# Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used as a voltage controlled voltage sources. One of the inputs is called the inverting input (-); the other is called the noninverting input (+). Usually there is a single output. Most op-amps operate with two dc supply voltages, one positive and the other negative, although some have a single dc supply DIP DIP SMT SMT 1

2 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (op-amp) The Ideal Op-Amp The ideal op-amp has characteristics that simplify analysis of op-amp circuits. Ideally, op-amps have infinite voltage gain, infinite bandwidth, and infinite input impedance it does not load the driving source. In addition, the ideal op-amp has zero output impedance. 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (op-amp) The Practical Op-Amp Practical op-amps have characteristics that often can be treated as ideal for certain situations, but can never actually attain ideal characteristics. Characteristics of a practical op-amp are very high voltage gain, very high input impedance, and very low output impedance In addition to finite gain, bandwidth, input impedance, and noise generation, they have other limitations like voltage and current. 2

3 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (op-amp) Internal Block Diagram of an Op-Amp Internally, the typical op-amp has a differential input, a voltage amplifier, and a push-pull output. Recall from the Section 6-7 of the text that the differential amplifier amplifies the difference in the two inputs. The differential amplifier is the input stage for the op-amp. It provides amplification of the difference voltage between the two inputs. The second stage is usually a class A amplifier (CE amplifier) that provides additional gain. A push-pull class B amplifier (Ch. 7) is typically used for the output stage. 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters Input Signal Modes The input signal can be applied to an Op-Amp in differential-mode or in common-mode. 1- Differential Mode: In the single-ended differential mode either one signal is applied to an input with the other input grounded When input signal is applied to inverting input terminal Inverted output will appear on V out When input signal is applied to inverting input terminal Noninverted output will appear on V out 3

4 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters 1- Differential Mode: In the double-ended differential mode two opposite-polarity (out of phase) signals are applied to the inputs (figure a); The amplified difference between the two inputs appears on the output or a single source connected between the two inputs (figure b) 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters 2- Common Mode: two signal voltages of the same phase, frequency, and amplitude are applied to the two inputs, as shown. When equal input signals are applied to both inputs, they tend to cancel, resulting in a zero output voltage. V in + V out + V out V in V in This action is called common-mode rejection. Its importance lies in the situation where an unwanted signal appears commonly on both op-amp inputs like noise unwanted signals will not appear at the output. (usually several thousand) 4

5 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters Op-Amp Parameters Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR): The ability of an amplifier to amplify differential signals and reject common-mode signals (noise appears on both inputs). Ideally, unwanted signals will not appear at the output. However, practical op-amps do exhibit a very small common-mode gain A cm (usually much less than 1), while providing a high open-loop differential voltage gain, A ol (usually several thousand). The ratio of the open-loop differential voltage gain, A ol, to the common-mode gain, A cm The higher the CMRR, the better The CMRR is often expressed in decibels (db) as 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters Op-Amp Parameters Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR): Example A certain op-amp has an open-loop differential voltage gain of 100,000 and a common-mode gain of 0.2. Determine the CMRR and express it in decibels. This means the desired input signal (differential) is amplified 500,000 times more than the unwanted noise (common-mode). 5

6 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters Op-Amp Parameters Maximum Output Voltage Swing (V O(p-p) ) With no input signal, the output of an op-amp is ideally 0 V. This is called the quiescent output voltage. When an input signal is applied, the ideal limits of the peak-topeak output signal are ± V CC. practically, V O(p-p) decreases as R L connected to the op-amp decreases. Input offset voltage (V OS ): is the differential dc voltage required between the inputs to force the output to zero volts The ideal op-amp produces zero volts out for zero volts in. In a practical op-amp, a small dc voltage, V OUT(error), appears at the output when no differential input voltage is applied we apply V OS ; typical input offset voltage are in the range of 2 mv or less 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters Op-Amp Parameters Input bias current (I BIAS ): is the average of the two dc currents required to bias the bases of differential amplifier input offset current (I OS ): is the difference between the two dc bias currents (usually neglected) Ideally, the two input bias currents are equal, and thus their difference is zero. In a practical op-amp, the bias currents are not exactly equal. The Offset voltage produced by offset current 6

