BASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS. December 2011


 Christian Dean
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 AM BASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS December 2011 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for Pubic Release. Distribution is unlimited. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY AUXILIARY RADIO SYSTEM FORT HUACHUCA ARIZONA
2 AM Basic Electronics DC Circuits Analysis This Page Intentionally Left Blank ii Ver. 1.0
3 AM Basic Electronics  DC Circuit Analysis CHANGE PAGE LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DISTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES NOTE The portion of this text effected by the changes is indicated by a vertical line in the outer margins of the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by shaded or screened areas or by miniature pointing hands. Changes of issue for original and changed pages are: ORIGIONAL..0. Page Change NO. No. Title Page NO. Change No. Page No. Change No. *Zero in this column indicates an original page A Change 0 US Army 2. RETAIN THIS NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE TABLE OF CONTENTS. 3. Holders of AM will verify that page changes and additions indicated above have been entered. This notice page will be retained as a check sheet. This issuance, together with appended pages, is a separate publication. Each notice is to be retained by the stocking points until the standard is completely revised of canceled. Ver. 1.0 iii
4 AM Basic Electronics DC Circuits Analysis This Page Intentionally Left Blank iv Ver. 1.0
5 AM Basic Electronics  DC Circuit Analysis CONTENTS 1 AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS REFERENCE Introduction Alternating Current Frequency and Cycle Resistance in AC Circuits Inductance in an AC Circuit INDUCTIVE REACTANCE POWER Power Factor More Cosine o INDUCTIVE REACTANCE IN SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITIVE REACTANCE PARALLEL RESONANCE Impedance of a Parallel Resonant Circuit Resonant Frequency and Bandwidth Ver. 1.0 v
6 AM Basic Electronics DC Circuits Analysis IMPROVEMENTS (Suggested corrections, or changes to this document, should be submitted through your State Director to the Regional Director. Any Changes will be made by the National documentation team. DISTRIBUTION Distribution is unlimited. VERSIONS The Versions are designated in the footer of each page if no version number is designated the version is considered to be 1.0 or the original issue. Documents may have pages with different versions designated; if so verify the versions on the Change Page at the beginning of each document. REFERENCES The following references apply to this manual: Allied Communications Publications (ACP): ACP Glossary of Communications Electronics Terms US Army FM/TM Manuals 1. TM Electrical Design, Lightning and Static Electricity Protection 2. TM Facilities Engineering Electrical Facilities Safety 3. TM Grounding and Bonding in Command, Control, Communications, Computer, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Facilities 4. TM Electrical Fundamentals, Direct Current 5. TM664 Basic Theory and Use of Electronic Test Equipment US Army Handbooks 1. MILHDBK Grounding, Bonding and Shielding Design Practices Commercial References 1. Basic Electronics, Components, Devices and Circuits; ISBN X, By William P Hand and Gerald Williams Glencoe/McGraw Hill Publishing Co. 2. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers  McGraw Hill Publishing Co. CONTRIBUTORS This document has been produced by the Army MARS Technical Writing Team under the authority of Army MARS HQ, Ft Huachuca, AZ. The following individuals are subject matter experts who made significant contributions to this document. William P Hand vi Ver. 1.0
7
8 ii Ver. 1.0
9 1 AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 1.1 REFERENCE Basic Electronics, Components, Devices and Circuits; ISBN X By William P Hand and Gerald Williams Introduction Alternating current (ac) is probably the most common, and most important, available form of electricity. Alternating current is a current that begins at zero, rises to some set value, and then falls to zero again. It then reverses its direction of current flow and rises to the same set value in the reverse direction, and then falls to zero again. This reversal of current flow direction is in contrast to direct current (dc), which always maintains the same direction of flow. Standard alternating current can be plotted on a graph as shown in Figure 11. The graph shows how the waveform is produced by an alternating current generator as the armature (rotating part) rotates through 360 circular degrees for each cycle Alternating Current Figure 11 A Sine Wave Voltage As the generator armature moves through one 360 degree rotation (full circle), the generator voltage goes through one complete cycle, as shown in Figure 11. The curve displayed in the figure can also be described by the mathematical equation e = E m sin ωt (ω = 2Nf) where e equals the voltage, Em the maximum value of generated voltage, and wt the angular velocity multiplied by the time. When a generator produces an ac voltage, the current arising from it varies in step with the voltage. Like the voltage, the current can be represented graphically by a sine wave and by the following equation: i = Im sin ωt 11 Ver. 1.0
10 where i equals the current, Im the maximum value of generated current, and ωt the angular velocity multiplied by the time Frequency and Cycle While the coil in a generator rotates 360 (one complete revolution), the output voltage goes through one complete cycle. During one cycle, the voltage increases from zero to positive Em in one direction, decreases to zero, increases in the opposite direction to negative Em, and then decreases again to zero, The first 180 (onehalf of the voltage cycle) is called the positive alternation and the last 180, from 180 to 360, is called the negative alternation. The value of the Em voltage at 90 is called the amplitude or peak voltage. The time required for a positive and a negative alternation is called the period. The number of complete cycles per second is the frequency of the sine wave. When the angular velocity, ω, at which the coil rotates, is expressed in radians per second, the mathematical relation between ω and f is given by the equation ω = 2Nf Resistance in AC Circuits Resistance is the property by which a conductor opposes the flow of current. The resistance of a conductor opposes alternating current in the same way that it opposes direct current Inductance in an AC Circuit The discussion of induction you learned that a coil opposes a change in the current through it by building up a counter voltage. This counter voltage is an induced voltage that is equal to where ei is the counter voltage, L the inductance in henrys, Li the change in current, and Lt the change in time. The term Li / Lt is the rate of change in current with respect to time (how fast the current changes). Reference Figure 12. Figure 12 Phase Shift In alternating current, the instantaneous value of i is e i = Ll m cos ωt This is the equation for the instantaneous value of the alternating voltage. It is also the equation of a cosine curve, a curve that has the same shape as a sine wave curve but differs in phase from it by 900 (I j 4 cycle). This phase difference exists because the counter voltage reaches its maximum not at the time of maximum current, but at the time the current is changing most rapidly; that is, at 12 Ver. 1.0
11 the time when i is zero. The counter voltage is in such a direction as to oppose the change in current. Hence, if i is increasing, the counter voltage will be in the opposite direction to the current. Figure illustrates this condition. When i is decreasing, the direction of the voltage is the same as that of the current. The counter voltage (ec) lags the current (i) by 90 degrees. e c Figure 13 Voltage and Current Relationships in an Inductor An Analogy in Figure 14 what is in the black box? By Ohm's law 10 volts will drive ½ amp of current through 20 ohms of resistance: Figure 14 Black Box Example Because there are 10 ohms of resistance visible in the drawing, we must assume that the black box contains a 10 ohm resistor. There is another alternative, however. A 5 volt battery connected in opposition to the battery Bl makes the total potential applied across the 10 ohm resistor only 5 volts (reference Figure 15) again by Ohm's law, 13 Ver. 1.0
12 Figure 15 The Secret of the Black Box 14 Ver. 1.0
13 2 INDUCTIVE REACTANCE The counter voltage produced in a coil with an alternating current passing through it opposes the applied voltage. As in the previous analogy, the opposing voltage reduces the current. This apparent opposition to current flow in an inductor is called inductive reactance. The unit of measurement is the ohm. The higher the inductance value of the coil, the greater will be the counter voltage, and larger counter voltages mean higher reactances. The counter voltage is also dependent upon how fast the field is changing. The rate of change for alternating current is determined by the frequency (frequency implies a cyclical change). Inductive reactance is found by using the formula, X L = 2NfL where X L = the inductive reactance in ohms, 2N = 6.28, L = the inductance in henrys, and f = the frequency in hertz. Example 61 Problem: Find the inductive reactance of a 10 Henry inductor at a frequency of 60 hertz (Hz): Solution: 2.1 POWER X L = 2NfL X L = 6.28 x 60 x10 = 3768 In a dc circuit, power is equal to E x I (voltage times current). In an ac circuit, the actual power is less than the voltagecurrent product, whenever there is any phase shift in the circuit. This is true because maximum voltage and maximum current do not occur at the same time. The maximum voltagecurrent product is never realized and thus the maximum power is not produced. The voltagecurrent product (E x I) is called apparent power. The true power depends upon the phase angle and is expressed by the formula: true power = apparent power X cosine of the phase angle, or true power = E x I cosine o The cosine is simply the ratio of resistance to Impedance. The cosine is a trigonometric relationship defined as: 21 Ver. 1.0
14 2.1.1 Power Factor The cosine of o (theta) is also known as the power factor. It is often multiplied by 100 so that it can be expressed as a percentage. In the case of the previous example the cosine of o was found to be 0.6. Multiplying by 100, the power factor is 60%. This is interpreted to mean that the true power is equal to 60% of the apparent power More Cosine o 1. Series Circuits Only: The cosine of o can also be expressed as: 2. Parallel Circuits Only: The cosine of o can also be expressed as: where E R is the voltage across the resistor, I R is the current through it, E Z is the voltage across the total impedance, and I Z is the circuit current. These quantities can also be plotted on a vector diagram. If cosine values are plotted against time, the result will be a curve identical in shape to the sine curve, but displaced in time by INDUCTIVE REACTANCE IN SERIES AND PARALLEL When inductances are connected in series and are not close enough to be in the magnetic field of each other, the inductances and their inductive reactances add like resistances connected in series. Thus, in a series circuit the sum of the inductive reactances can be expressed by the equation, and the sum. of the inductances by the equation, When inductances are connected in parallel, their inductances and the inductive reactances add by the sum of the reciprocals method, like resistances connected in parallel. In a parallel circuit, the sum of the inductive reactances is expressed by the equation, 22 Ver. 1.0
15 and the sum of the inductances, by the equation, 23 Ver. 1.0
16
17 3 CAPACITIVE REACTANCE A capacitor also exhibits an opposition to current in an ac circuit. The mechanism is similar to that of inductive reactance in the sense that the opposition is due to an opposing voltage instead of heatproducing resistance. Capacitive reactance (X c ) also produces a 90 phase shift, but in the opposite direction from the phase shift in an inductor. In a capacitor, the current leads the voltage by 90 where current lags by 90 in an inductor. Figure 31shows a vector diagram of resistance, capacitive reactance, and inductive reactance. The reactance of a capacitor is also dependent upon the frequency of the ac sine wave current. However, capacitive reactance decreases as the frequency increases as opposed to inductive reactance which increases as the frequency increases. Figure 31 Resistance, Capacitive Reactance, and Inductive Reactance The formula for capacitive reactance is Where X c = capacitive reactance 2N= 6.28 f = the frequency in hertz (cycles per second) C = capacitance in farads Example 67 Problem: Find the capacitive reactance of a 1 µfd capacitor at 60 Hz. Solution: 31 Ver. 1.0
18 Therefore X c = 2650 Ohms If there is only capacitance in the circuit, the special forms of ac Ohms law apply. where I = current, E = voltage, and X c = capacitive reactance. 3.1 PARALLEL RESONANCE The parallel resonant circuit shown in Figure 32 is often called a tank circuit. The unique resonant condition provides energy storage in the capacitor that is exactly equal to the energy storage in the magnetic field of the inductor. Assuming the capacitor to be fully charged to start, the capacitor will discharge through the inductor storing the capacitor's stored energy in the inductor's magnetic field. When the capacitor is discharged, the inductor's field begins to collapse, driving its stored energy back into the capacitor. Thus, current will continue to circulate from inductor to capacitor and back again. Figure 32 Resonant tank circuit If there were no losses in the circuit, the current would circulate forever. In real circuits there is always some resistance and this resistance gradually dissipates the energy in the form of heat. The 32 Ver. 1.0
19 smaller the resistance (in dotted lines) the faster the circulating energy is dissipated. "Q" is measured by the relationship Q= X L / R. It can also be written as Q = X c /R because, at resonance, X L = X c. A high value of the quality Q means the energy of a tank circuit will circulate longer than it will with a lower value Q Impedance of a Parallel Resonant Circuit Because X L cancels X c at resonance, the impedance is simply the resistance if the resistance is in parallel as shown in Figure 18. If the resistance is in series, the impedance approaches infinity. The reason for this is the circulating current. The only current demanded by the parallel tank is that which is lost in heat by the series resistance. With a small series resistance and a large value for XL (and X c ), the current required to maintain the circulating current is very small. A small current means high impedance. A parallel tank has high impedance at resonance Resonant Frequency and Bandwidth Every parallel inductorcapacitor circuit will be resonant at some frequency. When you examine Figure 33, you will see that as the frequency increases, X L increases and X c decreases. The X C curve in the figure is going downward while the X L curve is going upward. The two curves must inevitably cross somewhere. The point at which they cross (point 0) is the resonant frequency, because at this point X L = X c. The resonant frequency is designated f o. The resonant frequency can be determined for any inductor / capacitor combination by using the following formula: Where fa is the frequency of resonance 2N is the constant; 2 X L is the inductance in henrys C is the capacitance in farads Curve A in Figure 33 is called the resonant frequency curve, or bandwidth curve. Resonance does not occur at a single frequency because all real inductors have' some resistance. The more resistance there is in the circuit, the flatter and wider the curve will be. A narrow, tall curve results when the Q is high (Q = X L I R) and will be squat and: X and Z FREQUENCY Figure 33 X L, X c, and the Resonant Frequency. 33 Ver. 1.0
20 broad when the Q is low. The bandwidth defined as those frequencies within the cu.1 where the curve is above 70.7% of the ic'_ curve height. Figure 34 shows a high Q and a low I resonant frequency curve. Note the band of frequencies covered by the low Q curve is wider than that covered by the high Q tank circuit. In many applications, resistance is deliberately added to the circuit to make it respond to a wider band of frequencies. In other applications the resistance is kept small to respond to only a narrow band of frequencies. The bandwidth of a circuit can be found by the equation, Bandwidth Where bandwidth is measured at the 70.7% point on the resonance curve 34 Ver. 1.0
21 fa = the resonant frequency Q = the figure of merit of the tank Q = X L /R, where X L is the inductive reactance at the resonant frequency, and R is the series resistance in the tank. Figure 34 Q and bandwidth. 35 Ver. 1.0
22 NOTES: 36 Ver. 1.0
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4  ALTERNATING CURRENT
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4  ALTERNATING CURRENT 4 Understand singlephase alternating current (ac) theory Single phase AC
More informationInductive and Capacitive Reactance
Inductive and Capacitive Reactance Course No: E04005 Credit: 4 PDH A. Bhatia Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 3225800 F: (877) 3224774
More informationElectrical Fundamentals  Reactance and Impedance
PDHonline Course E239 (4 PDH) Electrical Fundamentals  Reactance and Impedance Instructor: A. Bhatia, B.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 220306658 Phone & Fax: 7039880088
More informationBasic Electrical Theory
Basic Electrical Theory Impedance PJM State & Member Training Dept. PJM 2014 10/24/2013 Objectives Identify the components of Impedance in AC Circuits Calculate the total Impedance in AC Circuits Identify
More informationDirect versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure
Phil Sherrod W4PHS Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC) Voltage Voltage (peak, RMS) Current Current (peak, effective) Power True power, Apparent
More informationEðlisfræði 2, vor 2007
[ Assignment View ] [ Pri Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 31. Alternating Current Circuits Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, March 21, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the
More informationReactance and Impedance
Reactance and Impedance Capacitance in AC Circuits Professor Andrew H. Andersen 1 Objectives Describe capacitive ac circuits Analyze inductive ac circuits Describe the relationship between current and
More informationAC Generators. Basic Generator
AC Generators Basic Generator A basic generator consists of a magnetic field, an armature, slip rings, brushes and a resistive load. The magnetic field is usually an electromagnet. An armature is any number
More informationNZQA registered unit standard 20431 version 2 Page 1 of 7. Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians
NZQA registered unit standard 0431 version Page 1 of 7 Title Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians Level 3 Credits 7 Purpose This unit standard covers
More informationCircuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49
Circuits with inductors and alternating currents Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 RL circuits Ch. 20 (last section) Symbol for inductor looks like a spring. An inductor is a circuit element that has a large
More informationANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENGINEERS
UNIT 1: Unit code: QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENGINEERS A/601/1401 OUTCOME  TRIGONOMETRIC METHODS TUTORIAL 1 SINUSOIDAL FUNCTION Be able to analyse and model engineering situations
More informationAircraft Electrical System
Chapter 9 Aircraft Electrical System Introduction The satisfactory performance of any modern aircraft depends to a very great degree on the continuing reliability of electrical systems and subsystems.
More informationRESISTANCE, REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE A Primer. Douglas Brooks, PhD UltraCAD Design, Inc. PART 2, REACTANCE
RESISTANCE, REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE A Primer Douglas Brooks, PhD UltraCAD Design, Inc. PART 2, REACTANCE This is part 2 of a 3part series on resistance, reactance and impedance. Most of us are familiar
More informationLCR Parallel Circuits
Module 10 AC Theory Introduction to What you'll learn in Module 10. The LCR Parallel Circuit. Module 10.1 Ideal Parallel Circuits. Recognise ideal LCR parallel circuits and describe the effects of internal
More informationExtra Questions  1. 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A
Extra Questions  1 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A 2. A current of 500mA flows in a resistance of 12Ω. What power is dissipated
More informationLRC Circuits. Purpose. Principles PHYS 2211L LAB 7
Purpose This experiment is an introduction to alternating current (AC) circuits. Using the oscilloscope, we will examine the voltage response of inductors, resistors and capacitors in series circuits driven
More informationApril 8. Physics 272. Spring Prof. Philip von Doetinchem
Physics 272 April 8 Spring 2014 http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~philipvd/pvd_14_spring_272_uhm.html Prof. Philip von Doetinchem philipvd@hawaii.edu Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  218 LC in parallel
More informationChapter 22: Alternating current. What will we learn in this chapter?
Chapter 22: Alternating current What will we learn in this chapter? Contents: Phasors and alternating currents Resistance and reactance Series R L C circuit Power in accircuits Series resonance Parallel
More informationDOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 3 of 4
DOEHDBK1011/392 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 3 of 4 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 FSC6910 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release;
More informationMeasuring Impedance and Frequency Response of Guitar Pickups
Measuring Impedance and Frequency Response of Guitar Pickups Peter D. Hiscocks Syscomp Electronic Design Limited phiscock@ee.ryerson.ca www.syscompdesign.com April 30, 2011 Introduction The CircuitGear
More informationALTERNATING CURRENTS
ALTERNATING CURRENTS VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS Q1. What is the SI unit of? Q2. What is the average value of alternating emf over one cycle? Q3. Does capacitor allow ac to pass through it? Q4. What
More informationLesson 27. (1) Root Mean Square. The emf from an AC generator has the time dependence given by
Lesson 27 () Root Mean Square he emf from an AC generator has the time dependence given by ℇ = ℇ "#$% where ℇ is the peak emf, is the angular frequency. he period is he mean square value of the emf is
More informationChapt ha e pt r e r 12 RL Circuits
Chapter 12 RL Circuits Sinusoidal Response of RL Circuits The inductor voltage leads the source voltage Inductance causes a phase shift between voltage and current that depends on the relative values of
More informationCritical thinfilm processes such as deposition and etching take place in a vacuum
WHITEPAPER INTRODUCING POWER SUPPLIES AND PLASMA Critical thinfilm processes such as deposition and etching take place in a vacuum SYSTEMS chamber in the presence of a plasma. A plasma is an electrically
More informationChapter 11. Inductors. Objectives
Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive
More informationChapter 12. RL Circuits. Objectives
Chapter 12 RL Circuits Objectives Describe the relationship between current and voltage in an RL circuit Determine impedance and phase angle in a series RL circuit Analyze a series RL circuit Determine
More informationBasic Electrical Theory
Basic Electrical Theory Power Principles and Phase Angle PJM State & Member Training Dept. PJM 2014 10/24/2013 Objectives At the end of this presentation the learner will be able to; Identify the characteristics
More informationEXPERIMENT 4: MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR RC CIRCUIT
Kathmandu University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering BASIC ELECTRICAL LAB (ENGG 103) EXPERIMENT 4: MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR RC CIRCUIT
More informationA complex number W consists of real and imaginary parts a and b respectively, and the imaginary constant j which is the square root of negative one.
eactance and Impedance A Voltage and urrent In a D circuit, we learned that the relationship between voltage and current was V=I, also known as Ohm's law. We need to find a similar law for A circuits,
More informationIntro to Power Lab Concepts
1 Intro to Power Lab Concepts Created by the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign TCIPG PMU Research Group 1 Table of Contents 1. PRELAB DC Power
More informationLesson 3 DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS. Task. The skills and knowledge taught in this lesson are common to all missile repairer tasks.
Lesson 3 DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS Task. The skills and knowledge taught in this lesson are common to all missile repairer tasks. Objectives. When you have completed this lesson, you should be able
More informationAS91526: Demonstrate understanding of electrical systems Level 3 Credits 6
AS956: Demonstrate understanding of electrical systems Level 3 redits 6 This achievement standard involves demonstrating understanding of electrical systems. Achievement riteria Achievement Achievement
More informationε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied
Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and
More informationBasic AC Reactive Components IMPEDANCE
Basic AC Reactive Components Whenever inductive and capacitive components are used in an AC circuit, the calculation of their effects on the flow of current is important. EO 1.9 EO 1.10 EO 1.11 EO 1.12
More informationEinstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road, New Delhi , Ph. : ,
1 EMI & AC 1. Derive an expression for the impendance of a coil in AC ciruit. A current of 1.1 A flows through a coil when connected to a 110 V DC. When 110 V AC of 50 Hz is applied to the same coil, only
More informationLaboratory #2: AC Circuits, Impedance and Phasors Electrical and Computer Engineering EE University of Saskatchewan
Authors: Denard Lynch Date: Aug 30  Sep 28, 2012 Sep 23, 2013: revisionsdjl Description: This laboratory explores the behaviour of resistive, capacitive and inductive elements in alternating current
More information45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 1500W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across?
PHYS Practice Problems hapters 8 hapter 8. 45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 5W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across? The power and current can be used to find the peak voltage,
More information615xx, 616xx, 617xxx, 646x, 64xx, 65xx Series Programmable AC source
Chroma Systems Solutions, Inc. AC Power Definitions 615xx, 616xx, 617xxx, 646x, 64xx, 65xx Series Programmable AC source Keywords: Peak, RMS, Phase, Inrush Current, Power Factor, Crest Factor, Apparent
More informationEffect of Frequency on Inductive Reactance
TUNED CIRCUITS Effect of Frequency on Inductive Reactance Resonance The ideal seriesresonant circuit How the ParallelLC Circuit Stores Energy Parallel resonance Resonant circuits as filter circuits Pulsed
More informationAlternating Current. Asist. Prof. Dr. Aytaç Gören Asist. Prof. Dr. Levent Çetin
Asist. Prof. Dr. Aytaç Gören Asist. Prof. Dr. Levent Çetin 30.10.2012 Contents Alternating Voltage Phase Phasor Representation of AC Behaviors of Basic Circuit Components under AC Resistance, Reactance
More informationDiodes have an arrow showing the direction of the flow.
The Big Idea Modern circuitry depends on much more than just resistors and capacitors. The circuits in your computer, cell phone, Ipod depend on circuit elements called diodes, inductors, transistors,
More informationLab #4 Capacitors and Inductors. Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response
Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response Capacitor Theory Like resistors, capacitors are also basic circuit elements. Capacitors come in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and sizes, and they can all
More informationSimple Harmonic Motion: AC circuits: alternating current electricity
Simple Harmonic Motion: AC circuits: alternating current electricity Alternating current (AC) circuits explained using time and phasor animations. Impedance, phase relations, resonance and RMS quantities.
More informationLCR Series Circuits. AC Theory. Introduction to LCR Series Circuits. Module 9. What you'll learn in Module 9. Module 9 Introduction
Module 9 AC Theory LCR Series Circuits Introduction to LCR Series Circuits What you'll learn in Module 9. Module 9 Introduction Introduction to LCR Series Circuits. Section 9.1 LCR Series Circuits. Amazing
More information2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated?
Extra Questions  2 1. A straight length of wire moves through a uniform magnetic field. The e.m.f. produced across the ends of the wire will be maximum if it moves: a) along the lines of magnetic flux
More informationInductors in AC Circuits
Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum
More informationRLC Series Resonance
RLC Series Resonance 11EM Object: The purpose of this laboratory activity is to study resonance in a resistorinductorcapacitor (RLC) circuit by examining the current through the circuit as a function
More informationAC Power Basics REAL, REACTIVE, AND APPARENT POWER
AC Power Basics Power in an electric circuit is the rate of flow of energy past a given point of the circuit. In AC circuits, energy storage elements such as inductance and capacitance may result in periodic
More informationChapter 12 Driven RLC Circuits
hapter Driven ircuits. A Sources... . A ircuits with a Source and One ircuit Element... 3.. Purely esistive oad... 3.. Purely Inductive oad... 6..3 Purely apacitive oad... 8.3 The Series ircuit...
More informationThree phase circuits
Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREEPHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of threephase motors and the kva rating of threephase transformers are 150% greater than singlephase motors
More informationAlternating Current RL Circuits
Alternating Current RL Circuits Objectives. To understand the voltage/current phase behavior of RL circuits under applied alternating current voltages, and. To understand the current amplitude behavior
More informationFrequency response: Resonance, Bandwidth, Q factor
Frequency response: esonance, Bandwidth, Q factor esonance. Let s continue the exploration of the frequency response of circuits by investigating the series circuit shown on Figure. C + V  Figure The
More informationAlternatingCurrent Circuits
hapter 1 Alternatingurrent ircuits 1.1 A Sources... 11. Simple A circuits... 13 1..1 Purely esistive load... 13 1.. Purely Inductive oad... 15 1..3 Purely apacitive oad... 17 1.3 The Series ircuit...
More informationPHYS 2426 Engineering Physics II (Revised July 7, 2011) AC CIRCUITS: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT
PHYS 2426 Engineering Physics II (Revised July 7, 2011) AC CIRCUITS: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment is to study the behavior of an RLC series circuit subject to an AC
More informationExperiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)
Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept: circuits Time: 30 m SW Interface: 750 Windows file: RLC.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage
More informationVectors and Phasors. A supplement for students taking BTEC National, Unit 5, Electrical and Electronic Principles. Owen Bishop
Vectors and phasors Vectors and Phasors A supplement for students taking BTEC National, Unit 5, Electrical and Electronic Principles Owen Bishop Copyrught 2007, Owen Bishop 1 page 1 Electronics Circuits
More informationChapter 8. Introduction to Alternating Current and Voltage. Objectives
Chapter 8 Introduction to Alternating Current and Voltage Objectives Identify a sinusoidal waveform and measure its characteristics Describe how sine waves are generated Determine the various voltage and
More informationFilters & Wave Shaping
Module 8 AC Theory Filters & Wave Shaping Passive Filters & Wave Shaping What you'll learn in Module 8. Module 8 Introduction Recognise passive filters with reference to their response curves. High pass,
More informationModule P5.4 AC circuits and electrical oscillations
F L E X I B L E L E A R N I N G A P P R O A C H T O P H Y S I C S Module P5.4 Opening items. Module introduction.2 Fast track questions.3 Ready to study? 2 AC circuits 2. Describing alternating currents
More informationRLC Resonant Circuits
C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document
More informationPractice Problems  Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits
Multiple Choice Practice Problems  Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits 4. A highvoltage powerline operates at 500 000 Vrms and carries an rms current of 500 A. If the resistance of the cable is
More informationThe W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam
The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam This document contains every question from the Extra Class (Element 4) Question Pool* that requires one or more mathematical
More informationCharge and Discharge of a Capacitor
Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage
More informationFrequency response of a general purpose singlesided OpAmp amplifier
Frequency response of a general purpose singlesided OpAmp amplifier One configuration for a general purpose amplifier using an operational amplifier is the following. The circuit is characterized by:
More informationName Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA
Name Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA Objectives LAB 7: AC CIRCUITS To understand the behavior of resistors, capacitors, and inductors in AC Circuits To understand the physical basis of frequencydependent
More informationLab 2: AC Measurements Capacitors and Inductors
Lab 2: AC Measurements Capacitors and Inductors Introduction The second most common component after resistors in electronic circuits is the capacitor. It is a twoterminal device that stores an electric
More informationLesson Plan. Inductive Reactance Electronics
Inductive Reactance Electronics Lesson Plan Performance Objective Upon completion of the lesson, students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of inductive reactance through satisfactory completion
More informationChapter 35 Alternating Current Circuits
hapter 35 Alternating urrent ircuits acircuits Phasor Diagrams Resistors, apacitors and nductors in acircuits R acircuits acircuit power. Resonance Transformers ac ircuits Alternating currents and
More information7.1 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS
C H A P T E R 7 AC POWER he aim of this chapter is to introduce the student to simple AC power calculations and to the generation and distribution of electric power. The chapter builds on the material
More informationImpedance Matching. Using transformers Using matching networks
Impedance Matching The plasma industry uses process power over a wide range of frequencies: from DC to several gigahertz. A variety of methods are used to couple the process power into the plasma load,
More informationCIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3. AC Circuit Analysis
CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 AC Circuit Analysis 3.1 Introduction The steadystate behavior of circuits energized by sinusoidal sources is an important area of study for several reasons. First, the
More informationChapter 10. RC Circuits. Objectives
Chapter 10 RC Circuits Objectives Describe the relationship between current and voltage in an RC circuit Determine impedance and phase angle in a series RC circuit Analyze a series RC circuit Determine
More informationGenTech Practice Questions
GenTech Practice Questions Basic Electronics Test: This test will assess your knowledge of and ability to apply the principles of Basic Electronics. This test is comprised of 90 questions in the following
More informationW03 Analysis of DC Circuits. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören
W03 Analysis of DC Circuits Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören ELK 2018  Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits (self and condenser) W04 Transistors and
More informationEE 1202 Experiment #4 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transient Circuits
EE 1202 Experiment #4 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transient Circuits 1. Introduction and Goal: Exploring transient behavior due to inductors and capacitors in DC circuits; gaining experience with lab instruments.
More informationElectrical impedance  Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Electrical impedance From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Electrical impedance, or simply impedance, describes a measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating current (AC). Electrical impedance extends
More information1. Title Electrical fundamentals II (Mechanics Repair and Maintenance)
1. Title Electrical fundamentals II (Mechanics Repair and Maintenance) 2. Code EMAMBG429A 3. Range The knowledge is needed for a wide range of aircraft repair and maintenance works,e.g. applicable to aircrafts,
More informationRESONANCE AND FILTERS
14221 RESONANCE AND FILTERS Experiment 1, Resonant Frequency and Circuit Impedance For more courses visit www.ciewc.edu OBJECTIVES 1. To verify experimentally our theoretical predictions concerning the
More informationEðlisfræði 2, vor 2007
[ Assignment View ] [ Print ] Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 30. Inductance Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, March 14, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the deadline has
More informationTRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947
AET 8 First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 Objective 1a Identify Bipolar Transistor Amplifier Operating Principles Overview (1) Dynamic Operation (2) Configurations (3) Common Emitter
More informationAC 1 Fundamentals. Ê>{X4èRÆ3lË. Student Workbook Edition 4
AC 1 Fundamentals Student Workbook 9156200 Edition 4 Ê>{X4èRÆ3lË 3091562000503 FOURTH EDITION Second Printing, March 2005 Copyright March, 2003 LabVolt Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of
More informationExperiment #9: RC and LR Circuits Time Constants
Experiment #9: RC and LR Circuits Time Constants Purpose: To study the charging and discharging of capacitors in RC circuits and the growth and decay of current in LR circuits. Part 1 Charging RC Circuits
More informationSolution Derivations for Capa #11
Solution Derivations for Capa #11 Caution: The symbol E is used interchangeably for energy and EMF. 1) DATA: V b = 5.0 V, = 155 Ω, L = 8.400 10 2 H. In the diagram above, what is the voltage across the
More informationChapter 21 BandPass Filters and Resonance
Chapter 21 BandPass Filters and Resonance In Chapter 20, we discussed lowpass and highpass filters. The simplest such filters use RC components resistors and capacitors. It is also possible to use resistors
More informationChapter 15 10/14/2014
Chapter 15 Analyze series and parallel ac circuits to find Voltage Current Power Total impedance, admittance Apply known circuit theories Kirchhoff s current, voltage laws Voltage or current divider rule
More informationINTRODUCTION SELF INDUCTANCE. Introduction. Self inductance. Mutual inductance. Transformer. RLC circuits. AC circuits
Chapter 13 INDUCTANCE Introduction Self inductance Mutual inductance Transformer RLC circuits AC circuits Magnetic energy Summary INTRODUCTION Faraday s important contribution was his discovery that achangingmagneticflux
More informationBasic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture  33 3 phase System 4
Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture  33 3 phase System 4 Hello everybody. So, in the last class we have been
More informationFall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10
Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10 HW10: Ch.30 Q5, 8, 15,17, 19 P 1, 3, 9, 18, 34, 36, 42, 51, 66 Chapter 30 Question 5 If you are given a fixed length of wire, how would you shape it to obtain the
More informationReading assignment: All students should read the Appendix about using oscilloscopes.
10. A ircuits* Objective: To learn how to analyze current and voltage relationships in alternating current (a.c.) circuits. You will use the method of phasors, or the vector addition of rotating vectors
More informationHenry Lin, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, California State University, Bakersfield Lecture 3 (Electric Circuits) July 16 th, 2013
Henry Lin, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, California State University, Bakersfield Lecture 3 (Electric Circuits) July 16 th, 2013 1 What is an electrical circuit? An electrical network
More informationImpedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009
Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing  Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines
More informationExperiment V: The AC Circuit, Impedance, and Applications to High and Low Pass Filters
Experiment : The AC Circuit, Impedance, and Applications to High and Low Pass Filters I. eferences Halliday, esnick and Krane, Physics, ol. 2, 4th Ed., Chapters 33 Purcell, Electricity and Magnetism, Chapter
More informationBasics of Electricity
Basics of Electricity Power Flow on AC Transmission Lines PJM State & Member Training Dept. Objectives Describe the basic makeup and theory of an AC transmission line Given the formula for real power
More informationECE201 Laboratory 1 Basic Electrical Equipment and Ohm s and Kirchhoff s Laws (Created by Prof. Walter Green, Edited by Prof. M. J.
ECE201 Laboratory 1 Basic Electrical Equipment and Ohm s and Kirchhoff s Laws (Created by Prof. Walter Green, Edited by Prof. M. J. Roberts) Objectives The objectives of Laboratory 1 are learn to operate
More informationTrigonometry for AC circuits
Trigonometry for AC circuits This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,
More informationTrigonometry for AC circuits
Trigonometry for AC circuits This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,
More informationInduced voltages and Inductance Faraday s Law
Induced voltages and Inductance Faraday s Law concept #1, 4, 5, 8, 13 Problem # 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 24, 23, 25, 31, 32a, 34, 37, 41, 43, 51, 61 Last chapter we saw that a current produces a magnetic
More informationElectrical Resonance
Electrical Resonance (RLC series circuit) APPARATUS 1. RLC Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION
More informationModule 7. Transformer. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 7 Transformer Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Lesson 4 Practical Transformer Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Contents 4 Practical Transformer 4 4. Goals of the lesson. 4 4. Practical transformer. 4 4.. Core
More informationChapter 3. Simulation of NonIdeal Components in LTSpice
Chapter 3 Simulation of NonIdeal Components in LTSpice 27 CHAPTER 3. SIMULATION OF NONIDEAL COMPONENTS IN LTSPICE 3.1 PreLab The answers to the following questions are due at the beginning of the lab.
More information