SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS

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1 Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 1 SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES 1. Test the theoretical analysis of series-parallel networks through direct measurements. 2. Improve skills of identifying series or parallel elements. 3. Measure properly the voltages and currents of a series-parallel network. 4. Practice applying Kirchhoff s voltage and current laws, the current divider rule, and the voltage divider rule. LAB EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Resistors: 1 kω, 2.2 kω, 3.3 kω, 4.7 kω

2 PROCEDURE Part 1 (a) Construct the series-parallel network of Fig Insert the measured value of the resistors in the space provided. R T R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = Fig.1.1 (b) Calculate the total resistance R T using the measured resistance values. R T (calculated) = (c) Use the ohmmeter section of the multimeter to measure R T. R T (measured) = (d) Determine the magnitude of the percent difference between the calculated and measured values of parts 1(b) and 1(c) using the following equation: % Difference = Calculated Measured Calculated X 100 % (1.1) Use Eq. (1.1) for all percent difference calculations in this laboratory experiment. % Difference =

3 (e) If 12 V were applied, as shown in Fig.1.2, calculate the currents I s, I 1, I 2, and I 3 using the measured resistor values. Fig.1.2 I s = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 = (f) Apply 12 V and measure the currents I 1, I 2, and I 3 using the milliammeter section of your multimeter. Be sure the meter is in series with the resistor through which the current is to be measured. Calculate the magnitude of the percent difference between calculated and measured values using Eq. (1.1). I 1 = I 2 = I 3 = % Difference (I 1 ) = % Difference (I 2 ) =

4 % Difference (I 3 ) = How are the currents I 1 and I s related? Why? Insert the level of I s (measured) here: I s = (g) Using the results of part 1(e), calculate the voltages V 1, V 2, and V 3 using measured values. V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = (h) Measure the voltages V 1, V 2, and V 3. Determine the magnitude of the percent difference between the calculated and measured values. V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = % Difference (V 1 ) = % Difference (V 2 ) = % Difference (V 3 ) = How are the voltages V 2 and V 3 related? Why? (i) Referring to Fig. 1.2, does E = V 1 + V 2, as required by Kirchhoff s voltage law? Use the measured values of part 1(h) to check this equality.

5 Part 2 (a) Construct the series-parallel network of Fig Insert the measured value of each resistor. R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = (b) Calculate the total resistance R T using measured resistor values. Fig.1.3 R T (calculated) = (c) Use the ohmmeter section of your multimeter to measure the total resistance R T. R T (measured) = Calculate the magnitude of the percent difference between the calculated value of part 2(b) and the measured value of part 2(c). % Difference = (d) If 12 V were applied to the network, as shown in Fig. 1.4, calculate the currents I s, I 1, I 2, and I 3 using measured resistor values. Fig.1.4

6 I s = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 = (e) Apply 12 V and measure the currents I s, I 1, I 2, and I 3. I s = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 = Calculate the magnitude of the percent difference between the calculated and measured values for each current. % Difference (I s ) = % Difference (I 1 ) = % Difference (I 2 ) = % Difference (I 3 ) = How are the currents I 2 and I 3 related? Why? (f) Referring to Fig. 1.4, does I s = I 1 + I 2, as required by Kirchhoff s current law? Use the measured values of part 2(e) to check this equality. (g) Using the results of part 2(d) and measured resistor values calculate the voltages V 1, V 2, and V 3. V 1 = V 2 = V 3 =

7 (h) Measure the voltages V 1, V 2, and V 3. V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = Calculate the magnitude of the percent difference between the calculated and measured values for each voltage. Part 3 % Difference (V 1 ) = % Difference (V 2 ) = % Difference (V 3 ) = (i) How are the voltages E, V 1, and the sum of V 2 and V 3 related? Use the measured values of part 2(h) to determine the sum of V 2 and V 3. (a) Construct the series-parallel network of Fig. 1.5 and insert the measured value of each resistor. Fig.1.5 (b) How is the total voltage across the two series elements R 1 and R 2 related to the applied voltage E? Why? How is the total voltage across the two series elements R 3 and R 4 related to the applied voltage E? Why?

8 (c) Using the conclusions of part 3(b), calculate the voltages V 2 and V 4 using the voltage divider rule and measured resistor values. V2 = V4 = (d) Measure the voltages V2 and V4. V2 = V4 = Calculate the magnitude of the percent difference between calculated and measured values. % Difference (V 2 ) = % Difference (V 4 ) = (e) Using the results part 3(c), calculate the voltage V ab using Kirchhoff s voltage law. V ab = (f) Measure the voltage V ab and determine the magnitude of the percent difference between the calculated and measured values. V ab = % Difference = (g) Is the voltage V ab also equal to V 3 - V 1? Why? (h) Calculate the current I s using any method you prefer. Use measured resistor values. I s =

9 (i) Measure the current I s and calculate the magnitude of the percent difference between calculated and measured values. I s = % Difference = Part 4 (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured value of each resistor. R T R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = R 4 measured = Fig.1.6 (b) Calculate the voltage V 4 using the measured resistor values. V 4 (calculated) = (c) Measure the voltage V 4 and calculate the magnitude of the percent difference between calculated and measured values. V 4 (measured) = % Difference =

10 (d) Measure the current I s and calculate the total input resistance from R T = E / I s. I s = R T = (e) Disconnect the power supply and measure R T using the ohmmeter section of the DMM. Then calculate the magnitude of the percent difference between the calculated and measured values. R T = % Difference =

11 PROBLEMS 1. For the series-parallel network of Fig. 1.7, determine V 1, R 1, and R 2 using the information provided. Show all work! Assume R internal = 0 Ω for all meters. V 1 = R 1 = R 2 = Fig For the series-parallel network of Fig. 1.8, determine V 1, R 2, and R 3 using the information provided. Show all work! Assume R internal = 0 Ω for all meters. V 1 = R 2 = R 3 = Fig.1.8

12 Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 2 METHODS OF ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES 1. Validate the branch-current analysis technique through experimental measurements. 2. Test the mesh- (loop-) analysis approach with experimental measurements. 3. Demonstrate the validity of the nodal-analysis technique through experimental measurements. LAB EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Resistors 1.0 kω, 1.2 kω, 2.2 kω, 3.3 kω.