7 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters Op-Amp Parameters Differential input impedance (Z IN(d) ): The is the total resistance between the inputs Common-mode input impedance (Z IN(cm) ) : The is the resistance between each input and ground Output impedance (Z out ): The is the resistance viewed from the output of the circuit. 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters Op-Amp Parameters Slew rate: is the maximum rate of change of the output voltage in response to a step input voltage Slew rate measuring circuit 7

8 12.2: Op-Amp Input Modes And Parameters Op-Amp Parameters Slew rate: Example The output voltage of a certain op-amp appears as shown in Figure in response to a step input. Determine the slew rate. 12.3: Negative feedback Negative feedback is one of the most useful concepts in op-amp applications Negative feedback is the process of returning a portion of the output signal to the input with a phase angle that opposes the input signal (to the inverting output). The advantage of negative feedback is that precise values of amplifier gain can be set. In addition, bandwidth and input and output impedances can be controlled. 8

9 12.3: Negative feedback Why? The open-loop voltage gain of a typical op-amp is very high an extremely small input voltage drives the op-amp into its saturated output states (for A ol of , 1mv input has amlified value of 100V which is very high from the operating voltage of opamp amplifier is driven into saturation nonlinear operation. 12.4: Op-Amp with Negative feedback An op-amp can be connected using negative feedback (closed-loop) to stabilize the gain (much lower gain than opened-loop) and increase frequency response. Noninverting Amplifier A noninverting amplifier is a configuration in which the input signal is applied on the noninverting input and a portion of the output is returned (feedback) to the inverting input V out will be reduced by R i, R f, and hence by V f There will be feedback attenuation, B, for V out precisely decided by R i and R f according to 9

10 12.4: Op-Amp with Negative feedback Hence, V out will be the amplified differential input between V in and V f A ol B is typically >> 1 The closed-loop noninverted (NI) voltage gain; noninverted voltage gain of an op-amp with external feedback 12.4: Op-Amp with Negative feedback Noninverting Amplifier: Example Determine the closed-loop voltage gain of the amplifier in Figure We have a noninverting opamp configuration 10

11 12.4: Op-Amp with Negative feedback Voltage-Follower Voltage follower is a special case of the inverting amplifier is when R f =0 and R i =. This forms a voltage follower or unity gain buffer with a gain of 1. With R f = 0 and R i = Op-Amp with negative feedback Voltage follower 12.4: Op-Amp with negative feedback Inverting Amplifier An inverting amplifier shown is a configuration in which The noninverting (+) input is grounded and the input signal is applied through a resistor R i to the inverting input (-). Also, the output is fed back through R f to the same input. Since Z in = I 1 through Z in = 0 V Zin = 0. Hence the (-) input has voltage = the (+) input voltage = the ground voltage = 0 V the (-) input is called virtual ground 11

12 12.4: Op-Amp with negative feedback Inverting Amplifier Since I 1 through Z in = 0 current through R i = current through R f Example: determine the value of R f required to produce a closed-loop voltage gain of 100. Closed loop voltage gain of the inverting amplifier 12.5: Effect of Negative Feedback on Op-Amp Impedances Impedances of the Noninverting Amplifier: Input Impedance Rearrange Hence, overall input impedance of a closed-loop noninverting amplifier Hence, with negative feedback Z in(ni) >> Z in (without feedback) 12

13 12.5: Effect of Negative Feedback on Op-Amp Impedances Impedances of the Noninverting Amplifier: Output Impedance The output circuit is shown in the figure Applying KVL from V out to the ground through Z out assume With some algebra one can show that (SEE TEXT BOOK) ( Z out(ni) << Z out ) output impedance of a closed-loop noninverting amplifier 12.5: Effect of Negative Feedback on Op-Amp Impedances Impedances of the Noninverting Amplifier: Example Almost infinity Almost zero 13

14 12.5: Effect of Negative Feedback on Op-Amp Impedances Voltage-Follower Impedances The special case of noninverting Op- Amp with B=1 has impedances of This is a voltage follower configuration 12.5: Effect of Negative Feedback on Op-Amp Impedances Impedances of the Inverting Amplifier The input impedance is the impedance between input and the virtual ground The output impedance is same as for noninverting OP-Amp 14

