First Year (Electrical & Electronics Engineering)

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1 Z PRACTICAL WORK BOOK For The Course EE-113 Basic Electrical Engineering For First Year (Electrical & Electronics Engineering) Name of Student: Class: Batch : Discipline: Class Roll No.: Examination Seat No. Complied by: Engr. Syed Nadeem Haider (Lab. Engineer) Supervised by: Engr. Irshad Ahmed Ansari (Asst. Prof.) ELECTRICAL GENERAL PURPOSE LAB DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

2 Z PRACTICAL WORK BOOK For The Course EE-117 Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering For First Year (Telecommunication & C&IS Engineering) Name of Student: Class: Batch : Discipline: Class Roll No.: Examination Seat No. Complied by: Engr. Syed Nadeem Haider (Lab. Engineer) Supervised by: Engr. Irshad Ahmed Ansari (Asst. Prof.) ELECTRICAL GENERAL PURPOSE LAB DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

3 Z PRACTICAL WORK BOOK For The Course EE-115 Electrical Technology Fundamentals For First Year (Bachelor of Computer & Information Technology) Name of Student: Class: Batch : Discipline: Class Roll No.: Examination Seat No. Complied by: Engr. Syed Nadeem Haider (Lab. Engineer) Supervised by: Engr. Irshad Ahmed Ansari (Asst. Prof.) ELECTRICAL GENERAL PURPOSE LAB DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

4 INDEX S. No. Date Experiments Page No 1 To study Electrical Symbols. Signature 2 3 To study the steady state response of series R-L circuit with AC supply and to find impedance, power and power factor of the circuit. To study the steady state response of series R-C circuit with AC supply and to find impedance, power and power factor of the circuit. 4 To study the steady state response of series RLC circuit with AC supply and to find impedance, power and power factor of the circuit. 5 To verify experimentally relationship between current, voltage and resistance in a circuit or to verify Ohm s Law. 6 (a) To verify Thevenin s Theorem by finding its Thevenin s equivalent circuit 5V, 10V, 15V. (b) Determine the load current for RL = 120 Ohm, 1 K Ohm & 390 Ohm. 7 To analyze a two Mesh circuit and to determine the current in each branch of the circuit. 8 To study the construction and basic principle of working of a single-phase induction motor. 9 To verify the law of resistance connected in parallel circuit. 10. To verify the law of resistance connected in series.

5 Experiment # 1 Subject: To study the various Electrical Symbols. Single-pole Single-throw (SPST) Switch Single Pole Double-throw (SPDT) Switch Double-pole, Single Throw (DPST) Switch Fuse Two Conductors Crossing (No Connection) Two Conductors Connected

6 Cell Battery Power Supply (Usually identified by voltage & type) Polarity would indicate DC Power Supply-Voltage Source AC Power Supply-Voltage Source Capacitor Inductor Constant Current source

7 Meter The letter in the center identifies the type V = Voltmeter, A = Ammeter Ω = Ohmmeter, MA = Milliammeter W = Wattmeter, G = Galvanometer Resistor or Resistance (Fixed value) Transformer Variable Voltage Transformer (Autotransformer / Variac) Iron Core Relay Contacts Normally Open (NO) Normally Closed (NC Relay (Energizing) Coil Result:

8 EXPERIMENT # 2 Object: To verify experimentally that the Inductance of a series R-L circuit is given by the formula Z = R 2 + X L 2. Also find out power and power factor of the circuit. Apparatus: Resistor Inductor (choke) 2.2 H Variac (Variable Transformer) V A. C. Ammeter Voltmeter One One One One Two Theory: A.C: A.C. means alternating current - the current or voltage that alternates its direction and magnitude every time. Inductance: It is a property of the coil due to which it opposes any increase or decrease of current or flux through it is known as INDUCTANCE. It is measured in Henry and denoted by L. Inductive Reactance: The effective opposition offered to current by inductance is called is called inductive reactance. It is denoted by XL and is equal to 2πfL. Impedance Total opposition offered by a series ac circuit containing resistance, inductance and capacitance is called impedance. In R-L circuit voltage is dropped across coil (ahead of I by 90o).