13 RESUME OF THEORY Read Chapter 8 Methods of Analysis and Selected Topics (dc) (page 227) (Boylestad). PROCEDURE Part 1 Branch-current Analysis (a) Construct the network of Fig. 2.1 and insert the measured values of the resistors in the spaces provided. R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = Fig.2.1 Caution: Be sure dc supplies are hooked up as shown (common ground) before turning the power on. (b) Using branch-current analysis, calculate the current through each branch of the network of Fig. 2.1 and insert in Table 2.2. Use the measured resistor values and assume the current directions shown in the figure. Show all your calculations in the space provided and be neat! Table 2.2 Current Calculated Measured % Difference I 1 I 2 I 3

14 (c) Measure the voltages V 1, V 2, and V 3 and enter below with a minus sign for any polarity that is opposite to that in Fig V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = Calculate the I 1, I 2, and I3 using the measured resistor values and insert in Table 2.2 as the measured values. Be sure to include a minus sign if the current direction is opposite to that appearing in Fig Show all work. How do the calculated and measured results compare? Determine the percent difference for each current in Table 2.2 using the equation: % Difference = Calculated Measured Calculated X 100 % (2.1) Part 2 Mesh Analysis (a) Construct the network of Fig. 2.2 and insert the measured values of resistors in the spaces provided. R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = Fig.2.2

15 Caution: Be sure dc supplies are hooked up as shown (common ground) before turning the power on. (b) Using mesh analysis, calculate the mesh currents I 1 and I 2 of the network. Use the measured resistor values and the indicated directions for the mesh currents. Then determine the current through each resistor and insert in Table 2.3 in the Calculated column. Include all your calculations and organize your work. Mesh currents (calculated): I 1 = I 2 = Table 2.3 Current Calculated Measured % Difference I 1 I 2 I 3 (c) Measure the voltages V 1, V 2, and V 3 and enter here with a minus sign for any polarity that is opposite to that in Fig V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = Calculate the currents I R1, I R2, and I R3 using the measured voltage and resistor values and insert in Table 2.3 as the measured values. Be sure to include a minus sign if the current direction is opposite to that defined by the polarity of the voltage across the resistor.

16 How do the calculated and measured results compare? Determine the percent difference for each current of Table 2.3. Part 3 Nodal Analysis (a) Construct the network of Fig. 2.3 and insert the measured resistor values. R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = Fig. 2.3 Caution: Be sure dc supplies are hooked up as shown (common ground) before turning the power on. Calculations: (b) Using measured resistor values, determine V a using nodal analysis. Show all work and be neat! V a (calculated) =

17 (c) Using Va, calculate the current I R1 and I R3 using measured resistor values and insert in Table 2.4. Table 2.4 Current Calculated Measured % Difference I R1 I R3 Measurements: (d) Energize the network and measure the voltage Va. Compare with the result of part 3(b). V a (measured) = (e) Using V a (measured), calculate the current I R1 and I R3 using measured resistor values and insert in Table 2.4 as the measured results. (f) How do the calculated and measured results for I R1 and I R3 compare? Determine the percent differences for each current in Table 2.4.

18 Part 4 Bridge Network (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured resistor values. R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = R 4 measured = R 5 measured = Fig. 2.4 (b) Using any of the three techniques examined in this experiment, calculate the voltage V 5 and current I 5. Use the measured resistor values. V 5 (calculated) = I 5 (calculated) = (c) Measure the voltage V 5 and insert below with a minus sign if the polarity is different from that appearing in Fig V 5 (measured) = (d) Calculate the percent difference between the two values of V 5. % Difference =

19 (e) Calculate the current I 5 using the measured value of V 5 and the measured value of the resistor R 5. I 5 (measured) = How does the measured value of I 5 compare with the calculated value of part 4(b)? Determine the percent difference. % Difference = QUESTION Many times one is faced with the question of which method to use in a particular problem. The laboratory activity does not prepare one to make such choices but only shows that the methods work and are solid. From your experience in this activity, summarize in your own words which method you prefer and why you chose the method you did for the analysis of part 4.

20 Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 3 SUPERPOSITION THEOREM (DC) OBJECTIVES 1. Validate the superposition theorem. 2. Demonstrate that the superposition theorem can be applied to both current and voltage levels. 3. Demonstrate that the superposition theorem can not be applied to nonlinear functions. LAB EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Resistors: 1.2 kω, 2.2 kω, 3.3 kω, 4.7 kω, 6.8 kω.

21 RESUME OF THEORY Read Chapter 9 Network Theorem, 9.2 Superposition Theorem (page 287) PROCEDURE Part 1 Superposition Theorem (Applied to Current Levels) The first configuration to be analyzed using the superposition theorem appears in Fig The currents I 1, I 2 and I 3 will be determined by considering the effects of E 1 and E 2 and then adding the resulting levels algebraically. Caution: Be sure the dc supplies have common ground. Fig. 3.1 (a) Determining the effects of E 1 : Construct the network of Fig. 3.2 and insert the measured value of each resistor. Note that the supply E 2 has been replaced by a short-circuit equivalent. This does not mean that one should place a short-circuit across the terminals of the supply. Simply remove the supply from the network and replace it by a direction to ground, as shown in Fig Keep this in mind for all similar operations throughout the laboratory session. Calculate the currents I 1, I2 and I 3 using the measured resistor values.

