# ES250: Electrical Science. HW7: Energy Storage Elements

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1 ES250: Electrical Science HW7: Energy Storage Elements

2 Introduction This chapter introduces two more circuit elements, the capacitor and the inductor whose elements laws involve integration or differentiation; consequently, circuits containing capacitors and/or inductors: are represented by differential equations, i.e., called dynamic circuits, it as opposed to static ti circuits it able to store energy have memory, meaning that the voltages and currents at a particular time depend past values

3 Introduction In addition, we will see that: capacitor voltages and inductor currents are continuous functions of time assuming bounded currents/voltages, e.g., the voltage across a capacitor or the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously in a dc circuit, capacitors act like open circuits and inductors act like short circuits a set of series or parallel capacitors can be reduced to an equivalent capacitor and a set of series or parallel inductors can be reduced to an equivalent inductor an op amp and a capacitor can be used to make circuits that perform the mathematical operations of integration or differentiation

4 Capacitors A capacitor is a two terminal element that can be modeled by two conducting plates separated by a nonconducting material, as shown below: Capacitor law: where

5 Capacitors The circuit symbol for a capacitor is shown with the passive sign convention assumed: Capacitor law: where

6 Example 7.2 1: Capacitor Current & Voltage Find the current for a capacitor C = 1 mf when the voltage across the capacitor is represented by the signal below:

7 Example 7.2 1: Capacitor Current & Voltage

8 Capacitors We can solve for the voltage v(t) across a capacitor in terms of the current i(t) by integrating the element law: Capacitor law: The time t 0 is called the initial time, and the capacitor The time t 0 is called the initial time, and the capacitor voltage v(t 0 ) is called the initial condition; it is convenient to select t 0 = 0 as the initial time

9 Example 7.2 2: Capacitor Current & Voltage Find the voltage v for a capacitor C = 1/2 F when the current is represented by the signal below and v(0) = 0: It is important to note that the voltage waveform cannot change instantaneously, but the current waveform may do so.

10 Example 7.2 2: Capacitor Current & Voltage

11 The resulting voltage waveform, as shown below, changes Example 7.2 2: Capacitor Current & Voltage The resulting voltage waveform, as shown below, changes with t 2 during the first 1 s, linearly with t during the period from 1 to 2 s, and stays constant equal to 3 V after t =2 s:

12 Determine the value of the capacitance associated with the Example Capacitor Current & Voltage Determine the value of the capacitance associated with the current and voltage waveforms for the circuit below:

13 Example 7.2 3: Capacitor Current & Voltage Note, interpreting the equation graphically:

14 Example Capacitor Current & Voltage

15 Determine the values the constants, a and b, used to label Example 7.2 4: Capacitor Current & Voltage Determine the values the constants, a and b, used to label the plot of the capacitor current associated with the current and voltage waveforms for the circuit below:

16 Example 7.2 3: Capacitor Current & Voltage Note, interpreting the equation graphically: 1 ( ) 3 24 = a = 600a a= µ µ = b( 7 5 ) b b= µ =

17 Questions?

18 Energy Storage in a Capacitor The energy stored in a capacitor is: Since we have: Assuming the capacitor was uncharged at t =, set v( ) ( ) = 0; therefore:

19 Energy Storage in a Capacitor For example, consider a 100 mf capacitor that has a voltage of 100 V across it. The energy stored is: As long as the capacitor is not connected to any other element, the energy of 500 J remains stored If we connect the capacitor to the terminals of a resistor, we expect a current to flow until all the energy is dissipated as heat by the resistor After all the energy dissipates, the current is zero and the voltage across the capacitor is zero.

20 Energy Storage in a Capacitor As noted in the previous section, the requirement of conservation of charge implies that the voltage on a capacitor is continuous Thus, the voltage and charge on a capacitor cannot change instantaneously This statement is summarized by the equation

21 Energy Storage in a Capacitor For the circuit shown below assume the switch was closed for a long time and the capacitor voltage had become v c = 10 V; then at time t = 0 we open the switch, as shown below Since the voltage on the capacitor is continuous:

22 Ex 7.3 1: Energy Stored by a Capacitor A10 mf capacitor is charged to 100 V, as shown in the circuit below; find the energy stored by the capacitor and the voltage of the capacitor at t =0 + after the switch is opened: Solution The voltage of the capacitor is v = 100 V at t =0 ; since the voltage at t =0 + is the same at t =0, we have:

23 The voltage across a 5 mf capacitor varies as shown below; Ex 7.3 2: Power and Energy for a Capacitor The voltage across a 5 mf capacitor varies as shown below; determine and plot the capacitor current, power, and energy associated with the capacitor:

24 Solution The current is determined from i c = C dv/dt as shown:

25 Solution The power is v(t)i(t), i.e., rhe product of the current curve and the voltage curve as shown below note, the capacitor receives energy during the first two seconds and then delivers energy for the period 2 < t <3:

26 Solution The energy is ω = p dt and can be found as the area under the p(t) curve, as shown below:

27 Questions?

28 Series and Parallel Capacitors The equivalent circuit for N parallel capacitors:

29 Series and Parallel Capacitors The equivalent circuit for N series capacitors:

30 Ex: Parallel & Series Capacitors Find the equivalent capacitance for the circuit below when C 1 = C 2 = C 3 =2mF, v 1 (0)=10V, and v 2 (0) = v 3 (0) = 20 V: Since C 2 and C 3 are in parallel, we replace them with C, Since C 2 and C 3 are in parallel, we replace them with C p, where:

31 Ex: Parallel & Series Capacitors Circuit resulting from replacing C 2 and C 3 with C p: Next, replace the two series capacitors C 1 and C p with equivalent capacitor C s where:

32 Ex: Parallel & Series Capacitors To obtain the Equivalent circuit: Note the initial voltage across the equivalent capacitor C Note, the initial voltage across the equivalent capacitor C s can be computed as:

33 Exercise Find the equivalent capacitance of the circuit below: ( ( ) ) C = 12mF 4mF + 9mF 6mF eq = 3mF + 9mF 6mF = ( ) 12mF 6mF ( ) = 4mF

34 Questions?

35 Inductance is a measure of the ability of a device to store energy in the form of a magnetic field Inductors An inductor can be formed from a wire shaped as a multiturn coil with the voltage across the inductor proportional to the rate of change of the current through the inductor, where L is the constant of proportionality p called inductance measured in henrys (H), expressed as shown:

36 Inductors A magnetic flux φ(t) is associated with a current i(t) in a coil In the case of an N turn coil where each line of flux passes through h all coil turns; the total t flux is given as Nφ = il Faraday found that a changing flux creates an induced voltage in each coil turn equal to the derivative of the flux φ, so the total voltage v across N turns is: Note: Flux describes the strength and extent of an object's interaction with a magnetic field.

37 Inductors Inductors are wound in various forms with practical inductances ranging from 1 μh to 10H The circuit symbol for an indictor is shown with the passive sign convention assumed: Inductor law: Conservation of flux applies to the inductor and therefore pp the flux, and thus current, through the inductor cannot have discontinuities, i.e., cannot change instantaneously

38 Inductors We can solve for the current i(t) across an inductor in terms of the voltage v(t) by integrating the element law: Inductor law: The time t 0 is called the initial time, and the inductor The time t 0 is called the initial time, and the inductor current i(t 0 ) is called the initial condition; it is convenient to select t 0 = 0 as the initial time

39 Consider the voltage waveform shown below for an inductor Inductors when L = 0.1 H and i(t 0 )=2A:

40 Inductors Since v(t) = 2 V between t = 0 and t =2, we have: which results in the following current waveform:

41 Find the voltage across a L = 0.1 H inductor when the Ex : Inductor Current & Voltage current in the inductor for t > 0 and i(0) = 0 is:

42 Solution The voltage for t > 0 is given by:

43 The plots below represent the current and voltage of the Ex : Inductor Current & Voltage inductor in the circuit; determine the value of L:

44 Solution The current and voltage of the inductor are related by: Note, interpreting the equation graphically: Picking convenient values for t and t 0, e.g., t 0 = 2 ms and t = 6 ms yields:

45 Solution

46 Ex : Inductor Current & Voltage The input voltage and current to the inductor circuit shown below are given by: Determine the values of the inductance, L, and resistance, R, if the initial inductor current is i L (0) = 3.5 A Apply KCL at either node to get:

47 Ex : Inductor Current & Voltage Substituting in the time domain expressions for the specified inductor voltage and current yields:

48 Ex : Inductor Current & Voltage Equating coefficients gives:

49 Questions?

50 Energy Storage in an Inductor Similar to a capacitor, the ideal inductor only stores energy; it is thus referred to as a passive element meaning it cannot generate or dissipate energy The energy stored in an inductor can be calculated in a similar manner as we did for a capacitor; resulting in:

51 Ex : Inductor Voltage & Current Find the current in a L = 0.1 H inductor when the initial current is zero and the voltage across the inductor is as shown below:

52 Given the voltage waveform, the current can be computed Ex : Inductor Voltage & Current Given the voltage waveform, the current can be computed as:

53 Find the power and energy for an inductor of 0.1 H when Ex : Power & Energy for an Inductor Find the power and energy for an inductor of 0.1 H when the current and voltage are given as:

54 Ex : Power & Energy for an Inductor Find the power and the energy stored in a 0.1 H inductor when i =20te 2t A and v =2e 2t (1 2t) V for t 0 and i =0 for t <0 Solution The power is given by: The energy is then given by:

55 Questions?

56 Series and Parallel Inductors A series connection of N inductors can be reduced to an equivalent series inductor L s, as shown:

57 Series and Parallel Inductors A parallel connection of N inductors can be reduced to an equivalent parallel inductor L p, as shown:

58 Ex : Series & Parallel Inductors Find the equivalent inductance for the circuit of below assuming all the inductor currents are zero at t 0 : Solution First, find the equivalent inductance for the 5 mh and 20 mh inductors in parallel, as shown:

59 Ex : Series & Parallel Inductors This equivalent inductor is in series with the 2 mh and 3 mh inductors as shown below: therefore, we obtain:

60 Exercise Find the equivalent inductance of the circuit shown below: ( ( ) ) L = 4mH 12mH + 2mH 20mH eq 4m 12m = + 2mH 20mH 4m+12m ( ) = 3mH + 2mH 20mH = 5mH 20mH 5m 20m = = 4mH 5m+20m

61 Questions?

62 Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits In this section we concentrate on finding the change in selected variables in a circuit when a switch is thrown from open to closed or vice versa The time of throwing the switch is considered to be t = 0, and we want to determine the value of the variable at t = 0 and t = 0+, immediately before and after throwing the switch; thus, a switched circuit is a circuit with one or more switches that open or close at time t0 = 0, as shown below:

63 Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits We are particularly interested in the change in the current and voltage of energy storage elements after the switch is thrown since these variables along with the sources will dictate the behavior of the circuit for t > 0 We summarize the important characteristics of the behavior of an inductor and a capacitor on the next slide: note that we assume t0 = 0 recall that an instantaneous change in the inductor current or the capacitor voltage is not permitted however, it is possible to instantaneously change an inductor's voltage or a capacitor's current

64

65 Consider the switched inductor circuit shown previously: the switch is open at t =0 and closes at t =0 the circuit has attained steady state conditions before the switch is thrown (closed), so the inductor is a short circuit let R 1 = R 2 = 1, so that the source current at t =0 divides equally between i 1 and i L, with

66 Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits Since the current cannot change instantaneously for the inductor, we have However, the current in the resistor can change instantaneously; note prior to t =0, we have After the switch is thrown, we require that the voltage across R 1 be equal to zero because of the switched short circuit, and therefore Thus, the resistor current changes abruptly from 1 to 0

67 Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits Now consider the switched capacitor circuit shown below: prior to t = 0, the switch has been closed for a long time since the source is a constant, the current in the capacitor is zero for t < 0 because the capacitor appears as an open circuit in a steady state condition therefore, the voltage across the capacitor for t < 0 can be obtained using voltage divider as shown

68 Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits Therefore at t = 0 when v s = 10 and R 1 = R 2 = 1 Ω, we obtain: However, since the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously, we have Thus, when the switch is opened at t = 0, the source is removed from the circuit, but v c (0 + ) remains equal to 5 V

69 Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits To analyze a circuit with both a capacitor and an inductor, as shown below, we must find v c (0 ) and i L (0 ) in steady state: t<0 By voltage divider: v (0 ) ( 3 (2 3) ) c = = 6V = v (0 ) i L (0 ) = vc(0 ) 3 + = 2A = i (0 ) c L

70 Find i L (0 + ), v c (0 + ), dv c (0 + )/dt,anddi L (0 + )/dt for the circuit Ex : Initial Conditions in a Switched Circuit Find i L (0 ), v c (0 ), dv c (0 )/dt, and di L (0 )/dt for the circuit below:

71 Solution Redraw the circuit for t = 0 by replacing the inductor with a short circuit and the capacitor with an open circuit, as shown below: Note that:

72 Solution In order to find dv + + c (0 )/dt and di L (0 )/dt, wethrowthe the switches at t = 0 and redraw the circuit, as shown below: Since we wish to find dv c (0 + )/dt, recall that

73 Solution To find i c we write KCL at node a to obtain Therefore, at t = 0 + Hence, we obtain

74 Solution Sincewewishtofinddi wish di + L (0 )/dt, recall that To find v L we write KVL for the right hand h mesh to obtain Therefore, at t =0 + Hence, we obtain

75 Solution Thus, we find that at the switching time t = 0, the current in the inductor and the voltage of the capacitor remain constant However, the inductor voltage changes instantaneously from v L (0 )=0 to v L (0 + )= 2 V, and we determined that di L (0 + )/dt = 2 A/s Also, the capacitor current changed instantaneously from p g y i c (0 )=0 to i c (0 + ) = 6 A and we found that dv c (0 + )/dt =12V/s

76 Questions?

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