1 Technical Note TN-29-06: NAND Flash Controller on Spartan-3 Overview Micron NAND Flash Controller via Xilinx Spartan -3 FPGA Overview As mobile product capabilities continue to expand, so does the demand for high-density static memory storage. NAND Flash memory is moving to the forefront, evolving rapidly to meet this ever-growing demand. Micron offers designers a complete solution that includes industry-standard NAND features, Micron enhancements, plus software and support options. NAND Flash architecture differs from that of traditional memory sources, so accessing a NAND Flash device from a host presents challenges for systems designers. The most direct approach for a host interface is using a NAND Flash controller. The NAND Flash controller can be an internal device, built into the application processor or host, or designs can incorporate an external, stand-alone chip. This technical note describes the Micron NAND Flash controller, techniques for interfacing the NAND Flash device with a processor (using Xilinx Spartan -3 as an example), and use of the Micron glueless interface to interface a processor with NAND Flash memory. Figure 1: Spartan-3 Board tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Products and specifications discussed herein are for evaluation and reference purposes only and are subject to change by Micron without notice. Products are only warranted by Micron to meet Micron s production data sheet specifications. All information discussed herein is provided on an as is basis, without warranties of any kind.
2 Overview Interface Options ECC Requirement In situations where the processor lacks a native NAND Flash controller, it is possible to design a simple memory-mapped interface providing a hardware interface to the NAND Flash device. This gives NAND Flash the appearance of an SRAM when interfaced to a processor, microcontroller, or any other host device. To protect against bit errors, error correction code (ECC) is an essential part of the NAND Flash interface. The Micron ECC module technical note (TN-29-05) provides a thorough review of error correction for NAND Flash. The Micron NAND Flash controller is designed to work in series, with the optional Micron NAND Flash ECC module placed between the NAND Flash controller and the NAND Flash device. Throughout this document, the presence of an ECC module is assumed. Development and Testing The Micron NAND Flash controller was developed and tested using the Xilinx Spartan-3 board and can be ported to other platforms of the user s choosing. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
3 NAND Flash Controller Design and Implementation NAND Flash Controller Design and Implementation The Micron NAND Flash controller is designed and implemented using the following hardware and software: Xilinx Spartan -3 board Memec Insight Prototype P160 board with 48-pin TSOP socket Xilinx ISE 6.2i Xilinx Platform Studio Xilinx Impact Xilinx XMD ModelSim Micron 2Gb NAND Flash device (also functional for 4Gb and 8Gb x8/x16 devices) Micron NAND Flash Controller Features Organization: 2 buffers 2,112 bytes each Standard memory-mapped interface NAND Flash interface 16 command registers Performance: Double buffering enables host to read and write concurrently Synchronous READs at 100 MHz Asynchronous READs with 10ns delay Synchronous WRITEs at 100 MHz Maximum rated clock speed of 100 MHz Standard NAND Command Support: Memory-mapped I/O input registers Status and ID registers Host interrupts on completion Error Correction: ECC module (optional) Controller that reads errors and corrects them Status register that is also used for ECC status errint line used to handle errors tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
4 Micron NAND Flash Controller Features Figure 2: NAND Flash Controller Functional Block Diagram Host Micron NAND Controller NAND Device ADDRESS[11:0] CE# Data[15:0] CE# WE# OE# CLK RESET# INT R/B# Standard SRAM Interface Buffer A 2,112 bytes Registers Control Logic Buffer B 2,112 bytes NAND ECC Interface (with or without ECC) CLE ALE# WE# RE# WP# PRE Data [15:0] R/B# errint Note: This diagram assumes the presence of an ECC module. Architectural Description Memory-Mapped Interface The Micron NAND Flash controller comprises a control logic module with two data buffers. The control logic module contains two control logics: Timing control logic Control signals control logic The architecture is structured so that the timing control logic uses two 5-bit registers to toggle the signals to the NAND Flash device. These two 5-bit registers are each mapped to CE#, CLE, ALE, WE#, and RE#. These registers are set by the main control logic that controls the timing control logic. The Micron NAND Flash controller implements a memory-mapped interface. This interface is implemented with internal registers for the various pieces of data. When the host writes to the internal register addresses, the VHDL code writes to the specific registers. Some registers have only some bits used. The unused bits on these registers are not implemented in hardware. For example, there are only 4 bits implemented for the part type and ECC register 0xFF7. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 Timing Control Logic TN-29-06: NAND Flash Controller on Spartan-3 Micron NAND Flash Controller Features The control logic is divided structurally into two VHDL processes (see Figure 4 on page 10 and Figure 5 on page 11). The timing control logic generates a 60ns clock with a percent duty cycle (for example, 40ns LOW and 20ns HIGH). This duty cycle is generated using a delay counter that counts from 0 to 5. The delay counter keeps the signal LOW when the counter is 0, 1, 2, or 3 and HIGH when it is 4 or 5. Thus, it keeps the first output vector for 40ns and the second for 20ns. Table 1: Pin Descriptions Signals Type Description ADDR [11:0] Input Address input to the Flash controller. The Flash controller uses memory-mapped I/O. Mapping for addresses 0x0 to 0x7FF is used to address the block RAM 2K buffers in the controller. Addresses 0xFF0 to 0xFFF are mapped to registers. See Table 2 on page 6 for register mapping descriptions. CLK Input Clock input to the control logic and buffers. CE# Input (Active Low) Chip enable. When this signal is active, the NAND Flash controller accepts input; otherwise, all inputs are ignored. OE# RESET# WE# Input (Active Low) Input (Active Low) Input (Active Low) Output enable. When OE# is LOW, data is read from NAND Flash controller on DATA [7:0] bus. Resets the controller control logic. Write enable writes data in the current buffer to the NAND Flash. DATA[7:0] Bidirectional Data input/output data bus for the Micron NAND Flash controller. These lines are only driven when OE# is LOW. The rest of the time, the controller outputs HIGH impedance on these lines. INT Output Interrupt to host. R/B# Output Ready/busy status of the NAND Flash device to the host. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
6 Micron NAND Flash Controller Features Table 2: Register Description Register Address READ/WRITE Name Register Function 0xFF0 Read ID register 0 The registers the host should read following a READ ID operation. 0xFF1 Read ID register 1 0xFF2 Read ID register 2 0xFF3 Read ID register 3 0xFF4 R/W Block address [7:0] Used to address the blocks and pages of the NAND Flash. This is the row 0xFF5 R/W Block address [15:8] 0xFF6 R/W Block address [24:16] 0xFF7 Read Part type and ECC Bit  0 = x8 device 1 = x16 device address described in the Micron NAND Flash data sheet. This Micron NAND Flash controller supports all NAND Flash devices. During ERASE operations, the page address is ignored and the block address is used to erase the specified block. Bit [2:1] 00 = 2Gb 01 = 4Gb 10 = 8Gb Bit  0 = No ECC 1 = ECC module connected 0xFF8 R/W Buffer number Bit  0 = Host controls Buffer 1 1 = Host controls Buffer 2 0xFF9 Read Status register Used for reading the status from the NAND Flash. The format of the status read is the same as with the NAND Flash, with the exception of bits 2, 3, and 4. These bits are used for ECC information Status 000 = No errors 001 = First 512-byte section of 2K page erroneous 010 = Second 512-byte section of 2K page erroneous 011 = Third 512-byte section of 2K page erroneous 100 = Fourth 512-byte section or 2K page erroneous 0xFFA Write Command register Bit  Determines whether the target buffer is specified in the READ command bit . If this bit is 0, the host does nothing with regard to the target and source buffers. Bit  Target buffer; READ operation data is written into this buffer; this buffer is the data source for WRITE operation data to be written to the Flash. Bit [7:4] Holds the command the controller is to execute. Executing a command clears this register. 0h = PAGE READ 6h =BLOCK ERASE 7h = READ STATUS 8h = PROGRAM PAGE 9h = READ ID Fh = RESET (NAND Flash) tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
7 READ Operations READ Operations PAGE READ Operation To execute a PAGE READ command, the host writes the block and page address to registers 0xFF4, 0xFF5, and 0xFF6. The part descriptions for these registers are provided in Table 3. After loading the address, the host must write 0x00 to register 0xFFA to execute the READ command. This causes the control logic to read the page specified by the address in the registers and to put it in the buffer. The control logic initiates an interrupt and switches buffer control to the other buffer. Table 3: Part Addressing Part Number Register Address Register Function MT29F2G08A (x8) 0xFF4 Row address [19:12] 0xFF5 Row address [27:20] 0xFF6 Bit  Bit [7:1] Row address  MT29F2G16A (x16) 0xFF4 Row address [18:11] 0xFF5 Row address [26:19] 0xFF6 Bit 0 Bit [7:1] Row address  MT29F2G08A (x8) 0xFF4 Row address [19:12] 0xFF5 Row address [27:20] 0xFF6 Bit 0: Bit [7:2] Row address [29:28] MT29F2G16A (x16) 0xFF4 Row address [18:11] 0xFF5 Row address [26:19] 0xFF6 Bit 0 Bit [7:2] Row address [28:27] STATUS READ Operation A STATUS READ operation is similar to a READ ID operation. To initiate a STATUS READ, 70h must be written to register 0xFFA (the command register). After the interrupt, the status can be read from register 0xFF9. The status register format is described in Table 2 on page 6. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
8 TN-29-06: NAND Flash Controller on Spartan-3 Controller Timing Micron recommends a 100 MHz clock period for the controller, or a clock cycle time of 10ns. This enables adjustment of the NAND Flash interface to the required timing. The fastest the controller can toggle the NAND Flash is a 20 MHz clock period and a 50ns clock cycle time. Data is assured to be valid 35ns after the falling edge of RE#. Data is also assured to be valid at least 10ns after the rising edge of RE#. Thus, if the clock is 50 Mhz with a 40 percent duty cycle, the result is a 30ns LOW strobe. The data would need to be sampled at 35ns from the falling edge of RE#, which is not recommended, as the data may become valid, failing to allow adequate register or latch setup time. To provide a margin of error, a 60ns clock cycle with a percent duty cycle is specified. Output Safety Margin The controller generates a 60ns clock with a percent duty cycle to toggle the RE# line of the NAND Flash. This is to ensure that data is valid when RE# is on the rising edge. The RE# strobe is LOW for 40ns and, according to the NAND Flash specification data, can take 35ns at most to be valid after the falling edge of RE#. This provides the data with a fault tolerance margin of 5ns. Figure 3: 5ns Safety Margin 40ns RE# Data[7:0] 5ns 60ns Reading Data from NAND Controller Buffers Buffer Management When the controller has retrieved the data from the NAND Flash, it can be read from the controller at a 100 MHz clock rate. The controller stores the data in a buffer and gives the user access to the buffer. This buffer can be clocked at speeds faster than 100 MHz, but because the NAND Flash signal timing has been set for a 100 MHz clock, using a 100 MHz clock is recommended. The Micron NAND Flash controller includes two buffers so the host does not have to wait for the controller to finish an operation to use a buffer. While the controller uses one buffer, the host has control of the other buffer. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
9 Double Address Buffering Double Data Buffering When the host issues a WRITE command, the buffer that the host controls is taken over by the controller, and the host then takes control of the other buffer. At this point, the controller reads from the host-controlled buffer and writes to NAND Flash memory; at the same time, the user can employ the other buffer. When the host issues a READ command, the controller reads the data into the buffer the user is not accessing. At the end of the READ operation, the controller automatically switches host control to the buffer containing the data read from NAND Flash. This switch is implemented so that the user can choose to not engage the double buffering feature. However, if the host contains some valuable data in the other buffer, it is preserved; the user can continue to use that buffer by changing buffer control to the desired buffer. Changing buffer control is carried out by reading and writing to the register at address 0xFF8. In addition to its two controller buffers, the Micron NAND Flash controller also has two address buffers. For example, the registers at addresses 0xFF4, 0xFF5, and 0xFF6 are double buffered. Unlike the data buffers, the user cannot manually change control of the address buffers. However, the host can check which address buffer it controls by reading bit 1 from the register at address 0xFF8. The Micron NAND Flash controller makes it possible for the host to work with one data buffer while the controller uses the other data buffer. This is done with the address buffers, as if the control logic is using the address buffers. The host should not write to the same address buffer the controller is using. Therefore, every time the host issues a command that requires the address buffer, the controller switches user control to the other address buffer, preventing the user from interfering with the buffer used for the NAND bus addressing. After the host issues a READ or a WRITE command, the controller takes control of the buffer that the host was controlling when the command was issued. At this point, the host gets new flushed buffers for the address. This enables the user to enter a new address while the controller is reading the address from another set of address buffers. The Micron NAND Flash controller has two 2,112-byte data buffers. These buffers are implemented so that a user always has a buffer to read from and write to. As shown in the block diagram in Figure 2 on page 4, the two buffers are referred to as buffer A and buffer B. During a READ operation, if the user controls buffer A before the READ operation, when the controller is finished, it will automatically switch user control to buffer B. If the user has valid data in buffer A, it will be preserved. The user can manually switch control back to the other buffer by writing to register 0xFF8. During a WRITE operation, if the user controls buffer A before the WRITE operation, the controller assumes that the buffer that needed to be written to NAND Flash is buffer A. The controller takes control of buffer A as soon as the PROGRAM operation is issued and automatically gives the user control of buffer B. The host can also specify the buffer in which a READ or a WRITE will execute. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
10 Input Interface The Micron NAND Flash controller input interface is managed with three control lines: CE#, OE#, and WE#. These are all active LOW signals. Descriptions of the command signals are provided in Table 4. Table 4: Control Lines Description CE# OE# WE# Command Invalid command READ from the buffer that the host controls WRITE to the buffer that the host controls No operation Host data bus is released by the controller No operation No operation No operation. Main Control Logic The main control logic monitors the address to which the controller is writing. When the address becomes 0xFFA, the control logic reads the data bus to check the command. Based on the command, it moves to the specified state sequence (see Figure 5 on page 11). Figure 4: Address Control Logic States togglewait toggledone enabletoggle = 0 enabletoggle = 0 internalcnt > CNTupto and delaycnt > 101 delaycnt > "011" toggle 0 toggle1 delaycnt > "011" and internalcnt > CNTupto Starting state Repetitive states tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
11 The address toggle control logic starts in the toggle WAIT state. When the ENABLE TOG- GLE signal is issued, it toggles the CNTupto lines. The CNTupto register is set by the main control logic so that the toggle control logic knows the number of times it must toggle the signals. Figure 5: State Sequences RESET NAND States READ ID States STATUS READ States ERASE BLOCK States Start FETCH ERROR States PROGRAM PAGE States READ PAGE States The enabletog0 State Each state sequence has nearly the same functionality, and the following functions in common: Sets the outputvec1 and outputvec2 registers. The toggle control logic uses these registers to drive the NAND bus. Sets the cntupto register. This indicates the number of times the toggle control logic must repeat the set of outputvec1 and outputvec2. The control logic goes into the enabletog0 state to disable the toggle control logic and sends it back into the toggle wait state. This common state is used by a number of states in all the command sequences. Its next state is determined by another register, which holds the VHDL-enumerated vector called NEXTtonextST. The value of this register is loaded to the state vector, and the calling state sets it. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
12 R/B# Wait States The R/B# wait states are as follows: STwaitforRB0: This state waits for the R/B# signal to go LOW. STwaitforRB1: This state waits for the R/B# signal to go HIGH. Each of these states uses the NEXTtonextST register to determine the next state. ECC Enable/Disable Mechanism The Micron NAND Flash controller can be connected in series with the Micron ECC module. The Micron ECC module can be enabled or disabled by a signal from the Micron NAND Flash controller. The ECC module can be enabled or disabled by writing to address 0xFF7 the part type and ECC register. If the module is enabled, the controller writes only 2,100 bytes, leaving the last 12 bytes for the ECC module to write; otherwise, the controller writes 2,112 bytes. The enable and disable mechanism ties the ECCpresent 1-bit register to the enable line of the ECC module. There is also a combination signal, based on the ECCpresent register, which is used to select between the values 2,100 (834h) and 2,112 (840h). If the ECCpresent register is 1, it selects 834h; otherwise, it selects 840h. Read Page States The read page state sequence is more complicated than the rest because it has the error correction routines built into it. The read page sequence can be bypassed by disabling the ECC, but the states still remain there, as the ECC disable function is implemented as a software switch. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
13 Figure 6: Read Page States STreadpage STreadpageCORREDTaddr STreadpageADDlatch00 STreadpageADDlatch3cycles enabletogo FetchErrorStates STreadpageCORRECT STreadpageCMDfinal30h STwaitforRB0 STreadpageSWAPbuf STwaitforRB1 STreadpageREADS STreadpageCORwaitforRB Note: This diagram assumes the presence of an ECC module. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
14 Table 5: READ PAGE States Definitions State Definition STreadpage Beginning of the page read process. STreadpageADDlatch00 Waits for the first command 00h, which starts the NAND Flash PAGE READ operation. STreadpageADDlatch3cycles Waits for the 3 address cycles that indicate the page and block to be read. Since the Micron NAND controller can read only whole pages, it does not require all 5 address cycles. STreadpageCMDfinal30h Accepts the final command of the PAGE READ operation, 30h. STwaitforRB0 Waits for R/B# to go LOW, indicating that the control logic is loading the page from the memory array to the cache register. STwaitforRB1 Checks for R/B# to go HIGH, indicating that the control logic is finished loading the page from the memory array. STreadpagesREADS Reads the page data. STreadpageCORwaitforRB Waits for completion of the comparison between what was read and what ECC indicates should be present (assuming an ECC module is in place). STreadpagesSWAPbuf Swaps address buffers so new address can be entered by user. STreadpageCORRECT Checks for errors during the read (assuming an ECC module is in place). No error: Exits READ PAGE STATE. Error: Goes to the FETCH ERROR STATES command. STreadpageCORRECTaddr Provides the error location (assuming an ECC module is in place) and the correct data for error correction. Figure 7: Fetch Error States STfetchERRORs STfetchERRORseightReads enabletogo Note: This diagram assumes the presence of an ECC module. Table 6: FETCH ERROR States Definitions State STfetchERRORs STfetchERRORseightReads Definition Writes a 23h command on the NAND I/O bus. Performs 8 READs to collect error information for the page. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
15 Program Page States TN-29-06: NAND Flash Controller on Spartan-3 The program page states go through the standard NAND Flash programming sequence. For R/B# states, the WAIT occurs after the 10h command is issued. The R/B# states follow the 10h command so the controller can ensure that it issues the next command sequence before the NAND Flash is finished writing the current sequence. Figure 8: PROGRAM PAGE States STprotgrampageCHbuf STprogrampage STprogrampageADDlatch00 STprogrampageADDlatch3cycles enabletogo STprogrampageWRITES STprogrampageCMDfinal10h STwaitforRB0 STwaitforRB1 STprogrampageSWstatusRB tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
16 Table 7: PROGRAM PAGE States Definitions State STprogrampageCHbuf STprogrampage StprogrampageADDlatch00 STprogrampageADDlatch3cycles STprogrampageWRITES STprogrampageCMDfinal10h STwaitforRB0 STwairforRB1 STprogrampageSWstatusRB Definition Programs the page data buffer. Controller takes control of data buffer to move data to NAND Flash cache register. Waits for the 00h command to be issued to start a PROGRAM PAGE operation. Waits for the 3 address cycles that indicate the page and block to be programmed. Since the Micron NAND controller can read only whole pages, it does not require all 5 address cycles. Takes data in the I/O bus and programs it to the bytes of the cache register. Waits for the 10h command to be issued to initiate main array programming. Waits for R/B# to go LOW, indicating that main array programming is under way. Waits for R/B# to go HIGH, indicating that programming is complete. Checks the status of the last program to see if it was successful. Figure 9: Erase Block States STeraseblock STeraseblockADDcycles STeraseblockCMDd0 enabletogo STwaitforRB0 STwaitforRB1 Table 8: ERASE BLOCK States Definitions State STeraseblock STeraseblockADDcycles STeraseblockCMDd0 STwaitforRB0 STwaitforRB1 Definition First command (60h); starts the two-step BLOCK ERASE operation in the NAND device. Waits for 3 address cycles to determine which block to erase. Second command (D0h); begins the actual BLOCK ERASE operation. Waits for R/B# line to go LOW, indicating the BLOCK ERASE operation is under way. Waits for R/B# to go HIGH, indicating the BLOCK ERASE operation is complete. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
17 Figure 10: RESET NAND States STresetNAND STwaitforRB0 STwaitforRB1 Table 9: State STresetNAND STwaitforRB0 STwairforRB1 RESET NAND States Definitions Definition Waits for the FFh command to initiate a RESET operation. Waits for R/B# to go LOW, indicating the RESET operation is under way. Waits for R/B# line to go HIGH, indicating the RESET operation is complete. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
18 Figure 11: READ ID States STreadID STreadIDadd00 enabletogo STreadIDfourReads Table 10: READ ID States Definitions State STreadID STreadIDadd00 STreadIDfourReads Definition Starts the READ ID sequence when the 90h command is issued. Waits for the 00h address on the I/O bus, which is part of the READ ID command sequence. Reads out the 4 bytes of data containing device identification information. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
19 Figure 12: Status Read State STreadstatusCMD STreadstatusRead enabletogo Table 11: Status Read State Definitions State STreadstatusCMD STreadstatusRead Definition Waits for the 70h READ STATUS command. Outputs the value of the status register in the NAND Flash device. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
20 Limitations ************* Limitations ************* Paging and Partial-Page WRITEs Bad-Block Management ECC Module The Micron NAND Flash ECC controller does not support partial-page WRITEs. When the PROGRAM command is issued, the controller takes whatever is in the buffer and writes it to the NAND Flash. Therefore, the host should fill in 1 at each location where no data is to be written to the page. The Micron NAND Flash controller does not perform bad-block management in hardware, as this is a software function. The Micron NAND Flash specification requires that a bad block be marked bad at the factory, by writing a byte other than 0xFF into byte 2,048 (the first byte of the extra space) of page 0 or page 1 of the bad block. Precautions should be taken to ensure that bad blocks are not inadvertently left unmarked by removal of the bad marking. When the bad-block mark is lost (for example, by erasing a bad block without a mechanism for recording its location), its location cannot be retrieved again, and a malfunction may result. Using the Micron NAND Flash Controller with the Micron ECC Module The Micron ECC module uses the standard NAND Flash interface, with interrupt and enable lines added on the host side. This interface plugs directly into the Micron NAND Flash controller and can also be used to easily make a glueless interface with built-in ECC. If the controller is being used with the ECC module, it gives the host the ECC debug feature of reading the 8 bytes of error information from the ECC module. These 8 bytes of error information can be used for testing purposes, to calculate ECC statistics. For detailed information on the format of the 8 bytes of error information, refer to Micron NAND Flash ECC module documentation at download.micron.com/pdf/technotes/ nand/tn2905.pdf. NAND Flash ECC Module Partial-Page WRITEs The host can perform partial-page WRITEs by executing them in 512-byte sectors. This will ensure that only the intended sector is written and the remaining sectors are written with 0xFF. As in a NAND Flash device, a 1 can be programmed to a 0, but a 0 cannot be programmed to a 1. Writing the remaining sectors with 0xFF preserves the rest of the data in the page. The ECC for each of the blocks filled with 1s will be 1s; therefore, the ECC will not be destroyed. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
21 Revisions History Revisions History Rev. C /14 Removed obsolete URLs. Rev. B /07 Overview on page 1: Revised description. Micron NAND Flash Controller Features on page 3: Revised description. Architectural Description and Memory-Mapped Interface on page 4: Revised description. Table 1 on page 5: Revised descriptions. Table 2 on page 6: Revised function descriptions. Double Data Buffering on page 9: Revised description. The enabletog0 State on page 11: Revised description. Program Page States on page 15: Revised description. NAND Flash ECC Module Partial-Page WRITEs on page 20: Revised description. Updated Web links. Rev. A /05 Initial release. tn2906_nand_flash_controller.fm - Rev. C 7/14 EN Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Last Class: Introduction to Operating Systems User apps OS Virtual machine interface hardware physical machine interface An operating system is the interface between the user and the architecture. History
COMPUTER HARDWARE Input- Output and Communication Memory Systems Computer I/O I/O devices commonly found in Computer systems Keyboards Displays Printers Magnetic Drives Compact disk read only memory (CD-ROM)
Hardware Reference Manual: Reference Design Application Note AN002 Introduction The Reference Design hardware board demonstrates the hardware s ability to interface between the computer, an 8051 microcontroller,
Entex Adventurevision Technical Specs V1.2 By Daniel Boris 12/18/2005 Disclaimer: All the information in this document comes from studying the actual Adventurevision hardware. The only technical document
Chapter 02: Computer Organization Lesson 04: Functional units and components in a computer organization Part 3 Bus Structures Objective: Understand the IO Subsystem and Understand Bus Structures Understand
ADVANCED PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES AND MEMORY ORGANISATION Lesson-17: Memory organisation, and types of memory 1 1. Memory Organisation 2 Random access model A memory-, a data byte, or a word, or a double
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e Chapter 6 Upgrading Memory Objectives Learn about the different kinds of physical memory and how they work Learn how to upgrade memory Learn how to troubleshoot
Write Protect CAT24WCxxx I 2 C Serial EEPROMs. Allows the user to protect against inadvertent write operations. WP = V CC : Write Protected Device select and address bytes are Acknowledged Data Bytes are
Choosing the Right NAND Flash Memory Technology A Basic Introduction to NAND Flash Offerings Dean Klein Vice President of System Memory Development Micron Technology, Inc. Executive Summary A 75% increase
NIOS CPU Based Embedded Computer System on Programmable Chip COE718: Hardware Software Co-Design of Embedded Systems 1 Lab Objectives BONUS LAB: PART-I This lab has been constructed to introduce the development
Order this document by /D Switch Fabric Implementation Using Shared Memory Prepared by: Lakshmi Mandyam and B. Kinney INTRODUCTION Whether it be for the World Wide Web or for an intra office network, today
AN 223: PCI-to-DDR SDRAM Reference Design May 2003, ver. 1.0 Application Note 223 Introduction The Altera PCI-to-DDR SDRAM reference design, which you can download to the Stratix PCI development board,
Memory Devices Read Only Memory (ROM) Structure of diode ROM Types of ROMs. ROM with 2-Dimensional Decoding. Using ROMs for Combinational Logic Read/Write Memory (Random Access Memory, RAM): Types of RAM:
Application Note 132 Voice Video and Data Communications using a 2-Port Switch and Generic Bus Interface KSZ42-16MQL/MVL Introduction The IP-Telephony market is booming, due to the ease of use of the technology
SYSC3601 1 Microprocessor Systems SYSC3601 Microprocessor Systems Unit 5: Memory Structures and Interfacing Topics/Reading SYSC3601 2 Microprocessor Systems 1. Memory Types 2. Interfacing 8-bit memory/io
NAND FLASH NAND vs. NOR Beside the different silicon cell design, the most important difference between NAND and NOR Flash is the bus interface. NOR Flash is connected to a address / data bus direct like
Module 3 Learning unit 8: Interface We have four common types of memory: Read only memory (ROM) Flash memory (EEPROM) Static Random access memory (SARAM) Dynamic Random access memory (DRAM). Pin connections
: In-System Programming Features Program any AVR MCU In-System Reprogram both data Flash and parameter EEPROM memories Eliminate sockets Simple -wire SPI programming interface Introduction In-System programming
Computer Organization and Components IS1500, fall 2015 Lecture 5: I/O Systems, part I Associate Professor, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Assistant Research Engineer, University of California, Berkeley
Chapter 13 PIC Family Microcontroller Lesson 01 PIC Characteristics and Examples PIC microcontroller characteristics Power-on reset Brown out reset Simplified instruction set High speed execution Up to
Programmable Interval Timer 85/5 9. ecessity and Introduction The 85/5 solves one of most common problem in any microcomputer system, the generation of accurate time delays under software control. Instead
Computer Architecture Lecture IV Selected external x86 microprocessor elements Iterrupts - Iterrupts are used to communicate a computer system with external devices such as a keybard, a printer, system
Customer-Authored Application Note AC103 Design of a High Speed Communications Link Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays Amy Lovelace, Technical Staff Engineer Alcatel Network Systems Introduction A communication
Transparent Flip-Flop The RS flip-flop forms the basis of a number of 1-bit storage devices in digital electronics. ne such device is shown in the figure, where extra combinational logic converts the input
EDI s x32 MCM-L RAM Family: Integrated Memory olution for TM320C3x DPs APPLICATION REPORT: PRA286 Tim tahley Electronic Designs, Inc. Digital ignal Processing olutions March 1997 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas
Features Parallel NOR Flash Automotive Memory MT28EW512ABA1xJS-0AAT, MT28EW512ABA1xPC-0AAT Features Single-level cell (SLC) process technology Density: 512Mb Supply voltage V CC = 2.7 3.6V (program, erase,
Dictionary Code D741 Edition 01 Revision 00 Number of pages 18 State Approved SATURN-SIL 2 MODULES FPGA CLEARSY : SOCIETE PAR ACTIONS SIMPLIFIEE AU CAPITAL DE 266 880 - R.C.S. AIX-EN-PROVENCE - CODE SIRET
Software ISO 7816 I/O Line Implementation Features ISO 7816-3 compliant (direct convention) Byte reception and transmission with parity check Retransmission on error detection Automatic reception at the
Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 3 Top-Level View of System Function and Interconnection Computer Components Von Neumann Architecture Data and Instructions stored in single r/w memory Contents
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Page 1 of 6 ( 4 of 32 ) United States Patent Application 20070024713 Kind Code A1 Baer; Richard L. ; et al. February 1, 2007 Imaging parallel interface RAM Abstract Imaging Parallel Interface Random Access
Inside RAM Two-level addressing Consider a 4M x bit RAM. It will apparently need a 22- to-4m decoder. 4 million output lines will make it complex! Complex! Tw-level addressing simplifies it. A2-A These
APPLICATION NOTE M16C/26 1.0 Abstract The following article describes using a synchronous serial port and the FoUSB (Flash-over-USB ) Programmer application to program the user flash memory of the M16C/26
Booting from NAND Flash Memory Introduction NAND flash memory technology differs from NOR flash memory which has dominated the embedded flash memory market in the past. Traditional applications for NOR
LPC1700 timer triggered memory to GPIO data transfer Rev. 01 16 July 2009 Application note Document information Info Keywords Abstract Content LPC1700, GPIO, DMA, Timer0, Sleep Mode This application note
TURBO PROGRAMMER USB, MMC, SIM DEVELOPMENT KIT HARDWARE GUIDE This document is part of Turbo Programmer documentation. For Developer Documentation, Applications and Examples, see http:/// PRELIMINARY (C)
Assignment 5: Memory-Mapped Address Decoding Overview This assignment has one lab-based design problem, one paper-based design problem, and one paper-based exercise. Please refer to the handout Appendix
CY4VPS -Mbit (28K 8) Quad SPI nvsram with Real Time Clock Features Density Mbit (28K 8) Bandwidth 8-MHz high-speed interface Read and write at 54 Mbps Serial Peripheral Interface Clock polarity and phase
2014.09.22 Using Altera MAX Series as Microcontroller I/O Expanders AN-265 Subscribe Many microcontroller and microprocessor chips limit the available I/O ports and pins to conserve pin counts and reduce
Dynamic Random Access Memory: Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. Since real capacitors
A Verilog HDL Test Bench Primer Application Note Table of Contents Introduction...1 Overview...1 The Device Under Test (D.U.T.)...1 The Test Bench...1 Instantiations...2 Figure 1- DUT Instantiation...2
DYNAMIC ENGINEERING 150 DuBois, Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (831) 457-8891 Fax (831) 457-4793 http://www.dyneng.com firstname.lastname@example.org Est. 1988 User Manual PMC-XM-DIFF & EADIN/MODBUS Virtex Design Interface
EDI s x32 MCM-L RAM Family: Integrated Memory olution for TM320C4x DPs APPLICATION REPORT: PRA288 Tim tahley Electronic Designs, Inc. Digital ignal Processing olutions March 1997 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas
Week 7 The 8088 and 8086 Microprocessors 8086 and 8088 Microprocessors 8086 announced in 1978; 8086 is a 16 bit microprocessor with a 16 bit data bus 8088 announced in 1979; 8088 is a 16 bit microprocessor
1 Introduction The purpose of this paper is two fold The first part gives an overview of cache, while the second part explains how the Pentium Processor implements cache A simplified model of a cache system