lower than the zero, we find that a dominant-pole situation almost exists and ω H == 0 4 rad/s. A better estimate is as follows: F H = = 9800rad / s 3

14 THE FORMUAS FOR DETERMINING THE 3-dB FREQUENCIES OF AMPIFIERS ow-frequency Response High-Frequency Response 4

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