Integrator Based Filters


 Ernest Long
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Integrator Based Filters Main building block for this category of filters integrator By using signal flowgraph techniques conventional filter topologies can be converted to integrator based type filters Next few pages: Signal flowgraph techniques st order integrator based filter nd order integrator based filter High order and high Q filters EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 5 What is a Signal Flowgraph (SFG)? SFG Topological network representation consisting of nodes & branches used to convert one form of network to a more suitable form (e.g. passive LC filters to integrator based filters) Any network described by a set of linear differential equations can be expressed in SFG form. For a given network, many different SFGs exists. Choice of a particular SFG is based on practical considerations such as type of available components. ef: W.Heinlein & W. Holmes, Active Filters for Integrated Circuits, Prentice Hall, Chap. 8, 974. EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 6
2 What is a Signal Flowgraph (SFG)? SFG nodes represent variables ( & I in our case), branches represent transfer functions (we will call these transfer functions branch multiplication factor BMF) To convert a network to its SFG form, KCL & KL is used to derive state space description: Example: Circuit Statespace SFG Iin description I in o Iin o I o L Io SL SL I o I in C Iin o SC I in SC EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 7 Signal Flowgraph (SFG) ules Two parallel branches can be replaced by a single branch with overall BMF equal to sum of two BMFs b a ab A node with only one incoming branch & one outgoing branch can be replaced by a single branch with BMF equal to the product of the two BMFs a b a.b 3 An intermediate node can be multiplied by a factor (x). BMFs for incoming branches have to be multiplied by x and outgoing branches divided by x a b x.a b/x 3 x. 3 EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 8
3 Signal Flowgraph (SFG) ules Simplifications can often be achieved by shifting or eliminating nodes i 4 a /b 3 i /b /b a 3 A selfloop branch with BMF y can be eliminated by multiplying the BMF of incoming branches by /(y) /b /b i /b a 3 i a/(/b) 3 EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 9 Integrator Based Filters st Order LPF Start from C prototype Use KCL & KL to derive state space description: s I C I o C Use state space description to draw signal flowgraph (SFG) EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page
4 Integrator Based Filters First Order LPF KCL & KL to derive state space description: I C C I s I I o C Use state space description to draw signal flowgraph (SFG) I s s I C I SFG C C I EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page Normalize Since integrators the main building blocks require in & out signals in the voltage form (not current) Convert all currents to voltages by multiplying current nodes by a scaling resistance Corresponding BMFs should then be scaled accordingly o I s I o I I Ix x o I s I o I I o s o EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page
5 Normalize s s s I I I I EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 3 Synthesis s τ s Consolidate two branches τ s, C τ s EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 4
6 First Order Integrator Based Filter τ s H ( s) τ s EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 5 OpampC SingleEnded Integrator C in o o dt, C τ C EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 6
7 State space description: L C o IC C I IL L sl IC Iin I IL Integrator Based Filter nd Order LC Filter Integrator form I in I SFG C L L C I L C I C L sl Draw signal flowgraph (SFG) I I in I C I L EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 3 Normalize Convert currents to voltages by multiplying all current nodes by the scaling resistance C L sl I x x sl I I in I C I L 3 EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 3
8 Synthesis 3 sl τ sτ sτ τ C L EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 33 Second Order Integrator Based Filter Filter Magnitude esponse BP Magnitude (db) 5 5 sτ sτ HP LP. Normalized Frequency [Hz] EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 34
9 BP τs in ττ βτ s LP in ττ βτ s HP ττ s in ττ βτ s τ C τ L β ω ττ LC Q β Second Order Integrator Based Filter BP sτ sτ HP LP τ τ Frommatchingpointofviewdesirable: τ τ Q EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 35 Second Order Bandpass Filter Noise n vo m Find transfer function of each noise source to the output Integrate contribution of all noise sources Here it is assumed that opamps are noise free (not usually the case!) vn vn 4KTdf H m(f) S(f)df i BP v n sτ sτ v n vo kt Q C α Typically, α increases as filter order increases Note the noise power is directly proportion to Q EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 36