22 R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = Fig. 3.2 I 1 =.., I 2 =.., I 3 =.. Turn on the supply E 1 and measure the currents I 1, I 2 and I 3. Check your measurements by noting whether Kirchhoff s current law (I 1 =I 2 +I 3 ) is satisfied. I 1 =.., I 2 =.., I 3 =.. How do the calculated and measured values of I 1, I 2 and I 3 compare? (b) Determining the effects of E 2 : Construct the network of Fig. 3.3 and insert the measured value of each resistor. Calculate the currents I 1, I 2 and I 3 using the measured resistor values. R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = Fig. 3.3

23 I 1 =.., I 2 =.., I 3 =.. Turn on the supply E 2 and measure the currents I 1, I 2 and I 3. Check your measurements by noting whether Kirchhoff s current law (I 1 =I 2 +I 3 ) is satisfied. I 1 =.., I 2 =.., I 3 =.. How do the calculated and measured values of I 1, I 2 and I 3 compare? (c) Determining the total effects of E 1 and E 2 : Construct the network of Fig. 3.1 and insert the measured value of each resistor. Using the calculated results of parts 1(a) and 1(b), calculate the currents I 1, I 2 and I 3, being very aware of their directions in Figs. 3.2 and 3.3. Next to each result, indicate the direction of the resulting current through each resistor. I 1T =.., I 2T =.., I 3T =.. Turn on both supplies and measure the currents I 1, I 2 and I 3. Determine the direction of each current from the meter connections and insert next to the measured value. I 1T =.., I 2T =.., I 3T =..

24 How do the calculated and measured levels compare? Has the superposition theorem been validated? (d) Power levels: Using the measured current levels of part 1(a), calculate the power delivered to each resistor. Show all work! P 1 =..., P 2 =..., P 3 =... Using the measured current levels of part 1(b), calculate the power delivered to each resistor. P 1 =..., P 2 =..., P 3 =... Using the measured levels of part 1(c), calculate the power delivered to each resistor. P 1 =..., P 2 =..., P 3 =... For each resistor, compare the power delivered with both supplies present to the sum of the power levels resulting from each supply. P 1 (a+b) =..., P 1 (c) =...

25 P 2 (a+b) =..., P 2 (c) =... P 3 (a+b) =..., P 3 (c) =... Based on these results, is the superposition theorem applicable to power effects? Explain your answer. Part 2 Superposition Theorem (Applied to Voltage Levels) The second configuration to be analyzed using the superposition theorem appears in Fig The voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3 will be determined by considering the effects of E 1 and E 2 and then adding the resulting levels algebraically. Fig. 3.4 (a) Determining the effects of E 1 : Calculate the voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3 for the network of Fig. 3.5 using measured resistor values. Insert the measured resistor values in the space provided.

26 R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = Fig. 3.5 V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =... Construct the network of Fig. 3.5, turn on the supply E 1, and measure the voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3. V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =... How do the calculated and measured values of V 1, V 2 and V 3 compare? (b) Determining the effect of E 2 : Calculate the voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3 for the network of Fig. 3.6 using the measured resistor values.

27 Fig. 3.6 V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =... Construct the network of Fig. 3.6 turn on the supply, and measure the voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3. V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =... How do the calculated and measured values of V 1, V 2 and V 3 compare? (c) Determining the total effects of E 1 and E 2 : Using the calculated results of parts 2(a) and 2(b), calculate the net voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3. Be very aware of their polarities in Figs. 3.5 and 3.6. Next to each result indicate the polarity of the voltage across each resistor on Fig. 3.4.

28 V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =... Construct the network of Fig. 3.4, turn on the supply, and measure the voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3. Be sure to note the polarity of each reading on the schematic. V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =... How do the calculated and measured levels compare? Has the superposition theorem been validated for voltage levels? Part 3 A Third Configuration (For this part you must have supplies with isolated ground connections. If not available, do not complete this part.) (a) Construct the network of Fig. 3.7, taking special note of the fact that the positive side of E 2 is connected to ground potential. Using the measured resistor values, calculate the voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3 using superposition. Show your work in the space provided. Indicate the resulting polarities for each voltage next to each result. R 1 measured = R 2 measured = R 3 measured = Fig. 3.7 V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =...

29 (b) Construct and energize the network of Fig. 3.7 and measure the voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3. Is the superposition theorem verified? V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =... PROBLEMS 1. For the network of Fig. 3.8: Fig. 3.8 (a) By inspection (meaning no calculation whatsoever) using the superposition theorem, which source (I 1, I 2, or E) would appear to have the most impact on the current, I? (b) Determine the current, I, using superposition and note whether your conclusion in part (a) was correct. I =...

30 2. Using superposition, determine the current, I, for the network of Fig Fig. 3.9

31 Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 4 THEVENIN S THEOREM AND MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER OBJECTIVES 1. Validate Thevenin s theorem through experimental measurements. 2. Become aware of an experimental procedure to determine E Th and R Th. 3. Demonstrate that maximum power transfer to a load is defined by the condition R L = R Th. LAB EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Resistors: 91Ω, 220Ω, 330Ω, 470Ω, 1kΩ, 2.2 kω, 3.3 kω 1 kω, 10 kω potentiometer.

32 RESUME OF THEORY Read Chapter 9 Network Theorems, 9.3 Thevenin s Theorem (page 294) and 9.5 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem (page 308) PROCEDURE Part 1 Thevenin s Theorem Calculations: (a) Construct the network of Fig Calculate the Thevenin voltage and resistance for the network to the left of points a-a using measured resistor values. Show all your work! R 1measured = R 2measured = R 3measured = R Lmeasured = Fig. 4.1 E Th = R Th = Enter these values in column 1 of Table 4.1. Table 4.1 Calculated Values of E th and R th [Part 1(a)] Measured Values of E th and Rth [Parts 1(e)and 1(f)] E th = E th = (part 1(f)) R th = R th = (part 1(e)) % Difference

33 (b) Insert the values of E Th and R Th in Fig. 4.2 and calculate I L. Fig. 4.2 I L = (c) Calculate the current I L in the original network of Fig. 4.1 using series-parallel techniques (use measured resistor values). Show all your work! I L = How does this calculated value of I L compare to the value of part 1(b)? Measurements: (d) Turn on the 12-V supply of Fig. 4.1 and measure the voltage V L. Using the measured value of R L, calculate the current I L. V L (measured) = I L (calculated from V L ) = How does this measured value of I L compare with the calculated levels of parts 1(b) and 1(c)?

34 Determining R Th : (e) Determine R Th by constructing the network of Fig. 4.3 and measuring the resistance between a-a with R L removed. Ω Fig. 4.3 R Th = Enter this value in column 2.of table 4.1. Determining E Th : (f) Determine E Th by constructing the network of Fig. 4.4 and measuring the open-circuit between points a-a. Fig. 4.4 E Th (measured) = Enter this value in column 2 of Table 4.1.

35 Thevenin Network: (g) Construct the network of Fig. 4.5 and set the values obtained for the measured values of E th and R th in parts 1(e) and 1(f), respectively. Use the ohmmeter section of your meter to set the potentiometer properly. Then measured the voltage V L and current I L using the measured value of R L. Fig. 4.5 V L (measured) = I L (calculated from V L ) = How does the value of I L compare with the calculated level of part 1(b)? How do the calculated and the measured values E Th and R Th compare? Insert the magnitude of the percent difference in the third column of Table 4.1 using the equations: % Difference = Calculated Measured Calculated X 100 % (4.1) Noting the overall results of Table 4.1, has Thevenin s theorem been verified?

36 Part 2 Maximum Power Transfer (Validating the Condition R L = R Th ) (a) Construct the network of Fig. 4.6 and set the potentiometer to 50Ω. Measure the voltage across RL as you vary R L through the following values: 50, 100, 200, 300, 330, 400, 600, and 1000Ω. Be sure to set the resistance with the ohmmeter section of your meter before each reading. Remember to turn off the dc supply and disconnect one terminal of the potentiometer when setting the resistance level. Complete Table 4.2 and plot P L versus, R L on graph 4.1. Fig. 4.6 Table 4.2 R L (Ω) V L (V) R 1 measured = VL P= ( mw ) RL

37 (b) Theoretically, for the network of Fig. 4.6, what value of R L should result in maximum power to R L? R L = Referring to the plot of graph 4.1, what value of R L resulted in maximum power transfer to R L? R L = How do the theoretical and measured values of R L compare? (c) Under maximum power transfer conditions, how are the voltages V L and E related? Why? Based on the preceding conclusion, determine V L for maximum power transfer to R L. V L = Graph P (mw) R (kω)

38 Set the potentiometer to the resistance R L that resulted in maximum power transfer on graph 4.1 and measure the resulting voltage across R L. V L = How does the measured value compare to the expected theoretical level? Part 3 Maximum Power Transfer (Experimental Approach) (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured value of each resistor. R 1measured = R 2measured = R 3measured = R 4measured = Fig. 4.7 (b) The Thevenin equivalent circuit will now be determined for the network to the left of the terminals a-b without disturbing the structure of the network. All the measurements. Will be made at the terminals a-b.

39 E Th : Determine E Th by turning on the supply and measuring the opencircuit voltage V ab. E Th = V ab = R Th : Introduce the 1-kΩ potentiometer to the network of Fig. 4.7, as shown in Fig Fig. 4.8 Turn on the supply and adjust the potentiometer until the voltage V L is E Th / 2, a condition that must exist if R L = R Th.Then turn off the supply and remove the potentiometer from the network without disturbing the position of the wiper arm. Measure the resistance between the two terminals connected to a-b and record as R Th. R Th = R L = (c) Now we need to check our measured results against a theoretical solution. Calculate R Th and E Th for the network to the left of terminals a-b of Fig Use measured resistor values. R Th = E Th = How do the calculated and measured values compare?

40 (d) Let us now plot P L and V L versus R L to confirm once more that the conditions for maximum power transfer to a load are that R L = R Th and V L = E Th / 2. Leave the potentiometer as connected in Fig. 4.8 and measure V L for all the values of R L appearing in Table 4.3*. Then calculate the resulting power to the load and complete the Table. Finally, plot both P L and V L versus R L on graphs 4.1 and 4.2, respectively. Table 4.3 R L (Ω) V L (V) measured 2 VL P= ( mw ) (calculated) RL * Be sure to remove the potentiometer from the network when setting each value of R L. At the very least disconnect one side of the potentiometer when making the setting.

41 Graph P L (mw) R L (kω) Reviewing graph 4.1, did maximum power transfer to the load occur when R L = R Th? What conclusion can be drawn from the results?

42 Graph V L (Volts) R L (kω) Noting graph 4.2, does V L = E Th / 2 when R L = R Th? Comment accordingly.

43 PROBLEMS For the network of Fig. 4.9: (a) Determine R Th and E Th for the network external to the 2-kΩ resistor. Fig. 4.9 R Th = E Th = (b) Determine the power delivered to the 2-kΩ resistor using the Thevenin equivalent circuit. (c) Is the power determined in part (b) the maximum power that could be delivered to a resistor between terminals a and b? If not, what is the maximum power?