9 Formulae: i. Tan φ = V L /V R Or φ = Tan -1 V L /V R ii. Power Factor = Cos φ iii. Power = V S I S Cos φ iv. Impedance = Z = (R 2 + X L2 ) L R A vl vr vs Phasor Diagram: V S V L φ Observations: Least Count of milliammeter = 20 ma Least Count of Voltmeter = 5V Least Count of Variac (Variable Voltage Transformer) = 10V V R

10 S. No. V S V L V R I S (ma) I R (ma) Calculations: XL = 2πfL Where L = 2.2 Henry; f = 50 Hertz R = V R /I R R 1 = R 2 = R 3 = Result: Precautions:

11 EXPERIMENT No. 3 Object: To verify experimentally that the impedance of a series R-C circuit is given by the formula Z = R 2 + X C 2. Also find out power and power factor of the circuit. Apparatus: Resistor (Electric Lamp) Capacitor Variable Ammeter Voltmeter One One One One THEORY: Capacitive reactance: The effective opposition offered to current by capacitance is called Capacitive Reactance. It is measured in Ohms and is denoted by X C where C is the capacitance and X C = 1/2πfC In R-C circuit voltage drop across the capacitor lags the current by 90. Capacitance: The property of a capacitor to store charges or electricity is called capacitance Impedance: Total opposition offered by a series ac circuit containing resistance, inductance and capacitance is called impedance. Z denotes it φ V R V S V C

12 Phasor Diagram C R A vc vr vs Formulae: i.tan φ Observations: = V c /V R or φ = Tan -1 V c /V R ii. Power Factor = Cos φ iii. Cos φ = V S / V R iv. Active Power = V S I S Cos φ Circuit Diagram v. Impedance = Z = (R 2 + X c2 ) Least Count of milliammeter = 5 ma Least Count of Voltmeter = 5V Least Count of Variable Voltage Autotransformer = 10 V S. No. V S (volt) V R (volt) V C (volt) I S (ma) I R (ma)

13 Calculations: C = 2.5 x 10-6 F XC = 1/ 2πfC = XC = Z = (R 2 + X C 2 ) Z1 = Z3 = {( )2 + ( )2} 1/2 = Ω Result: Precautions:

14 EXPERIMENT NO. 4 Object: To study the steady state response of series RLC circuit with AC supply and to find impedance, power and power factor of the circuit. Apparatus: Theory: Inductor Variable capacitor Variable resistor Variable Voltage source (Variac) Ammeter Voltmeter etc. Let us consider a circuit in which resistance R inductance L and capacitance C are connected in series with an alternating voltage. We know that inductance and capacitance always oppose each other. The impedance of the circuit can, therefore, be determined by the vector addition of the net reactance and resistance and is given by Z = R 2 + (X L 2 - X C 2 )

15 Where X L = 2πfL X C = 1/ 2πfC The current I s will, therefore, be I s = Vs = Vs Z R 2 + (X L 2 - X C 2 ) The current and voltage are not in phase in a series RLC circuit. The current lags the voltage by an angle φ is given by Tan φ = V L V C φ = Τan -1 ( V L - V C ) V R V R Observations:

16 S. # V S (Volt) V L (Volt) V C (Volt) V R (Volt) I S (ma) I R (ma) Calculations:

17 Result: Source of Error and Precautions 1) Before applying the voltage to the elements of R, L and C the maximum ratios must be known. 2) Before switching on the circuit, get it checked by the Instructor. 3) Switch must be closed only when readings are to be taken. 4) Use a digital multimeter for measuring voltage and current.

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26 EXPERIMENT NO. 7 Object: To analyze a two mesh circuit and to determine the current in each branch of the circuit. Apparatus: Circuit Kit Avometer Ammeter (milliammeter) Power supply units. Theory: Algebraic sum of voltages around a close loop is zero. Σ ΙΡ + Σ E = 0 Applying KVL to mesh 1 - E 1 + (I 1 - I 2 ) R 2 + I 1 R 3 = 0 I 1 (R 2 + R 3 ) - I 2 R 2 = E (1) In mesh 2 -E 2 + (I 2 - I 1 ) R 2 + I 2 R 1 = 0 I 2 (R 1 + R 2 ) - I 1 R 2 = E (2) R 2 + R 3 - R 2 I 1 E 1 = - R 2 R 1 + R 2 I 2 E 2

27 Calculations: SOURCES OF ERRORS AND PRECAUTIONS 1) The connection must be tight and clean 2) Reading should be taken carefully 3) Circuit breaker must be connected in order to protect the circuit RESULT

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