15 12.6: Bias Current and Offset Voltage With zero input voltage (V in = 0), the ideal op-amp has no input current at its terminals; but in fact, the practical op-amp has small input bias currents, due to dc biasing voltages, typically in the na range. Also, small internal imbalances in the transistors effectively produce a small offset voltage between the inputs (V IO ) error in the output voltage (V out(error) ) will be produced as a result 12.6: Bias Current and Offset Voltage Bias Current Compensation To compensate for the small output error voltage, a resistor R c equal to R i R f is added to one of the inputs. R c create current at the other input I at the inputs = 0, and hence no offset voltage V IO between inputs no V out(error) during op amp operation. 15

16 12.6: Bias Current and Offset Voltage Input offset voltage Compensation Most integrated circuit op-amps provide an internally means of compensating for offset voltage. This is usually done by connecting an external potentiometer to designated pins (Offset null) on the IC package, the potentiometer is adjusted until the output is zero 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Open-loop responses relate to an op-amp with no external feedback. The frequency response indicates how the voltage gain changes with frequency, and the phase response indicates how the phase shift between the input and output signal changes with frequency Review of Op-Amp Voltage Gains The open-loop voltage gain, A ol, of an op-amp is the internal voltage gain of the device and represents the ratio of output voltage to input voltage with no external components (Figure (a)) The closed-loop voltage gain, A cl, is the voltage gain of an op-amp with external feedback. It is controlled by the external components value (Figure (b)) 16

17 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Bandwidth Limitations Op-amps has no lower critical frequency, f cl (no capacitive coupling between stages inside the op-amp) the midrange gain extends down to zero frequency (dc), and dc voltages are amplified the same as midrange signal frequencies they are called dc amplifiers. The voltage gain described before (open-loop and closed-loop) are voltage gains at midrange frequency. Roll-off (-20dB/decade or -6dB/octave) of voltage gain (due to the internal transistor capacitors) begins at upper critical frequency f c, where the voltage gain is -3dB from the midrange voltage gain The bandwidth is Sine For op-amp with f cl = 0 the band width will be equal to upper critical frequency Roll-off of voltage gain continue until reaching the point where the voltage gain is equal to unity (1 or 0dB) at unity-gain frequency (or unity gain bandwidth ), f T. 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Bandwidth Limitations As an example, An open-loop response curve (Bode plot) for a certain op-amp is shown in Figure below usually specified by op-amp datasheets. The curve rolls off (decreases) at -20dB/decade ( -6dB/per octave). The midrange gain is 200,000 (106 db), and the critical (cutoff ) frequency is approximately 10 Hz. BW Unity gain BW 17

18 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Gain-Versus-Frequency Analysis The RC lag (low-pass) circuits (represented by the circuit shown) within an op-amp are responsible for the roll-off in gain as the frequency increases The attenuation of the RC lag circuit is The critical frequency of an RC circuit is at C = R RC lag (تا خير) circuit Dividing both sides by f Hence the attenuation due to RC lag circuit is 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Gain-Versus-Frequency Analysis If an op-amp is represented by a voltage gain element with a gain of A ol(mid ) plus a single RC lag circuit, as shown in Figure, then The total open-loop gain of the op-amp is Phase Shift: An RC lag circuit such as found in an opamp stage causes the output signal voltage to lag the input (we can add ve sign) with phase shift θ 18

19 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Gain-Versus-Frequency Analysis : Example 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Phase shift : Example 19

20 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Overall Frequency Response The more complex IC operational amplifier may consist of two or more cascaded amplifier stages total voltage gain at mid range is the algebraic addition of db gain for each stage. Also the phase between output and input is is the addition of phase angles for each stage Note the roll-off for the three stages shown 12.7: Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Overall Frequency Response: Example 20

21 12.7: Closed-Loop Frequency and Phase Response The midrange gain of an op-amp is reduced by negative feedback, as indicated by the following closed-loop gain expressions for the three amplifier Since feedback affect the gain and impedances critical frequency will also be affected The closed-loop critical frequency of an op-amp with ve feedback will increase according to Since f c(ol) equals the bandwidth the bandwidth for the closed-loop amplifier will also increased by the same factor Hence, with feedback we have lower voltage gain and higher BW as shown 12.7: Closed-Loop Frequency and Phase Response Example Gain-Bandwidth Product As long as the roll-off rate is fixed, a decrease in closed-loop gain causes an increase in the bandwidth and vice versa, such that the product of gain and bandwidth is a constant Since the product of midrange gain and bandwidth always equal to frequency of unity gain as shown in chapter 10 ( ) For closed loop, the unity gain frequency f T will be 21

### EAC215 Homework 4. Page 1 of 6

EAC215 Homework 4 Name: 1. An integrated circuit (IC) op-amp has (a) two inputs and two outputs (b) one input and one output (c) two inputs and one output 2. Which of the following characteristics does

### The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out

What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input

### EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

### Operational Amplifiers

662 25 Principles of Electronics Operational Amplifiers 25.1 Operational Amplifier 25.3 Basic Circuit of Differential Amplifier 25.5 Common-mode and Differentialmode signals 25.7 Voltage Gains of DA 25.9

### Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers

Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers: The operational amplifier is a direct-coupled high gain amplifier usable from 0 to over 1MH Z to which feedback is added to control its overall

### Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003

Op-Amp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Part 1 Op-Amp Basics Why op-amps Op-amp block diagram Input modes of Op-Amps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth

### EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. Operational Amplifier Error Sources: dc Current and Output Range Limitations

EE105 Fall 014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 511 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) 1 Operational Amplifier Error Sources: dc Current and Output Range Limitations dc error

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

### Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics What is an Op Amp An Op Amp is an integrated circuit that can be used to amplify both DC and AC signals. One of the most common Op Amps available

### Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Contents Opamps fundamentals Opamp Circuits Inverting & Non-inverting Amplifiers Summing & Difference Amplifiers Integrators & Differentiators Opamp

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )

Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### Operational Amplifiers

perational Amplifiers. perational Amplifiers perational amplifiers (commonly known as opamps) are integrated circuits designed to amplify small voltages (or currents) to usable levels. The physical packaging

### Homework Assignment 06

Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 06 1. Typically, the C-E saturation voltage for a BJT, namely V CE(sat), is in the range of (circle one) Answer: (a) (a) 0.2 1.0 V

### UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

### Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### Fig. 1 :Block diagram symbol of the operational amplifier. Characteristics ideal op-amp real op-amp

Experiment: General Description An operational amplifier (op-amp) is defined to be a high gain differential amplifier. When using the op-amp with other mainly passive elements, op-amp circuits with various

### ECG-Amplifier. MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier. Operation amplifier (op-amp)

ECG-Amplifier MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier Operation amplifier (op-amp) Properties DC-coupled High gain electronic ec c voltage amplifier Inverting / non-inverting input and single output

### Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions

### Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

### Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

Current vs. ltage Feedback Amplifiers One question continuously troubles the analog design engineer: Which amplifier topology is better for my application, current feedback or voltage feedback? In most

### DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel

DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel Op Amps: Introduction Op Amp is short form of operational amplifier. An op amp is an electronic unit that behaves like a voltage controlled voltage source.

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

### Operational amplifiers

Operational amplifiers Types of operational amplifiers (bioelectric amplifiers have different gain values) Low-gain amplifiers (x1 to x10) Used for buffering and impedance transformation between signal

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### PIN CONFIGURATION FEATURES ORDERING INFORMATION ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS. D, F, N Packages

DESCRIPTION The µa71 is a high performance operational amplifier with high open-loop gain, internal compensation, high common mode range and exceptional temperature stability. The µa71 is short-circuit-protected

### Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

### multivibrators using IC 555 (2turns)

Advanced Electronics Lab Experiments (P243) 1. Study of basic configuration of OPAMP (IC-741), Simple mathematical operations and its use as comparator and Schmitt trigger(2 turns) 2. Differentiator, Integrator

### EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter)

EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter) Objective The purpose of this experiment is to design a set of second-order Sallen-Key active filters and to investigate

### Electronics The application of bipolar transistors

Electronics The application of bipolar transistors Prof. Márta Rencz, Gergely Nagy BME DED October 1, 2012 Ideal voltage amplifier On the previous lesson the theoretical methods of amplification using

### Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems

Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems PHOTODIODE VOLTAGE SHORT-CIRCUIT PHOTODIODE SHORT- CIRCUIT VOLTAGE 0mV DARK ark By Luis Orozco Introduction Precision