44 Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 5 CAPACITORS OBJECTIVES 1. Validate conclusions regarding the behavior of capacitors in a steady-state dc network. 2. Plot the exponential curve for the voltage across a charging capacitor. 3. Verify the basic equations for determining the total capacitance for capacitors in series and parallel. 4. Demonstrate the usefulness of Thevenin s theorem for networks not having the basic series R-C form. LAB EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Resistors: 1.2 kω, 3.3 kω, 47 kω, 100 kω. Capacitors: 100 µf, 220 µf (electrolytic)

45 RESUME OF THEORY Read Chapter 10 Capacitors (page 341) PROCEDURE Part 1 Basic Series R-C Circuit (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured resistor value. Be sure to note polarity on electrolytic capacitors as shown in figure. R measured = FIG. 5.1 (b) Calculate the steady-state value (defined by a period of time greater than five time constant) of the current I and the voltages V 1 and V 2. I =..., V 1 =..., V 2 =... (c) Measure the voltages V 1 and V 2 and calculate the current I from Ohm s law. Compare with the results of part 1(b). V 1 =..., V 2 =... I =... (d) Calculate the energy stored by the capacitor.

46 W =... (e) Carefully disconnect the supply and quickly measure the voltage across the disconnected capacitor. Is there a reading? Why? V C =... (f) Short the capacitor terminals with a lead and then measure V C again. Why was it necessary to perform this step? Part 2 Parallel R-C dc Network (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured resistor values. R 1measured = R 2measured = FIG. 5.2 (b) Using the measured values, calculate the theoretical steady-state levels (time greater than five time constants) of the following quantities. I 1 =..., I 2 =..., I 3 =... V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =...

47 (c) Energize the system and measure the voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3. Calculate the currents I 1 and I 2 from Ohm s law and the current I 3 from Kirchhoff s current law. Compare the results with those of part 2(b). V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =... I 1 =..., I 2 =..., I 3 =... Part 3 Series-Parallel R-C dc Network (a) Construct the network Fig Insert the measured resistor values. R 1measured = R 2measured = FIG. 5.3 (b) Assuming ideal capacitors and using measured resistor values, calculate the theoretical steady-state levels of the following quantities: I 1 =..., I 2 =..., I 3 =..., I 4 =..., V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =..., V 4 =...,

48 (c) Energize the system and measure the voltages V 1, V 2, V 3 and V 4. Compare the results with those in part 3(b). V 1 =..., V 2 =..., V 3 =..., V 4 =..., Part 4 Determining C (Actual Value) This part of the experiment will determine the actual capacitance of the capacitor. In most cases the actual value will be more than the nameplate value. (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured resistance value. R measured = FIG. 5.4 (b) Calculate the time constant determined by the measured resistance value and the nameplate value. τ (theoretical) =... (c) Before turning on the power supply or closing the switch be sure to discharge the capacitor by placing a lead across its terminals. Then energize the source, close the switch, and note how many seconds pass before the voltage V C reaches 63.2% of its final value or (0.632)(10V) = 6.32 V. Recall from the Resume of Theory that the voltage V C should reach 63.2% of its final steady-state value in one time constant. τ (measured) =... (d) The actual capacitance (measured value) is then defined by C measured = τ (measured) / R (measured)

49 Determine C measured for the capacitor of Fig C measured =... For the rest of this experiment, use the measured value for each capacitance. How do the measured and nameplate values of C compare? What does the difference suggest about the actual versus nameplate levels of capacitance? Part 5 Charging Network (Parallel Capacitors) (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured resistance and capacitance values. R measured = C 1measured = C 2measured = FIG. 5.5 (b) Calculate the total capacitance for the network using the measured capacitance levels. C T =... (c) Determine the time constant for the network. τ =... (d) Calculate the charging time (5τ) for the voltage across the capacitor, C T. 5τ =...

50 (e) Using a watch, record (to the best of your ability) the voltage across the capacitor at the time intervals appearing in Table 5.1 after the switch is closed. You may want to make a test run before recording the actual levels. Complete the table using the fact that V R = E- V C. Be sure to discharge the capacitor between each run. Table 5.1 t (s) V C V R 0 V 12 V t (s) V C V R (f) Plot the curves of V C and V R versus time on Graph 5.1. Label each curve and indicate the intervals 1τ through 5τ on the horizontal axis. (g) What is the level of V C after one time constant (from the graph)? V C (1τ) =... Is this level 63.2% of the final steady-state level, as dictated by the Resume of Theory? (h) What is the level of V C after five time constants? V C (5τ) =... Does the level of V C suggest that the major portion of the transient phase has passed after five time constants? (i) Write the mathematical expression for the voltage V C during the charging phase. V C =... Determine the voltage V C = at t = 25s by substituting the time into the preceding mathematical expression and performing the required mathematical computations.

51 V C (at t = 25s) =... Determine V C at t = 25s from the V C curve of Graph 5.1. V C (at t = 25s) =... How do the calculated and the measured levels of V C at t = 25s compare? Part 6 Charging Network (Series Capacitors) (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured resistance and capacitance values. R 1measured = R 2measured = C 1measured = C 2measured = FIG. 5.6 (b) Determine the total resistance and capacitance for the network. R T =..., C T =... (c) Calculate the time constant for the network. τ =... (d) Calculate the charging time (5τ) for the voltage across the capacitor, C T. 5τ =...