10 Second Order Integrator Based Filter Biquad By combining outputs can generate general biquad function: aττ s aτs a 3 ττ s βτs a a a3 BP jω splane sτ sτ σ HP LP EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 37 Summary Integrator Based Monolithic Filters Signal flowgraph techniques utilized to convert LC networks to integrator based active filters Each reactive element (L& C) replaced by an integrator Fundamental noise limitation determined by integrating capacitor: For lowpass filter: Bandpass filter: vo vo kt α C kt α Q C where α is a function of filter order and topology EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 38
11 Higher Order Filters How do we build higher order filters? Cascade of biquads and st order sections Each complex conjugate pole built with a biquad and real pole with st order section Easy to implement In the case of high order high Q filters highly sensitive to component variations Direct conversion of high order ladder type LC filters SFG techniques used to perform exact conversion of ladder type filters to integrator based filters More complicated conversion process Much less sensitive to component variations compared to cascade of biquads EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 39 Higher Order Filters Cascade of Biquads Example: LPF filter for CDMA baseband receiver LPF with fpass 65 khz pass. db fstop 75 khz stop 45 db Assumption: Can compensate for phase distortion in the digital domain 7th order Elliptic Filter Implementation with Biquads Goal: Maximize dynamic range Pair poles and zeros highest Q poles with closest zeros is a good starting point, but not necessarily optimum Ordering: Lowest Q poles first is a good start EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 4
12 Filter Frequency esponse Bode Diagram Phase (deg) Magnitude (db) kHz MHz Frequency [Hz] 3MHz Mag. (db). EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 4 PoleZero Map Imag Axis X splane PoleZero Map.5.5 eal Axis x 7 Q pole f pole [khz] f zero [khz] EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 4
13 Biquad esponse.5 LPF Biquad Biquad Biquad EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 43 Biquad esponse Bode Magnitude Diagram Magnitude (db) 3 4 LPF Biquad Biquad 3 Biquad Frequency [Hz] EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 44
14 Magnitude (db) Magnitude (db) khz Intermediate Outputs LPF Magnitude (db) Magnitude (db) LPF Biquad LPF Biquads,3 LPF Biquads,3,4 Biquads,, 3, & khz MHz 6 MHz khz khz MHz MHz Frequency [Hz] Frequency [Hz] EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 45 Sensitivity Component variation in Biquad 4 (highest Q pole): Increase w p4 by % Decrease w z4 by %.db Magnitude (db) 3 3dB 4 5 khz 6kHz Frequency [Hz] MHz High Q poles High sensitivity in Biquad realizations EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 46
15 High Q & High Order Filters Cascade of biquads Highly sensitive to component variations not suitable for implementation of high Q & high order filters Cascade of biquads only used in cases where required Q for all biquads <4 (e.g. filters for disk drives) LC ladder filters more appropriate for high Q & high order filters (next topic) Less sensitive to component variations EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 47 Ladder Type Filters For simplicity, will start with all pole ladder type filters Convert to integrator based form Example shown Then will attend to high order ladder type filters incorporating zeros Implement the same 7 th order elliptic filter in the form of ladder type Find level of sensitivity to component variations Compare with cascade of biquads Convert to integrator based form utilizing SFG techniques Example shown EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 48
16 LC Ladder Filters s C L C3 L4 C5 L Made of resistors, inductors, and capacitors Doubly terminated or singly terminated (with or w/o L ) Doubly terminated LC ladder filters Lowest sensitivity to component variations EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 49 LC Ladder Filters s C L C3 L4 C5 L Design: CAD tools Matlab Spice Filter tables A. Zverev, Handbook of filter synthesis, Wiley, 967. A. B. Williams and F. J. Taylor, Electronic filter design, 3 rd edition, McGrawHill, 995. EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 5
17 LC Ladder Filter Design Example Find values for L & C from Table: Normalized values: C Norm C5 Norm.68 C3 Norm. L Norm L4 Norm.68 Denormalization: Since w 3dB πxmhz L r /w 3dB 5.9 nh C r /(Xw 3dB ) 5.9 nf CC59.836nF, C33.83nF LL45.75nH From: Williams and Taylor, p..3 EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 53 Magnitude esponse Simulation sohm L5.75nH C 9.836nF L45.75nH C3 3.83nF C nF LOhm 5 SPICE simulation esults 6 db passband attenuation due to double termination Magnitude (db) 3 4 3dB 5 3 Frequency [MHz] EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 54
18 LC Ladder Filter Conversion to Integrator Based Active Filter s I L I3 L4 I 5 C C3 C5 I I4 I 6 I 7 L Use KCL & KL to derive equations: I,, 3 4 I I 4 6 4, 5 4 6, 6 o I, I I I 3, I s 3 sl 5 6 I 4 I 3 I 5, I 5, I 6 I 5 I 7, I7 sl4 L EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 55 I s I LC Ladder Filter Signal Flowgraph I in,, 3 4 I 4 I,, o I, I I I 3, I3 s sl 5 6 I 4 I 3 I 5, I 5, I 6 I 5 I 7, I7 sl4 L sl 3 sl4 5 I3 I4 I 5 I 6 I 7 SFG EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 56 o L
