Electronic Components. Electronics. Resistors and Basic Circuit Laws. Basic Circuits. Basic Circuit. Voltage Dividers


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1 Electronics most instruments work on either analog or digital signals we will discuss circuit basics parallel and series circuits voltage dividers filters highpass, lowpass, bandpass filters the main purpose of this chapter is to get you to understand the electronic filters they help to reduce electronic noise less noise a clearer signal (more on this in Chapt 5) Electronic Components esistors: resists the flow of electron through a circuit units of Ohms (Ω) with symbol Capacitors: resists changes in the voltage of a circuit (capacitive reactance) units of Faradays (usually μf or nf) with symbol O Inductors: resists changes in the current of a circuit (inductive reactance) units of Henry s (H) with symbol esistors and Basic Circuit Laws a few Laws to provide equations (V voltage, I current, resistance) Ohm s Law: VI Power Law: P IV O P V / Basic Circuits series batteries voltage adds to produce a higher voltage Kirchoff s Laws current law: the algebraic sum of the current around any point in a circuit is zero voltage law: the algebraic sum of the voltages around a closed electrical loop is zero parallel batteries currents add to add a higher current capacity Basic Circuit series resistors resistance add directly T same current through each parallel resistors resistance add as reciprocals 1/ T 1/ 1 + 1/ +... same voltage drop across each since the same current goes through each resistor, there is different voltage drop across each the total voltage divides across the series Voltage Dividers 1
2 Example : a Voltage Divider calc. T calc. each V T T T 450 Ω 150. Ω Ω Example : a Voltage Divider calc. T calc. each V V I T T or I T V/ T I T 100. V/450. Ω I T 0. A 150. Ω Ω T 450. Ω Example : a Voltage Divider V 1 I T 1 V 1 (0. A)(50. Ω) V V 11 V V I T V (0. A)(150. Ω) V 33.3 V 150. Ω Ω T 450. Ω I T 0. A Current Dividers since the voltage is the same across each resistor, the current across each is different the total current is divide across each parallel path scan fig 3 on page 4 V 3 I T 3 V 3 (0. A)(50. Ω) V V Example : a Current Divider Example : a Current Divider 150. Ω Ω calc. each I 150. Ω Ω I 1 V/ V/50. Ω.0 A I V/ 100.V/150. Ω0.667 A I 3 V/ V/50. Ω0.400 A
3 Example : a Current Divider Loading Error making a measurement causes an uncertainty in the measurement (analogous to the Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle) E r V M V V x x 100% 150. Ω Ω I T I 1 + I + I A I T A 3.1 A E r S + M S 100% Loading Error AC Circuits 010 % Error Chopping (AAS) , ,000 10,000,000 M (Ω) The error drops as the internal resistance of the meter increases electrochemistry electrochemistry Inductors/Capacitors Capacitors: resists changes in the voltage of a circuit (capacitive reactance) units of Faradays (usually μf or nf) with symbol O Inductors: resists changes in the current of a circuit (inductive reactance) units of Henry s (H) with symbol AC signals are constantly changing, so including these components in the circuit affects the signal C Calculations reactance: the capacitor's equivalent to resistance there is a frequency dependence 1 1 X C πfc ωc impedance: the total resistance in an C circuit there is a frequency dependence Z + X C + πfc 3
4 X C VC V Z V since this circuit is a voltage divider the voltage across the resistor is V V V V T Z + πf the voltage across the capacitor is πf + πf as f, V? as f, V C? as f, V? as f, V C? At high freq. the capacitor becomes practically a wire its reactance goes down and no voltage is dropped across it Voltage (% of input) 100% 75% 50% 5% 0% V VC ,000 10,000 Signal Frequency (Hz) C Circuit Distortion Distortion is dependent on the size of C See homework problems C Circuits the capacitor cause a time lag in the voltage (phase shift) dv i C dt φ arc tan πf C Circuits the phase shift is frequency dependent, decreasing as the frequency increases Phase Shift (degrees) φ arc tan πf 1 kω C 1 nf ,000 1,000, ,000,000 Signal Frequency (Hz) 4
5 Electronics Definitions resistance how a resistor effects a circuit reactance how a capacitor or inductor effects a circuit impedance the combination of resistance and reactance Other Components diode allows current to flow in only one direction; used in regulators transitors can act as an amplifier or switch replaced the vacuum tube transformer converts one AC voltage to others rectifier & filter converts AC to DC regulator prevents surges in current from changing the voltage of a power supply oscilloscope a device to read and analyze signal and circuits 5
Diodes have an arrow showing the direction of the flow.
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