# Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P

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1 Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P Objects of the experiment g Assembling an operational amplifier from transistors. g Investigating the inverting and non-inverting configuration of the amplifier. Principles Today s electronic applications place great demands on amplifiers. Operational amplifiers are versatile building blocks of modern electronics. Usually they are treated as black boxes, pictured only by their schematic symbol. either as a inverting amplifier Depending on external circuitry, such an OpAmp can be used in a variety of ways, inverting amplifier, non-inverting amplifier, comparator, integrator and so on. In this experiment, the internal operation of such an operational amplifier is investigated by assembling it from discrete elements in a transistor based circuit: or as a non-inverting amplifier Wi 1007 The key components of this circuit are a difference amplifier on the input side and a emitter follower stage on the output side. This operational amplifier is used in the experiment in two different configurations: Both variants are build in this experiment. The gain and the phase relation of the output signals are determined with respect to input signals in inverting and non-inverting operation. The OpAmp building block tries to approximate an ideal amplifier, having infinite gain. The gain of the whole amplifier built is then controlled by the resistors and. For the inverting case the amplification is given by: g = (I) For the non-inverting case the amplification is given by: g = + 1 (II) Printed in the Federal epublic of Germany

2 P LD Physics leaflets To derive the equations just assume the OpAmp block to be ideal, with any finite output voltage the difference voltage between the + and - input is close to zero and there is no current flowing in or out of the inputs. To build an amplifier with a well defined gain, the resistors and are added. is called the feedback resistor, as it brings back the output signal to the input. In the inverting amplifier, the ideal OpAmp will now set it s output voltage in such a way, that there is no current flowing into the inputs, and the - input is close to the + input, set to ground. The following relation is valid: U in U = out or U U out = in 1 2 For the non-inverting amplifier, the - input is not at ground, but following the input voltage, so we get the equations U in ( U out U in ) = or U 1 Inside the OpAmp 2 out = U in + 1 The circuit of the setup is shown in Fig 1, and set the total gain as already discussed. The remainder is the Operational amplifier circuit, trying to have infinite gain. The two transistors T1 and T2 form the heart of the circuit. This transistor configuration is called a difference amplifier. Both transistors are connected with their emitters, as long as both input voltages are the same, there will be an equal amount of current flowing through the collectors. The transistors T3 and T4 together with the diodes act as a constant current source. T3 sinks a bit more current than T4 sources, so T3 sinks the sum of the currents passing through both transistors, T4 sources the current through T1, and T2 takes the remaining current. Any small variation of the input voltage difference will vary the current through T1 s collector. This current difference will be translated to a voltage difference by the resistance connected to the collector. This is the current source T4, having (nearly) infinite resistance, so there is a large voltage amplification. The transistor T5 operates as output amplifier. The potentiometer set point is used to adjust the offset of the circuit. Thus slight differences of the base-emitter voltages of the transistors T1 and T2 can be compensated. The inputs In+ and In- of the operational amplifier are the bases of the transistors T1 and T2. Any voltage difference between them will be amplified. This voltage amplification will be controlled by two resistors and. The amount of the amplification (i.e. gain) is fixed and given by g = /. For example, = 1 and = 100 will give a gain of 100. Since it is hard to adjust the function generator to really low voltage levels a voltage divider is used before the resistor. This 1 /10 divider scales down the signal of the function generator by a factor of 10. This voltage is measured at the first channel of the oscilloscope as input signal. The output signal is measured at the second channel of the oscilloscope. +UB = 15 V 330Ω T4 T1 T µ F 470Ω 10Ω 10Ω T5 0.1µ F 10 GND 220Ω T µ F -UB = -15 V Fig. 1: Schematic representation Printed in the Federal epublic of Germany