52 (e) Using a watch, record (to the best of your ability) the voltage across the series capacitors at the time intervals appearing in Table 5.2 after the switch is closed. You may want to make a test run before recording the actual levels. Complete the table using the fact that V R = E- V C. Again, be sure to discharge the capacitor between each run. Table 5.2 t (s) V C V R 0 V 12 V t (s) V C V R (f) Plot the curves of V C and V R versus time on Graph 5.2. Label each curve and indicate the intervals 1τ through 5τ on the horizontal axis. Be sure to include the t = 0s levels as determined theoretically. (g) What is the level of V C after one time constant (from the graph)? V C (1τ) =... Is this level 63.2% of the final steady-state level, as dictated by the Resume of Theory? (h) What is the level of V C after five time constants? V C (5τ) =... Does the level of V C suggest that the major portion of the transient phase has passed after five time constants? (i) Write the mathematical expression for the voltage V R during the charging phase. V R =...

53 Using the preceding mathematical expression, determine the time t when the voltage V R has dropped to 50% of the value at t =0 s. t =... Using the plot of V R on Graph 5.2, determine the time t at which V R dropped to 50% of the value at t =0s. How does it compare to the theoretical value just determined? t =... Part 7 Applying Thevenin s Theorem (a) Construct the network of Fig Insert the measured values of the resistors and the capacitor. FIG. 5.7 (b) Using Thevenin s theorem calculate the Thevenin resistance for the network to the left of the capacitor (between terminals a and b). R Th =... Using Thevenin s theorem, calculate the open circuit Thevenin voltage between terminals a and b for the network to the left of the capacitor.

54 E Th =... (c) Redraw the network of Fig. 5.8 (in the space below) with the equivalent Thevenin circuit in the place to the left of the switch and capacitor. (d) Calculate the resulting time constant (τ) and charging time (5τ) for the voltage across the capacitor C after the switch is closed. 1τ =... 5τ =... (e) Write the mathematical expression for the charging voltage V C and determine the voltage V C after one time constant. V C =... V C (1τ) =... (f) Close the switch for the network of Fig. 5.8 and record the level of V C after one time constant. V C (1τ) =... How does the value of V C after one time constant compare with the calculated value of part 6(d)? (g) Are the results of parts 6(c) and 6(f) sufficiently close to validate the Thevenin equivalent circuit?

55 PROBLEMS 1. The voltage V C for the network of Fig. 5.8 has risen to 16V 5s after the switch was closed. Determine the value of C in microfarads. FIG. 5.8 C = Determine the mathematical expression for the voltage V C of Fig. 5.9 following the closing of the switch. FIG. 5.9 V C =...

56 V (volts) GRAPH t (s)

57 V (volts) GRAPH t (s)

58 Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 6 THE OSCILLOSCOPE OBJECTIVES 1. Become familiar with the construction, components and fundamental operation of an oscilloscope. 2. Learn how to set the amplitude and frequency of a function generator. 3. Understand how to use an oscilloscope to measure both dc and ac voltage levels. 4. Understand the impact of the AC/DC/GND switch on the displayed waveform. LAB EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Instruments: DMM Oscilloscope Audio oscillator or function generator Frequency counter (if available)

59 RESUME OF THEORY Read chapters related to the oscilloscope. dc Levels: How to make measurements? (a) Voltage Measurements: To use the scope to measure dc levels, first place the DC/AC/GND switch in the GND position to establish the ground (0 V) level on the screen. Then switch the DC/AC/GND switch to the dc position to measure the dc level. In the ac mode, a capacitor blocks the dc from the screen. Then place the scope leads across the unknown dc level and use the following equation to determine the dc level: ac Levels: dc Level (V) = Deflection (div.) X Vertical Sensitivity (V/div.) After re-establishing the ground level, place the DC/AC/GND switch in the ac mode and connect the scope leads across the unknown voltage. The peak-to-peak value can then be determined from: V p-p (V) = Deflection Peak to Peak (div.) X Vertical Sensitivity (V/div.) (b) Frequency Measurements: The oscilloscope can be used to set the frequency of an audio oscillator or function generator using the horizontal sensitivity in the following manner. Determine the period of the desired waveform and then calculate the number of divisions required to display the waveform on the horizontal axis using the provided µs/div., ms/div., s/div. on the horizontal sensitivity control. Then adjust the audio oscillator or function generator to provide the proper horizontal deflection for the desired frequency. Of course, the reverse of the above procedure will determine the frequency of an unknown signal.

60 PROCEDURE Part 1 Introduction (a) Your instructor will introduce the basic operation of the oscilloscope and audio oscillator or function generator. (b) Turn on the oscilloscope and establish a horizontal line centered on the face of the screen. There are no connections to the vertical input sections of the scope for this part. (c) Adjust the controls listed in Table 6.1 and comment on the effects. TABLE 6.1 Control Focus Intensity Y-position X-position Observed Effect Part 2 dc Voltage Measurements (a) Set the DC/AC/GND switch to GND position and adjust the Y-position control until the 0-V reference is a line centered vertically on the screen. (b) Once the 0-V level is established, move the DC/AC/GND switch to the dc position and set the vertical sensitivity to 1 V/div. and connect one channel of the scope across the 1.5-V battery as shown in Fig FIG.6.1

61 Record the vertical shift below. Vertical Shift = (divisions) Determine the dc voltage that established the shift by multiplying by the vertical sensitivity. That is, dc Voltage = (Vertical Shift)( Vertical Sensitivity) =( ) ( ) = V Change the sensitivity to 0.5 V/div. and note the effect on the vertical shift. Recalculate the dc voltage with this new shift. dc Voltage = (Vertical Shift)( Vertical Sensitivity) =( ) ( ) = V How do the two measurements compare? Which is more accurate? Why? (c) Disconnect the 1.5 V battery and re-establish the 0-V reference line. Then connect the vertical input section of the scope as shown in Fig. 6.2 with the vertical sensitivity set at 1 V/div. FIG.6.2

