# Parallel DC circuits

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1 Parallel DC circuits This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. The terms and conditions of this license allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modification of all licensed works by the general public. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research): 1

2 Question 1 Questions Identify which of these circuits is a parallel circuit (there may be more than one shown!): A B C D F E file Question 2 Determine the amount of voltage impressed across each resistor in this circuit: 15 V 100 Ω 100 Ω Hint: locate all the points in this circuit that are electrically common to one another! file

3 Question 3 According to Ohm s Law, how much current goes through each of the two resistors in this circuit? 24 V 2.2 kω 4.7 kω Draw the paths of all currents in this circuit. file

4 Question 4 Qualitatively compare the voltage and current for each of the three light bulbs in this circuit (assume the three light bulbs are absolutely identical): 6 volt bulb 6 volt bulb 6 volt bulb volt battery file Question 5 Calculate the total amount of current that the battery must supply to this parallel circuit: 500 Ω 500 Ω 10 V Now, using Ohm s Law, calculate total resistance (R total ) from total (source) voltage V total and total (source) current I total. file

5 Question 6 Suppose I connect two resistors in parallel with one another, like this: 3.3 kω 3.3 kω Resistor leads joined by twisting together How much electrical resistance would you expect an ohmmeter to indicate if it were connected across the combination of these two parallel-connected resistors? V A V OFF A A COM 3.3 kω 3.3 kω Resistor leads joined by twisting together Explain the reasoning behind your answer, and try to formulate a generalization for all combinations of parallel resistances. file Question 7 There are two well-known formulae for calculating the total resistance of parallel-connected resistances. One of these works only for two resistances, while the other works for any number of parallel resistances. Write these two formulae, and give examples of their use. file

6 Question 8 A quantity often useful in electric circuit analysis is conductance, defined as the reciprocal of resistance: G = 1 R In a series circuit, resistance increases and conductance decreases with the addition of more resistors: Adding successive resistors in series R increases with more resistors G decreases with more resistors Describe what happens to total resistance and total conductance with the addition of parallel resistors: Adding successive resistors in parallel file

7 Question 9 In this circuit, three resistors receive the same amount of voltage (24 volts) from a single source. Calculate the amount of current drawn by each resistor, as well as the amount of power dissipated by each resistor: 1 Ω 2 Ω 3 Ω file Question volts Explain, step by step, how to calculate the amount of current (I) that will go through each resistor in this parallel circuit, and also the voltage (V ) dropped by each resistor: R1 1k0 12 V R2 2k2 R3 470 file

8 Question 11 Complete the table of values for this circuit: 10k R 1 3k3 R 2 30 V V I R P R 1 R 2 Total file Question 12 Complete the table of values for this circuit: 1 kω 2.2 kω 4 volts 6.8 kω 470 Ω R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 V I R P R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 Total 1 kω 2.2 kω 6.8 kω 470 Ω file

9 Question 13 What will happen to the brightness of the light bulb if the switch in this circuit is suddenly closed? file Question 14 In a parallel circuit, certain general rules may be stated with regard to quantities of voltage, current, resistance, and power. Express these rules, using your own words: In a parallel circuit, voltage... In a parallel circuit, current... In a parallel circuit, resistance... In a parallel circuit, power... For each of these rules, explain why it is true. file Question 15 What will happen in this circuit as the switches are sequentially turned on, starting with switch number 1 and ending with switch number 3? R3 SW3 R2 SW2 R1 SW1 R4 Describe how the successive closure of these three switches will impact: The voltage drop across each resistor The current through each resistor The total amount of current drawn from the battery The total amount of circuit resistance seen by the battery file

10 Question 16 The circuit shown here is commonly referred to as a current divider. Calculate the voltage dropped across each resistor, the current drawn by each resistor, and the total amount of electrical resistance seen by the 9-volt battery: volts 2 kω 3 kω 5 kω Current through the 2 kω resistor = Current through the 3 kω resistor = Current through the 5 kω resistor = Voltage across each resistor = R total = Can you think of any practical applications for a circuit such as this? file Question 17 The equation for calculating total resistance in a parallel circuit (for any number of parallel resistances) is sometimes written like this: R total = (R1 1 + R2 1 + Rn 1 Re-write this equation in such a way that it no longer contains any exponents. file ) 1 10

11 Question 18 There is a simple equation that gives the equivalent resistance of two resistances connected in parallel. Write this equation. Secondly, apply this two-resistance equation to the solution for total resistance in this three-resistor network: 100 Ω 100 Ω 50 Ω R total =??? No, this is not a trick question! There is a way to apply a two-resistance equation to solve for three resistances connected in parallel. file Question 19 Manipulate this equation to solve for resistor value R 1, given the values of R 2 and R parallel : R parallel = R 1R 2 R 1 + R 2 Then, give an example of a practical situation where you might use this new equation. file Question 20 The formula for calculating total resistance of three parallel-connected resistors is as follows: 1 R = 1 R R R 3 Algebraically manipulate this equation to solve for one of the parallel resistances (R 1 ) in terms of the other two parallel resistances (R 2 and R 3 ) and the total resistance (R). In other words, write a formula that solves for R 1 in terms of all the other variables. file Question 21 Suppose you needed a resistance equal to precisely 235 Ω for the construction of a precision electrical meter circuit. The only resistors available to you are two 1 kω resistors, one 500 Ω resistor, and a rheostat variable between 600 and 1000 ohms. Design a parallel resistor network using any combination of these components that will yield a total resistance of 235 Ω. If you use the rheostat in your design, specify its resistance setting. file

12 Question 22 Draw the connecting wires on this terminal strip so that the three light bulbs are wired in parallel with each other and with the battery. + - file Question 23 Choose two resistor values such that one resistor passes 25% of the total current, while the other resistor passes 75% of the total current: 25% 75% R 1 R 2 I total file

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Refrigeration and HVAC Electricity Fundamentals 89688-F0 Order no.: 89688-10 First Edition Revision level: 03/2016 By the staff of Festo Didactic Festo Didactic Ltée/Ltd, Quebec, Canada 2015 Internet:

### Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321)

Lab 4: 3-phase circuits. Objective: to study voltage-current relationships in 3-phase circuits; to learn to make delta and Y connections; to calculate and measure real, apparent, and reactive powers. Equipment: