# An Integer Square Root Algorithm

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1 An Integer Square Root Algorithm 71 Example 24 An Integer Square Root Algorithm The C algorithm shown in Fig. 2.8 performs an integer square root of the input a as shown in Table 2.1. Note from Table 2.1 that the difference between successive squares, delta, is just the sequence of odd numbers. Also note that the while loop is executed as long as square is less than or equal to a. Thus, the value of the square root, delta/2 1, occurs in the row following the square value in Table 2.1. unsigned long sqrt(unsigned long a){ unsigned long square = 1; unsigned long delta = 3; while(square <= a){ square = square + delta; delta = delta + 2; } return (delta/2-1 } Figure 2.8 Integer square root algorithm Table 2.1 Illustrating the algorithm in Fig. 2.8 n square = n^2 delta delta/

2 72 Example 24 Our goal is to implement this algorithm in hardware using the same method that we used in Example 23. The datapath for this square root algorithm is shown in Fig We will limit the input value a[7:0] to eight bits so we can connect them to the eight switches sw[7:0]. Thus, the register areg will be an 8-bit register. From Table 2.1 the maximum value of delta will be 33. This suggests that the size of the delta register should be 6 bits. However, when we are done the final value of delta is divided by 2 and then 1 is subtracted from this result. If the value is 33 but we only use a 5-bit register for delta then the value in delta will be 1. When we divide this by 2 we will get 0, and when we subtract 1 from 0 we get 11111, the lower four bits of which are equal to 15 the correct result. Thus, we can get by with a 5-bit register for delta. However, from Table 2.1 the maximum value of square in the algorithm will be 256, and therefore the square register must be 9 bits wide. The maximum square root value will be 15 and thus the output will be stored in a 4-bit register. In addition to the four registers areg, sqreg, delreg, and outreg, this datapath contains four combinational modules. The output, lteflg, of the <= module will be 1 if square (the output of sqreg) is less than or equal to a (the output of areg). sw[7:0] s[8:0] 5 9 clr reset ald sqld dld clk clk areg sqreg delreg lteflg square[7:0] outld outreg 4 root[3:0] del2[4:0] reset clk 8 sq[8:0] 9 5 del[4:0] adder8 plus2 a[7:0] square[7:0] 4 del[4:1] <= minus1 outin[3:0] 4 clr clk Figure 2.9 Datapath for square root algorithm The Verilog program in Listing 2.5 implements the complete datapath shown in Fig The four registers have different bus widths and are initialized to different values. The generic register described in the Verilog file regr2.v shown in Listing 2.6 is used to instantiate all four registers in Listing 2.5. The two parameters BIT0 and BIT1 are used to set the lower two bits of the generic register on reset. Note in Listing 2.5 that the value of sqreg is initialized to 1 and the value of delreg is initialized to 3. In Listing 2.5 the combinational modules adder8, plus2, and minus1 are implemented with assign statements, and the module lte is implemented by a separate always block. The output signal lteflg in Fig. 2.9 is sent to the control unit. The control unit will then provide the datapath with the load signals for all of the registers. The design of the control unit will be described next.

3 An Integer Square Root Algorithm 73 Listing 2.5 SQRTpath.v // Example 24a: Square root datapath module SQRTpath ( input wire clk, input wire reset, input wire ald, input wire sqld, input wire dld, input wire outld, input wire [7:0] sw, output reg lteflg, output wire [3:0] root wire [7:0] a; wire [8:0] sq, s; wire [4:0] del, dp2; wire [3:0] dm1; assign s = sq + {4'b0000, del}; assign dp2 = del + 2; assign dm1 = del[4:1] - 1; // adder8 // plus2 // minus1 regr2 #(.N(8),.BIT0(0),.BIT1(0)) areg (.load(ald),.clk(clk),.reset(reset),.d(sw),.q(a) regr2 #(.N(9),.BIT0(1),.BIT1(0)) sqreg (.load(sqld),.clk(clk),.reset(reset),.d(s),.q(sq) if(sq <= {1'b0,a}) lteflg <= 1; else lteflg <= 0;

4 74 Example 24 Listing 2.5 (cont.) SQRTpath.v regr2 #(.N(5),.BIT0(1),.BIT1(1)) delreg (.load(dld),.clk(clk),.reset(reset),.d(dp2),.q(del) regr2 #(.N(4),.BIT0(0),.BIT1(0)) outreg (.load(outld),.clk(clk),.reset(reset),.d(dm1),.q(root) module Listing 2.6 regr2.v // Example 24b: N-bit register with reset and load // Resets to initial value of lowest 2 bits module regr2 #(parameter N = 4, parameter BIT0 = 1, parameter BIT1 = 1) (input wire load, input wire clk, input wire reset, input wire [N-1:0] d, output reg [N-1:0] q clk or posedge reset) if(reset == 1) q[n-1:2] <= 0; q[0] <= BIT0; q[1] <= BIT1; else if(load == 1) q <= d; module

5 An Integer Square Root Algorithm 75 Square Root Control Unit Listing 2.5 describes the datapath shown in Fig In this section we will design the control unit that will control this datapath as shown in Fig Note in this figure that the datapath ss the signal lteflg to the control unit, and the control unit ss the register load signals ald, sqld, dld, and outld to the datapath. The control unit will be a state machine that defines the timing sequence of the algorithm. For this square root algorithm there are four states: start, test, update, and done as shown in Fig The program s in the start state, and stays in this state until the go signal goes high. It then goes to the test state, which will test to see if square <= a is true or false. If it is true, then the program goes to the update state, which will update the values of square and delta in the while loop of Fig Otherwise, the program goes to the done state, which computes the return value and stays in this done state. Listing 2.7 is a Verilog program for the control unit in Fig. 2.10, which implements the state diagram shown in Fig clr clk clr clk lteflg go Control Unit ald sqld Datapath sw[7:0] root[3:0] dld outld Figure 2.10 Top-level logic diagram for square root algorithm ~go start go ~lteflg test square += delta delta += 2 done lteflg update delta/2-1 Figure 2.11 State diagram for square root algorithm

6 76 Example 24 Note that we have implemented the state machine in Listing 2.7 as a Moore machine of the type shown in Fig with three always blocks: the sequential state register block and the two combinational blocks C1 and C2. Note how the C1 block finds the next state by directly implementing the state diagram in Fig with a case statement. The output block C2 also uses a case statement to set the register load signals to the proper values for each state. Verify that these load signals are appropriate for implementing the square root algorithm. Listing 2.7 SQRTctrl.v // Example 24c: Square root control module SQRTctrl ( input wire clk, input wire clr, input wire lteflg, input wire go, output reg ald, output reg sqld, output reg dld, output reg outld reg[1:0] present_state, next_state; parameter start = 2'b00, test =2'b01, update = 2'b10, done = 2'b11; // states // State registers clk or posedge clr) if (clr == 1) present_state <= start; else present_state <= next_state; // C1 module case(present_state) start: if(go == 1) next_state = test; else next_state = start; test: if(lteflg == 1) next_state = update; else next_state = done; update: next_state = test; done: next_state = done; default next_state = start; case

7 An Integer Square Root Algorithm 77 Listing 2.7 (cont.) SQRTctrl.v // C2 module ald = 0; sqld = 0; dld = 0; outld = 0; case(present_state) start: ald = 1; test: ; update: sqld = 1; dld = 1; done: outld = 1; default ; case module The top-level design shown in Fig can be implemented in Verilog by simply instantiating the datapath and control unit as shown in Listing 2.8. Note that we have included an output signal done that goes high when the done state is entered. A simulation of this program that computes the square root of 64 is shown in Fig Figure 2.12 Simulation of the square root program in Listing 2.8

8 78 Example 24 Listing 2.8 SQRT.v // Example 24d: Integer Square Root module sqrt ( input wire clk, input wire clr, input wire go, input wire [7:0] sw, output wire done, output wire [3:0] root wire lteflg, ald, sqld, dld, outld; assign done = outld; SQRTctrl sqrt1 (.clk(clk),.clr(clr),.lteflg(lteflg),.go(go),.ald(ald),.sqld(sqld),.dld(dld),.outld(outld) SQRTpath sqrt2 (.clk(clk),.reset(clr),.ald(ald),.sqld(sqld),.dld(dld),.outld(outld),.sw(sw),.lteflg(lteflg),.root(root) module To test the square root algorithm on the Nexys-2 board we will use the top-level design shown in Fig When btn[3] is pressed to reset the circuit the decimal value of the eight switch settings is displayed on the 7-segment display. We use the 8-bit binary-to-bcd program in Listing 1.14 of Example 12 to do this conversion. When btn[0] is pressed the sqrt component computes the square root of the switch settings, and when the calculation is complete the done signal switches the multiplexer so that the decimal value of the square root is displayed on the 7-segment display. Try it.

9 An Integer Square Root Algorithm 79 mclk 50 MHz btn[0] btn[3] clk25 clkdiv clr btn[3] sw[7:0] go clr clk sqrt root[3:0] done r[7:0] 1 b[7:0] mux2g 0 clk190 binbcd8 btn[3] cclk clr 0 & p[9:0] x[15:0] x7segb a_to_g[6:0] an[3:0] ld[7:0] Figure 2.13 Top-level design for testing square root algorithm Listing 2.9 sqrt_top.v // Example 24e: sqrt_top module sqrt_top ( input wire mclk, input wire [3:0] btn, input wire [7:0] sw, output wire [7:0] ld, output wire dp, output wire [6:0] a_to_g, output wire [3:0] an wire clk25, clk190, clr, done; wire [15:0] x; wire [9:0] p; wire [3:0] root; wire [7:0] b, r; assign clr = btn[3]; assign r = {4'b0000,root}; assign x = {6'b000000,p}; assign ld = sw; clkdiv U1 (.mclk(mclk),.clr(clr),.clk190(clk190),.clk25(clk25) sqrt U2 (.clk(clk25),.clr(clr),.go(btn[0]),.sw(sw),.done(done),.root(root)

10 80 Example 24 Listing 2.9 (cont.) sqrt_top.v mux2g #(.N(8)) U3 (.a(sw),.b(r),.s(done),.y(b) binbcd8 U4 (.b(b),.p(p) x7segb U5 (.x(x),.cclk(clk190),.clr(clr),.a_to_g(a_to_g),.an(an),.dp(dp) module

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CHAPTER 3 Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic 3.1 Introduction 121 3.2 Boolean Algebra 122 3.2.1 Boolean Expressions 123 3.2.2 Boolean Identities 124 3.2.3 Simplification of Boolean Expressions 126 3.2.4

### 1. True or False? A voltage level in the range 0 to 2 volts is interpreted as a binary 1.

File: chap04, Chapter 04 1. True or False? A voltage level in the range 0 to 2 volts is interpreted as a binary 1. 2. True or False? A gate is a device that accepts a single input signal and produces one

### A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters Topics Clocks & Oscillators LM 555 Timer IC Crystal Oscillators Selection of Variable Resistors Schmitt Gates Power-On Reset Circuits One Shots Counters

### Chapter 13: Verification

Chapter 13: Verification Prof. Ming-Bo Lin Department of Electronic Engineering National Taiwan University of Science and Technology Digital System Designs and Practices Using Verilog HDL and FPGAs @ 2008-2010,

### A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters Topics Clocks & Oscillators LM 555 Timer IC Crystal Oscillators Selection of Variable Resistors Schmitt Gates Power-On Reset Circuits One Shots Counters

### Programming Logic controllers

Programming Logic controllers Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a microprocessor based system that uses programmable memory to store instructions and implement functions such as logic, sequencing,

### DIGITAL COUNTERS. Q B Q A = 00 initially. Q B Q A = 01 after the first clock pulse.

DIGITAL COUNTERS http://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_logical_organization/digital_counters.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Counter is a sequential circuit. A digital circuit which is used for a counting

### Wiki Lab Book. This week is practice for wiki usage during the project.

Wiki Lab Book Use a wiki as a lab book. Wikis are excellent tools for collaborative work (i.e. where you need to efficiently share lots of information and files with multiple people). This week is practice

### VHDL Test Bench Tutorial

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE171 - Digital Design Laboratory VHDL Test Bench Tutorial Purpose The goal of this tutorial is to demonstrate how to automate

### Chapter 4 Register Transfer and Microoperations. Section 4.1 Register Transfer Language

Chapter 4 Register Transfer and Microoperations Section 4.1 Register Transfer Language Digital systems are composed of modules that are constructed from digital components, such as registers, decoders,

### Basic Pulse Width Modulation

EAS 199 Fall 211 Basic Pulse Width Modulation Gerald Recktenwald v: September 16, 211 gerry@me.pdx.edu 1 Basic PWM Properties Pulse Width Modulation or PWM is a technique for supplying electrical power

### Cascaded Counters. Page 1 BYU

Cascaded Counters Page 1 Mod-N Counters Generally we are interested in counters that count up to specific count values Not just powers of 2 A mod-n counter has N states Counts from 0 to N-1 then rolls

### The components. E3: Digital electronics. Goals:

E3: Digital electronics Goals: Basic understanding of logic circuits. Become familiar with the most common digital components and their use. Equipment: 1 st. LED bridge 1 st. 7-segment display. 2 st. IC

### PLL frequency synthesizer

ANALOG & TELECOMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS LABORATORY EXERCISE 4 Lab 4: PLL frequency synthesizer 1.1 Goal The goals of this lab exercise are: - Verify the behavior of a and of a complete PLL - Find capture

### Sequential Logic Design Principles.Latches and Flip-Flops

Sequential Logic Design Principles.Latches and Flip-Flops Doru Todinca Department of Computers Politehnica University of Timisoara Outline Introduction Bistable Elements Latches and Flip-Flops S-R Latch

### 9 Control Statements. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Objectives. 9.3 Statements

9 Control Statements 9.1 Introduction The normal flow of execution in a high level language is sequential, i.e., each statement is executed in the order of its appearance in the program. However, depending

### MICROPROCESSOR. Exclusive for IACE Students www.iace.co.in iacehyd.blogspot.in Ph: 9700077455/422 Page 1

MICROPROCESSOR A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer s central processing unit (CPU) on a single Integrated (IC), or at most a few integrated circuit. It is a multipurpose, programmable

### VHDL GUIDELINES FOR SYNTHESIS

VHDL GUIDELINES FOR SYNTHESIS Claudio Talarico For internal use only 1/19 BASICS VHDL VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language that allows

### Using the HT46R46 I/O Ports to Implement Half-Duplex SPI Communication

Using the HT46R46 I/O Ports to Implement Half-Duplex SPI Communication D/N: HA0150E Introduction This application explains how to use two I/O lines on the HT46R46 to implement half-duplex SPI communication.

### A Practical Parallel CRC Generation Method

F EATURE ARTICLE by Evgeni Stavinov A Practical Parallel CRC Generation Method Do you understand the mechanics of the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) well enough to build a customized parallel CRC circuit

### EC313 - VHDL State Machine Example

EC313 - VHDL State Machine Example One of the best ways to learn how to code is seeing a working example. Below is an example of a Roulette Table Wheel. Essentially Roulette is a game that selects a random

### Digital Design. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Berna Örs Yalçın

Digital Design Assoc. Prof. Dr. Berna Örs Yalçın Istanbul Technical University Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Office Number: 2318 E-mail: siddika.ors@itu.edu.tr Grading 1st Midterm -