### High Common-Mode Rejection. Differential Line Receiver SSM2141. Fax: 781/461-3113 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM FEATURES. High Common-Mode Rejection

a FEATURES High Common-Mode Rejection DC: 00 db typ 60 Hz: 00 db typ 20 khz: 70 db typ 40 khz: 62 db typ Low Distortion: 0.00% typ Fast Slew Rate: 9.5 V/ s typ Wide Bandwidth: 3 MHz typ Low Cost Complements

### Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Third Semester Electronic Circuits-I PART A 1.Why do we choose q point at the center of the

Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Third Semester Electronic Circuits-I PART A 1.Why do we choose q point at the center of the loadline? The operating point of a transistor is kept fixed

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

MODULE3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. Operational Amplifier Block Diagram... 3 3. Operational Amplifier Characteristics... 3 4. Operational Amplifier Package... 4 4.1 Op Amp Pins

### CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS

CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS 16-1 THE OSCILLATOR - are electronic circuits that generate an output signal without the necessity of an input signal. - It produces a periodic waveform on its output with only the

### MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

### EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. Ideal vs Non-ideal Op Amps

EE05 Fall 204 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 5 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) vs Non-ideal Op Amps Op Amp A 0 Non-ideal Op Amp A < < > 0 Other non-ideal characteristics:

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Objectives The purpose of this lab is build and analyze Differential amplifiers based on NPN transistors (or NMOS transistors).

1 Lab 03: Differential Amplifiers (BJT) (20 points) NOTE: 1) Please use the basic current mirror from Lab01 for the second part of the lab (Fig. 3). 2) You can use the same chip as the basic current mirror;

### Final Project: Operational Amplifier

Martin Lizarde Jr. Susanna Guerrero Dung Huynh Final Project: Operational Amplifier June 9, 2005 Professor: Roger Lake TA: Angelo Ledesma Introduction: An operational amplifier is designed. Several tests

### Precision ANALOG MULTIPLIER

Precision ANALOG MULTIPLIER FEATURES ±0.5% max 4-QUADRANT ACCURACY WIDE BANDWIDTH: 1MHz min, 3MHz typ ADJUSTABLE SCALE FACTOR STABLE AND RELIABLE MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION LOW COST APPLICATIONS PRECISION

### Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications

Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications Srudeep Patil, Member of Technical Staff, Maxim Integrated - January 01, 2014 This article discusses the DC limitations of

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Aims: To know: Basic Op Amp properties eal & Ideal Basic ideas of feedback. inv input noninv input output gnd To be able to do basic circuit analysis of op amps: using KCL, KL with

### EXPERIMENT 6 - ACTIVE FILTERS

1.THEORY HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING ELE-313 ELECTRONICS LABORATORY II EXPERIMENT 6 - ACTIVE FILTERS A filter is a circuit that has designed to pass a specified

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:223 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Laboratory Experiment #4 Title: Operational Amplifiers 1 Introduction Objectives

### Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates

Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates Laboratory Instruction Today you will learn how to use a transistor to amplify a small AC signal as well as using it as a switch to construct digital logic circuits. Introduction

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### Chapter 8 Differential and Multistage Amplifiers. EE 3120 Microelectronics II

1 Chapter 8 Differential and Multistage Amplifiers Operational Amplifier Circuit Components 2 1. Ch 7: Current Mirrors and Biasing 2. Ch 9: Frequency Response 3. Ch 8: Active-Loaded Differential Pair 4.

### Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Op-amps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common

### CHAPTER 10 OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS

CHAPTER 10 OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS Chapter Outline 10.1 The Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp 10.2 The Folded-Cascode CMOS Op Amp 10.3 The 741 Op-Amp Circuit 10.4 DC Analysis of the 741 10.5 Small-Signal Analysis

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### Lab 4 Op Amp Filters

Lab 4 Op Amp Filters Figure 4.0. Frequency Characteristics of a BandPass Filter Adding a few capacitors and resistors to the basic operational amplifier (op amp) circuit can yield many interesting analog

### Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

### Op-Amps Experiment Theory

EE 4/00 Operational mplifiers Op-mps Experiment Theory. Objective The purpose of these experiments is to introduce the most important of all analog building blocks, the operational amplifier ( op-amp for

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### ELECTRONICS. EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps. Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EE 100 / 42 Lecture 8 p. 1/23 EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps ELECTRONICS Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

