if-then else : 2-1 mux mux: process (A, B, Select) begin if (select= 1 ) then Z <= A; else Z <= B; end if; end process;

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1 if-then else : 2-1 mux mux: process (A, B, Select) begin if (select= 1 ) then Z <= A; else Z <= B; end if; end process;

2 Conditional signal assignment 2-1 Mux Z <= A when (Select= 1 ) else B; Concurrent statement - I.e. outside process.

3 Case statement: 2-1 Mux mux: process begin case Select is when 0 => Z <= B; when 1 => Z <= A; when others => Z <= - ; -- cover all cases end case; end process;

4 Priority Encoder using if-thenelsif Z <= E; -- default if (SELECT_D = 1 ) then Z <= D; elsif (SELECT_C = 1 ) then Z <= C; elseif (SELECT_B = 1 ) then Z <= B; elseif (SELECT_A = 1 ) then Z <= A; end if;

5 Decoder using case statement case_value := A & B & C; -- concatenate bits CASE case_value IS WHEN 000 => Z <= ; WHEN 001 => Z <= ; WHEN others => Z <= ; END CASE;

6 Case statements Truth table can be directly translated into CASE statement. (I.e. hex to 7-segment) State transition table can also be implemented using CASE statement. Synthesized as combinational logic (unless incompletely specified.)

7 Case vs. If-then-elsif Case statement generates hardware with more parallelism. If-then-elseif has built-in priority; Can require lots of logic for low-priority conditions. If conditions are mutually exclusive, use case statement to simplify logic.

8 Inferred Latch (undesirable!) process (A, Select) begin if (Select= 1 ) then Z <= A; end if; end process;

9 Preventing Latch Inference If-statements and case statements must be completely specified or VHDL compiler infers latches. A default assignment must be made so that an assignment occurs for all conditions. #1 synthesis problem for Xilinx - although simulation will work, the final hardware most likely will NOT work!

10 D-FF Simulation Model process (CLK) begin if CLK= 1 then Q <= D; end if; end process; Incomplete sensitivity list What will be synthesized??

11 D flip-flop DFF : process begin wait until clk event and clk= 1 ; Q <= D; end process;

12 D flip-flop with Asynch Reset process (clk, reset, D) begin if (reset= 1 ) then Q <= 0 ; elsif (clk event and clk= 1 ) then Q <= D; end if; end process;

13 D-FF with async reset and enable process (clk, reset, D, enable) begin if (reset= 1 ) then Q <= 0 ; elseif (clk event and clk= 1 ) then if (enable= 1 ) then Q <= D; end if; end if; end process;

14 D-FF with Synch Reset process begin wait until clk event and clk= 1 ; if (reset= 1 ) then Q <= 0 ; else Q <= D; end if; end process;

15 Synthesis Guidelines Avoid inferring latches. Don t specify time delays. Avoid incomplete sensitivity lists. Don t specify initial values in entity, signal or variable declarations. Use basic constructs and behavioral code. Use std_logic and std_logic_vector types.

16 Synthesis Guidelines (cont.) A process must have a sensitivity list or one or more wait statements. All paths through process code must be balanced. I.e. if one path has a wait statement, all paths must have a wait statement.

17 IEEE-1164 Standard Logic ( U, X, 0, 1, Z, W, L, H, - ) accurately models hardware. std_logic replaces type bit std_logic_vector replace bit_vector Recommended for simulation and synthesis Special operator overloading functions and resolution functions.

18 Using IEEE-1164 Library IEEE; use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all; use IEEE.std_logic_unsigned.all; Library source code available on our system. Can add std_logic vectors, model tri-state buffers, etc.

19 How will this code be synthesized? process begin wait until clk event and clk= 1 ; synch_in <= asynch_in; stage_out <= synch_in; end process;

20 Variables Local to a process. Instantaneously updated - no delta delay. Useful for algorithmic description which needs to generate/use intermediate values. (I.e. inside for loop) Contrast: signals are global to process only Signals are scheduled, not updated instantly.

21 Parity generator using variable process (WORD) -- bit_vector(0 to 4) variable ODD : bit; begin ODD := 0 ; for I in 0 to 4 loop ODD := ODD xor WORD(I); end loop; PARITY <= ODD; end process;

22 Summary Know how to use basic constructs to produce predictable, reliable synthesis results. Know how to avoid inferring latches! Signals are scheduled; Variables update instantly. Model state machines using separate processes for state registers and for next-state combinational logic.

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