3 LD Physics leaflets P Apparatus 2 astered socket panel DIN esistor 10 kohm, 0.5 W esistor 100 kohm, 0.5 W esistor 10 Ohm, 2 W esistor 220 Ohm, 2 W esistor 330 Ohm, 2 W esistor 470 Ohm, 2 W esistor 1 kohm, 2 W esistor 4.7 kohm, 2 W Turn potentiometer 1 kohm Capacitor 0.1 µf, 100 V Capacitor 100 µf, bipolar, 35 V Si Diode 1N Diode ZPD Transistor BC 550, e.b., NPN Transistor BC 550, e.t., NPN Transistor BC 560, e.t., PNP Set of 10 Bridging Plugs Function generator S DC Power supply 0 to ±15 V Two-Channel Oscilloscope Screened cable BNC/4 mm plug Connecting Lead 25 cm Black Connecting Lead 50 cm Black Connecting Lead 100 cm Black Pair cables 50 cm, red/blue Pair cables 100 cm, red/blue Setup The wiring diagram of the operational amplifier for the inverting operation is shown in Fig. 1 schematically. The corresponding experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2. Both types of operational amplifiers can be set up. The changes to be made for the non-inverting case are shown in Fig. 3. Additionally recommended: 1 Analog-Digital-TMS Multimeter C.A Pair cables 50 cm, red/blue Fig. 2: Experimental setup of the operational amplifier for the inverting case (for wiring diagram see Fig. 1). Printed in the Federal epublic of Germany

4 P LD Physics leaflets Fig. 3: Experimental setup of the operational amplifier for the non-inverting case (compare Fig. 2 for the setup of the inverting case). Carrying out the experiment Apply a voltage UB of +-15 V to the circuit as shown in Fig. 2. Set the of the function generator settings as: frequency approx. f ~ 1 khz, wave form: sine signal, amplitude: ~1 V. a) inverting operational amplifier - Adjust the output voltage of the function generator, e.g. 20 mv. - Measure the voltage and for the resistor combination = 1 and = 100 (Fig. 4). - Determine the amplification /. - epeat the measurement for the resistor combinations = 1 and = 10 and = 1 and = 1. b) non-inverting operational amplifier - Change the operational amplifier circuit of the inverting setup to the non-inverting case as shown in Fig Measure the voltage and for the resistor combination = 1 and = 100 (Fig. 5). - Determine the amplification /. - epeat the measurement for the resistor combinations = 1 and = 10 and = 1 and = 1.. Measuring example a) inverting operational amplifier Table 1: Measured input voltage, output voltage and amplification / for different resistor combinations and. mv V b) non-inverting operational amplifier Table 2: Measured input voltage, output voltage and amplification / for different resistor combinations and. mv V Printed in the Federal epublic of Germany

5 LD Physics leaflets P Fig. 4: Input signal (top of oscilloscope screen) and output signal (bottom top of oscilloscope screen) of the operational amplifier (inverting case). a) inverting operational amplifier Table 3: Comparison of the gain according equation (I) and the measured amplification / for various resistor combinations and b) non-inverting operational amplifier Table 4: Comparison of the gain according equation (II) and the measured amplification / for various resistor combinations and Fig. 5: Input signal (top of oscilloscope screen) and output signal (bottom top of oscilloscope screen) of the operational amplifier (non inverting case) Supplementary information The amplification of an operational amplifier depends on the frequency f of the input signal. Fig. 6 shows the frequency dependency of the gain g (i.e. the amplification) as function of the frequency f for various resistor values. From this plot can be seen that the amplification does not show a significant frequency dependence for the frequency range of the function generator and the used resistors. Slowing down the amplifier could be done by adding an additional capacitor of 100 nf from the collector of T1 to ground, to show the gain dependence of the bandwidth, but this is beyond the scope of this leaflet. Evaluation and results Table 3 and table 4 compare the measured voltage amplification with the theoretical values according equation (I) or (II). Depending on the experimental setup of the operational amplifier (i.e. Fig. 2 or Fig. 3) the input signal is amplified according to the used resistor combination. As can be seen from Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 the input signal is either in-phase or inverted with the output signal both for the inverting and the noninverting setup. Fig. 6: Gain g (amplification) as function of the frequency f for various resistors. Printed in the Federal epublic of Germany

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