# Touch Screen Technology. Taking apart a tablet

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1 Touch Screen Technology Topics covered: 1) Resistance, Capacitance, Charge, Voltage, and Current 2) Introduction to simple circuits Taking apart a tablet For example, an ipad2 Touchscreen Motherboard Lots of Battery Inside! Display

2 Touch Screen Overview Finger touches the touch screen An arrayed sensor detects some electrical interaction The finger position is reported to the UI Fitting algorithms are used to calculate finger position Sensed Touch as an image An image of the arrayed sensor response is created Apply filter to smooth noise Best fit ellipses are defined for each touch and centroids are sent to the UI Used differential masks to detect edges

3 What we ll learn in this module We ll use the touch screen example to review fundamental electrical quantities (voltage, charge, current) and elements (resistors, capacitors, voltage) We ll analyze and design some resistor and capacitor-based circuits We ll get an early preview of sensing circuitry and introduce amplifiers Useful videos for review and extra information: Main types of touch screens Resistive Touch Screens: Finger pressure makes an electrical contact in a circuit Optical touch screen: Finger contact blocks light traveling from edges of screen Acoustic touch screen: Finger alters sound waves traveling on screen surface Capacitive touch screen: Finger alters the capacitance of the touch position

4 Resistive Touch Screen Finger pressure shorts a specific location of a top layer to the bottom the bottom layer The entire bottom layer then becomes biased at the top layer touch-point potential We can explain operation by modeling this as a voltage divider To begin, we ll review voltage, current, and resistance Reminder: Voltage Voltage is analogous to pressure in a water delivery system Reminder: The change in voltage is defined as the work done per unit charge against the electric field. Pushing a water droplet against the pump-induced flow is hard to do If we push the droplet up, and then let it go, it quickly goes back down, turning the water wheel Similarly, an electron on the negative end of the battery flows through the wire to the positive end, spinning the fan

5 Work Reminder: The change in voltage is defined as the work done per unit charge against the electric field. In other words, we are building up potential energy When current flows, this is converted to kinetic energy What happens to the kinetic energy when the water stops as it hits the reservoir? Representing Circuit Components Resistor (more about this in a minute) Voltage Source Wire

6 Voltage, Current, and Resistance Current is the flow of electrons The driving force for the flow is the voltage Resistance represents the fight the flow path imposes against the flow Resistance is: Denoted by: Has units of ohms ( ) Resistance The resistance of an object is a function of its: Length: longer is more resistive Cross-sectional area: Wider is less resistive Resistivity: A fundamental material-dependent parameter Question: why is the resistivity of a material described in units of m?

7 Conductance Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance Conductivity has a unit of Siemens (S) Useful Videos Introduction: Charge and Current: Charge, Current and Voltage:

8 Ohm s Law Ohm s law describes the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance: V = I R Questions: Ohm s Law Why is the voltage at the top of the resistor ~12V? Why is the voltage at the bottom of the resistor ~0V

9 Detecting Touch: Simplest View No touch: No connection between plates Open Circuit Touch: Highly conductive connection between plates Short Circuit Open Circuits & Short Circuits Open circuit: no path for current flow R = Short circuit: no voltage drop R = 0

10 How can we model the resistor plates? But it is a 2D sheet... What about the conductive stripes?

11 Question: What about 2 resistors in series? Question: and in parallel?

12 Exercise: Household Wiring & Safety To begin: Here is a simplified model of the human body resistance We need to add in the resistance of the skin contact: Dry: ~100k Wet: <1k Q1: What is the resistance for a person touching a wire? Q2: On average, men have lower resistance than women. Why? Exercise: Household Wiring & Safety The internal resistance of a plug is <0.5. How should we model the circuit for a human touching an exposed wire at the plug by mistake? What is the voltage the human sees?

13 Exercise: Household Wiring & Safety Develop a model for a human touching an insulated wire. Useful Videos Ohm s Law:

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