62 What was the direction of the shift? Why? Based on the above can a scope determine the polarity of a voltage? How? Calculate the magnitude (no sign) of the measured voltage as follows: dc Voltage = (Vertical Shift)( Vertical Sensitivity) =( ) ( ) = V Measure the total voltage across the two series batteries with DMM and compare with the level determined using the oscilloscope. dc Voltage (DMM) = V Part 3 Sinusoidal Waveforms Magnitude In this part of the experiment, we will learn how to set the magnitude of a sinusoidal signal using an oscilloscope or DMM (or VOM). The frequency will remain fixed at 500 Hz. Oscilloscope: (a) Connect the output of the oscillator or generator directly to one channel of the scope as shown in Fig If it is available, hook up the frequency counter. Vertical Channel 1 FIG.6.3

63 (b) Set the output frequency of the oscillator or generator at 500 Hz using the dial and appropriate multiplier. Turn the amplitude knob all the way to the left for minimum output. (c) Set the vertical sensitivity of the scope to 1 V/div. and the horizontal sensitivity to 0.5 ms/div. and turn on both the scope and the oscillator or generator. (d) Set the DC/AC/GND switch to GND position to establish the 0-V reference level (also the vertical center of a sinusoidal waveform) and then return the switch to the ac position. (e) Now adjust the amplitude control of the oscillator or generator until the signal has a 6-V peak-to-peak swing. The resulting waveform has the following mathematical formulation: v = V m sin 2πft = 3 sin 2π500t (f) Switch to the dc position and comment below on any change in location or appearance of the waveform. (g) Make the necessary adjustments to display the following waveforms on the screen. Sketch both patterns in Figs. 6.4 and 6.5, showing the number of divisions (in centimeters) for the vertical and horizontal distances, and the vertical and horizontal sensitivities. Use a sharp pencil for the sketch. Be neat and accurate! 1. v = 0.2 sin 2π500t Vertical Sensitivity = Horizontal Sensitivity = FIG.6.4

64 2. v = 8 sin 2π500t Vertical Sensitivity = Horizontal Sensitivity = DMM: FIG.6.5 (h) The sinusoidal signal 3 sin 2π500t has an effective value determined by V eff = V m = 0.707(3 V) = V Connect the DMM directly across the oscillator in the ac rms mode and adjust the oscillator output until V eff = V Then connect the output of the oscillator directly to the scope and note the total peak-to-peak swing. Is the waveform the same as that obtained in part 3(e)? (i) Use the DMM to set the following sinusoidal output from the oscillator: v = 0.5 sin 2π500t Veff = V Set V e ff with the DMM by adjusting the output of the oscillator, and place the signal on the screen. Calculate the peak-to-peak voltage as follows: Vp-p = (vertical distance peak to peak)(vertical sensitivity) = ( )( ) = V

65 How does the above compare with the desired 1-V peak-topeak voltage? Part 4 Sinusoidal Waveforms Frequency This section will demonstrate how the oscilloscope can be used to set the frequency output of an oscillator or generator. In other words, the scope can be used to make fine adjustments on the frequency set by the dials of the oscillator or generator. For a signal such as 2 sin2π500t, the frequency is 500 Hz and the period is 1/500 = 2 ms. With a horizontal sensitivity of 0.5 ms/div., the waveform should appear in exactly four horizontal divisions. If it does not, the fine-adjust control on the frequency of the oscillator or generator can be adjusted until it is exactly 4 divisions. The scope has then set the output frequency of the oscillator. Make the necessary adjustments to place the following waveforms on the scope. Sketch the waveforms on the scope patterns in Figs. 6.6 and 6.7, indicating the number of vertical and horizontal deflections and the sensitivity of each. Use a frequency counter if it is available. 1. v = 0.4 sin t f= Hz, T= s FIG.6.6

66 Vertical Deflection (peak value) = divisions Vertical Sensitivity = Horizontal Deflection (for one period of waveform) = Horizontal Sensitivity = divisions 2. v = 5 sin 377t f= Hz, T= s FIG.6.7 Vertical Deflection (peak value) = divisions Vertical Sensitivity = Horizontal Deflection (for one period of waveform) = Horizontal Sensitivity = divisions

67 Part 5 Sinusoidal Waveforms on a dc Level (a) Set the oscillator or generator to an output of 1 sin2π500t using a vertical sensitivity of 1 V/div. on the scope with a horizontal sensitivity of 0.5 ms/div. (b) Measure the dc voltage of one of the D cells and insert in Fig E = V (c) Construct the series combination of supplies as shown in Fig. 6.8 and connect the scope as indicated. FIG.6.8 (d) The input signal now has a dc level equal to the dc voltage of the D cell. Set the DC/AC/GND switch to the GND position and adjust the zero line to the center of the screen. (e) Switch to the AC mode and sketch the waveform on Fig FIG.6.9

68 (f) Now switch to the DC mode and sketch the waveform on the same scope pattern as part 5(e). (g) What was the effect of switching from the AC to the DC mode? Did the shape of the sinusoidal pattern change at all? How does the vertical shift compare to the dc level of the battery? (h) Switch to the GND mode and describe what happened to the waveform. In general, what is the effect of switching to the GND position, no matter where the leads of the scope are connected? PROBLEMS 1. Write the sinusoidal expression for the waveform appearing in Fig v = Vertical Sensitivity: 4V/div Horizontal Sensitivity: 5µs/div FIG.6.10

69 2. Sketch the waveform defined by V= Sin 2π(20*10 3 )t on the scope pattern of Fig.6.11 include the vertical and horizontal sensitivities. FIG.6.11 Vertical Sensitivity: Horizontal Sensitivity:

70 Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 7 Frequency Response of R, L, and C Components OBJECTIVES 1. Verify that the resistance of a resistor is independent of frequency for frequencies in the audio range. 2. Note that the reactance of an inductor increases linearly with increase in frequency. 3. Confirm that the reactance of a capacitor decreases nonlinearly with in crease in frequency. LAB EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Instruments: 1 DMM 1 Oscilloscope 1 Audio oscillator (or function generator) 1 Frequency counter (if available)

71 RESUME OF THEORY The resistance of a carbon resistor is unaffected by frequency, except for extremely high frequencies. This rule is also true for the total resistance of resistors in series or parallel. The reactance of an inductor is linearly dependent on the frequency applied. That is, if we double the frequency, we double the reactance, as determined by X L = 2πfL. For very low frequencies, the reactance is correspondingly very small, whereas for increasing frequencies, the reactance will increase to a very large value. For dc conditions, we find that X L = 2π(0)L is 0 Ω, corresponding with the short-circuit representation we used in our analysis of dc circuits. For very high frequencies, X L is so high that we can often use an open-circuit approximation. At low frequencies the reactance of a coil is quite low, whereas for a capacitor the reactance is quite high at low frequencies, often permitting the use of an open-circuit equivalent. At higher frequencies the reactance of a coil increases rapidly in a linear fashion, but the reactance of a capacitor decreases in a nonlinear manner. In fact, it drops off more rapidly than the reactance of a coil increases. At very high frequencies the capacitor can be approximated by a short-circuit equivalency. PROCEDURE Part 1 Resistors Construct the circuit of Fig Insert the measured value of R. Hook up the frequency counter if available. Oscilloscope Vertical input 4 V(p-p) Black FIG. 7.1 In this part of the experiment, the voltage across the resistor will be held constant at 4 V (p-p) while only the frequency is varied. If the resistance is frequency independent, the current through the circuit should not change as a function of frequency. Therefore, by keeping the voltage V R constant and changing the frequency while monitoring the current I, we can verify if, indeed, resistance is frequency independent. Set the voltage V R across the 1 -kω resistor to 4 V (p-p) using the oscilloscope. Note that the first frequency of Table 7.2 is 50 Hz. In addition, note that it is the voltage across the resistor that is set to 4 V (p-p), not the supply voltage. For each frequency of Table 7.2, be sure V R is maintained at 4 V (p-p) as the rms level of the current is measured using the DMM.

72 TABLE 7.2 Frequency V R(p-p) V R (rms)=0.707 (V R(p-p) / 2) Measurement I rms Calculation R = V R (rms)/ Irms 50 Hz 4V 1.414V 100 Hz 4V 1.414V 200 Hz 4V V 500 Hz 4V V 1000 Hz 4V 1.414V Calculate the level of R at each frequency using Ohm's law and complete Table 7.2. Use the following space for your calculations. Based on the results of Table 7.2, is the resistance of the resistor independent of frequency for the tested range? Part 2 Inductors (a) Construct the circuit of Fig The dc resistance of the coil (R L ) will be ignored for this experiment, because X L» R L. Insert the measured value of R s, and hook up the frequency counter if available. FIG. 7.2 In this part, the resistor of part 1 is replaced by the inductor. Here again, the voltage across the inductor will be kept constant while we vary the frequency of that voltage and monitor the current in the circuit. Set the frequency of the function generator to 1 khz and adjust E s until the voltage across the coil (V L ) is 4 V (p-p). Then turn off the supply without touching its controls and interchange the positions of the sensing resistor R s and the inductor. The purpose of this maneuver is to ensure a common ground between the oscilloscope and the supply. Turn on the supply and measure the peak-to-peak voltage V Rs across the sensing resistor. Use Ohm's law to determine the peak-to-peak value of the current through the series circuit and insert in Table 7.3. Repeat the above for each frequency appearing in Table 7.3.

73 Table 7.3 Frequency V L(p-p) V Rs(p-p) I p-p = V Rs(p-p) / Rs(mea.) X L (mea.)=v L (p-p) / I(p-p) X L(cal.) =2πfL 1 khz 4V 3 khz 4V 5 khz 4V 7 khz 4V 10 khz 4V The DMM was not used to measure the current in this part of the experiment because many commercial units are limited to frequencies of 1 khz or less. (a) Calculate the reactance X L (magnitude only) at each frequency and insert the values in Table 7.3 under the heading "X L (measured)." (b) Calculate the reactance at each frequency of Table 7.3 using the nameplate value of inductance (10 mh), and complete the table. (c) How do the measured and calculated values of X L compare? (d) Plot the measured value of X L versus frequency on Graph 7.1. Label the curve and plot the points accurately. Include the plot point of f=0hz and X L = 0 Ω as determined by X L = 2πfL=2π(0 Hz)L = 0 Ω. (e) Is the resulting plot a straight line? Should it be? Why?

74 GRAPH X L (kω) f(khz) (f) Determine the inductance at 1.5 khz using the plot of part 2(d). That is, determine X L from the graph at f= 1.5 khz and calculate L from L = X L /2πf. Compare with the nameplate value. X L (at 1.5 khz) = L cal.= L nameplate =

75 Part 3 Capacitors (a) Construct the circuit of Fig FIG. 7.3 The 100Ω sensing resistor will be used to "sense" the current level in the network. With the generator set at 100 Hz, adjust the output of supply until a 4-V peak-to-peak signal is obtained across the capacitor. Then repeat the procedure as outlined in part 2(a) to determine I p-p for each frequency appearing in Table 7.4. Table 7.4 Frequency Vc(p-p) V Rs(p-p) Ip-p Xc(cal) = Vc(p-p) / Ip-p Xc(cal)=1/2πfC 100 Hz 4V 200 Hz 4V 300 Hz 4V 400 Hz 4V 500 Hz 4V 800 Hz 4V 1000 Hz 4V 2000 Hz 4V

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