### *For stability of the feedback loop, the differential gain must vary as

ECE137a Lab project 3 You will first be designing and building an op-amp. The op-amp will then be configured as a narrow-band amplifier for amplification of voice signals in a public address system. Part

### Class A Amplifier Design

Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common

### Precision Gain = 10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

Precision Gain = DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES ACCURATE GAIN: ±.% max HIGH COMMON-MODE REJECTION: 8dB min NONLINEARITY:.% max EASY TO USE PLASTIC 8-PIN DIP, SO-8 SOIC PACKAGES APPLICATIONS G = DIFFERENTIAL

### Physics 160. Fun with Op Amps. R. Johnson May 13, 2015

Physics 160 Lecture 14 Fun with Op Amps. Johnson May 13, 015 Ideal Op-Amp Differential gain, of course. Common-mode gain is ideally zero. Such an ideal op-amp of course does not exist, but a first analysis

### J Srinivasa Rao Small Signal Low frequency Transistor Amplifiers Page 1

Chapter 1 : Small Signal Low Frequency Transistor Q. 1. What is a small signal amplifier? Draw the diagram and explain function of each component. Explain effects of coupling and by pass capacitors in

### Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op amp circuits,

### Frequency response of a general purpose single-sided OpAmp amplifier

Frequency response of a general purpose single-sided OpAmp amplifier One configuration for a general purpose amplifier using an operational amplifier is the following. The circuit is characterized by:

### TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost high speed dual JFET input operational amplifiers with an internally trimmed input offset voltage

### AN-581 APPLICATION NOTE

a AN-58 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 906 Norwood, MA 02062-906 Tel: 78/329-4700 Fax: 78/326-8703 www.analog.com Biasing and Decoupling Op Amps in Single Supply Applications by Charles Kitchin

### WHY DIFFERENTIAL? instruments connected to the circuit under test and results in V COMMON.

WHY DIFFERENTIAL? Voltage, The Difference Whether aware of it or not, a person using an oscilloscope to make any voltage measurement is actually making a differential voltage measurement. By definition,

### LM124/224/324/324A/ SA534/LM2902 Low power quad op amps INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Supersedes data of 21 Aug 3 File under Integrated Circuits, IC11 Handbook 22 Jan 22 DESCRIPTION The LM12/ series consists of four independent, high-gain, internally frequency-compensated

### Op Amp Bandwidth and Bandwidth Flatness. OPEN LOOP GAIN db. Figure 1: Frequency Response of Voltage Feedback Op Amps

TUTORIAL Op Amp Bandwidth and Bandwidth Flatness BANDWIDTH OF VOLTAGE FEEDBACK OP AMPS The open-loop frequency response of a voltage feedback op amp is shown in Figure 1 below. There are two possibilities:

### AN-937 APPLICATION NOTE

APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 906 Norwood, MA 02062-906, U.S.A. Tel: 78.329.4700 Fax: 78.46.33 www.analog.com Designing Amplifier Circuits: How to Avoid Common Problems by Charles Kitchin

### Multi-Stage Amplifiers

Experiment-4 Multi-Stage Amplifiers Introduction The objectives of this experiment are to examine the characteristics of several multi-stage amplifier configurations. Several of these will be breadboarded

### Operational Amplifiers

Module 6 Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers The Ideal Amplifier What you ll learn in Module 6. Section 6.0. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Understand Concept of the Ideal Amplifier and the Need

### LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers

LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM118 series are precision high speed operational amplifiers designed for applications requiring wide bandwidth and high slew rate. They

### The differential amplifier

DiffAmp.doc 1 Te differential amplifier Te emitter coupled differential amplifier output is V o = A d V d + A c V C Were V d = V 1 V 2 and V C = (V 1 + V 2 ) / 2 In te ideal differential amplifier A c

### Description. Output Stage. 5k (10k) - + 5k (10k)

THAT Corporation Low Noise, High Performance Audio Preamplifier IC FEATURES Low Noise: 1 nv/hz input noise (60dB gain) 34 nv/hz input noise (0dB gain) (1512) Low THD+N (full audio bandwidth): 0.0005% 40dB

### TL074 TL074A - TL074B

A B LOW NOISE JFET QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS WIDE COMMONMODE (UP TO V + CC ) AND DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE RANGE LOW INPUT BIAS AND OFFSET CURRENT LOW NOISE e n = 15nV/ Hz (typ) OUTPUT SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTION

### Figure 6.2 An amplifier with voltage-divider bias driven by an ac voltage source with an internal resistance, R S. [5]

Chapter 6 BJT Amplifiers Amplifier Operations [5], [7] 6.1.1 AC Quantities In the previous chapters, dc quantities were identified by nonitalic uppercase (capital) subscripts such as I C, I E, V C, and

### Precision Diode Rectifiers

by Kenneth A. Kuhn March 21, 2013 Precision half-wave rectifiers An operational amplifier can be used to linearize a non-linear function such as the transfer function of a semiconductor diode. The classic

### Choosing Components Part 2: Audio Amplifier Basics

Choosing Components Part 2: Audio Amplifier Basics AUDIO AMPLIFIERS Once upon a time, if you were designing an electronic system and you needed an audio amplifier, you had to design it yourself. Today

### TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947

AET 8 First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 Objective 1a Identify Bipolar Transistor Amplifier Operating Principles Overview (1) Dynamic Operation (2) Configurations (3) Common Emitter

### Digital to Analog Converter. Raghu Tumati

Digital to Analog Converter Raghu Tumati May 11, 2006 Contents 1) Introduction............................... 3 2) DAC types................................... 4 3) DAC Presented.............................

### Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier

ECE 511 Analog Electronics Term Project Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier Saket Vora 6 December 2006 Dr. Kevin Gard NC State University 1 Introduction In this project, a fully differential CMOS operational

### Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF and BPF.

Laboratory of the circuits and signals Laboratory work No. 4 ACTIVE FILTERS Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF

### Building the AMP Amplifier

Building the AMP Amplifier Introduction For about 80 years it has been possible to amplify voltage differences and to increase the associated power, first with vacuum tubes using electrons from a hot filament;

### High Speed, Low Power Monolithic Op Amp AD847

a FEATURES Superior Performance High Unity Gain BW: MHz Low Supply Current:.3 ma High Slew Rate: 3 V/ s Excellent Video Specifications.% Differential Gain (NTSC and PAL).9 Differential Phase (NTSC and

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### TL084 TL084A - TL084B

A B GENERAL PURPOSE JFET QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS WIDE COMMONMODE (UP TO V + CC ) AND DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE RANGE LOW INPUT BIAS AND OFFSET CURRENT OUTPUT SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTION HIGH INPUT IMPEDANCE

### www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242

Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LF411 Low Offset, Low Drift JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description

### Description. 5k (10k) - + 5k (10k)

THAT Corporation Low Noise, High Performance Microphone Preamplifier IC FEATURES Excellent noise performance through the entire gain range Exceptionally low THD+N over the full audio bandwidth Low power

### 11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

### DESCRIPTIO. LT1226 Low Noise Very High Speed Operational Amplifier

FEATRES Gain of Stable GHz Gain Bandwidth V/µs Slew Rate.6nV/ Hz Input Noise Voltage V/mV Minimum DC Gain, R L = Ω mv Maximum Input Offset Voltage ±V Minimum Output Swing into Ω ide Supply Range ±.V to

### Balanced circuits and differential amplifiers

Engineering Note 18.1 Balanced circuits and differential amplifiers J M Woodgate FInstSCE DISCLAIMER Care is taken to determine that 'Engineering Notes' do not refer to any copyrighted or patented circuit

### Op Amp Circuit Collection

Op Amp Circuit Collection Note: National Semiconductor recommends replacing 2N2920 and 2N3728 matched pairs with LM394 in all application circuits. Section 1 Basic Circuits Inverting Amplifier Difference

### TS321 Low Power Single Operational Amplifier

SOT-25 Pin Definition: 1. Input + 2. Ground 3. Input - 4. Output 5. Vcc General Description The TS321 brings performance and economy to low power systems. With high unity gain frequency and a guaranteed

### Design of a TL431-Based Controller for a Flyback Converter

Design of a TL431-Based Controller for a Flyback Converter Dr. John Schönberger Plexim GmbH Technoparkstrasse 1 8005 Zürich 1 Introduction The TL431 is a reference voltage source that is commonly used

### TDA2040. 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER

20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESCRIPTION The TDA2040 is a monolithic integrated circuit in Pentawatt package, intended for use as an audio class AB amplifier. Typically it provides 22W output power