19 LC Ladder Filter Signal Flowgraph s I L I3 L4 I 5 C C3 C5 I I4 I 6 I 7 L I s I sl 3 sl4 5 o I3 I4 I 5 I 6 I 7 SFG L EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 57 I s I LC Ladder Filter Normalize sl 3 sl4 5 o I 3 I4 I 5 I 6 I 7 L s sl 3 sl o 7 L EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 58
20 s LC Ladder Filter Synthesize sl 3 sl o 7 L s sτ sτ sτ 3 sτ 4 sτ 5 L EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 59 s LC Ladder Filter Integrator Based Implementation sτ sτ sτ 3 sτ 4 sτ 5 L L L4 C., C., C., C., C τ τ τ τ τ Building Block: C Integrator EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 6
21 Negative esistors o o o EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 6 Synthesize EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 6
22 Frequency esponse EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 63 Scale Node oltages Scale by factor s EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 64
23 Noise Total noise:.4 µ rms (noiseless opamps) That s excellent, but the capacitors are very large (and the resistors small). Not possible to integrate. Suppose our application allows higher noise in the order of 4 µ rms EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 65 Scale to Meet Noise Target Scale capacitors and resistors to meet noise objective s 4 Noise: 4 µ rms (noiseless opamps) EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 66
24 Completed Design EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 67 Sensitivity C made (arbitrarily) 5% (!) larger than its nominal value.5 db error at band edge 3.5 db error in stopband Looks like very low sensitivity EECS 47 Lecture 3: Filters 5 H.K. Page 68
25 Sensitivity C made (arbitrarily) 5% (!) larger than its nominal value.5 db error at band edge 3.5 db error in stopband Looks like very low sensitivity EECS 47 Lecture 4: Filters 5 H.K. Page 3 Differential 5 th Order Lowpass Filter Since each signal and its inverse readily available, eliminates the need for negative resistors! Differential design has the advantage of even order harmonic distortion and common mode spurious pickup automatically cancels Disadvantage: Double resistor and capacitor area! EECS 47 Lecture 4: Filters 5 H.K. Page 4
EE247 Lecture 3. Signal flowgraph concept First order integrator based filter Second order integrator based filter & biquads
Summary last week EE47 Lecture 3 Integrator based filters Signal flowgraph concept First order integrator based filter Second order integrator based filter & biquads High order & high Q filters Cascaded
More informationEE247 Administrative. EE247 Course Reading Material
EE47 Administrative Due to office hour conflict with EE4 class: New office hours: Tues: 4 to 5pm (same as before) Wed.: :3 to :3am (new) Thurs.: no office hours Office hours held @ 567 Cory Hall EECS 47
More informationAnalogue Filter Design
Analogue Filter Design Module: SEA Signals and Telecoms Lecturer: URL: http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~stsgrimb/ email: j.b.grimbleby reading.ac.uk Number of Lectures: 5 Reference text: Design with Operational
More informationFirst and Second Order Filters
First and Second Order Filters These functions are useful for the design of simple filters or they can be cascaded to form highorder filter functions First Order Filters General first order bilinear transfer
More informationEE133 Winter 2002 Cookbook Filter Guide Welcome to the Cookbook Filter Guide!
Welcome to the! Don t have enough time to spice out that perfect filter before Aunt Thelma comes down for dinner? Well this handout is for you! The following pages detail a fast set of steps towards the
More information2.161 Signal Processing: Continuous and Discrete Fall 2008
MT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu.6 Signal Processing: Continuous and Discrete Fall 00 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. MASSACHUSETTS
More informationE4215: Analog Filter Synthesis and Design Frequency Transformation
E415: Analog Filter ynthesis and Design Frequency Transformation Nagendra Krishnapura (nkrishnapura@mltc.com) 4 Mar. 003 = Σ + jω s = σ + jω mk=1 (1 Z k Prototype frequency variable Transformed frequency
More informationObjectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF and BPF.
Laboratory of the circuits and signals Laboratory work No. 4 ACTIVE FILTERS Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF
More informationFilters. EE247  Lecture 2 Filters. Filter. Filters
EE247  Lecture 2 Filters Material covered today: Nomenclature Filter specifications Quality factor Frequency characteristics Group delay Filter types Butterworth Chebyshev I Chebyshev II Elliptic Bessel
More informationLaboratory #5: RF Filter Design
EEE 194 RF Laboratory Exercise 5 1 Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design I. OBJECTIVES A. Design a third order lowpass Chebyshev filter with a cutoff frequency of 330 MHz and 3 db ripple with equal terminations
More informationSophomore Physics Laboratory (PH005/105)
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PHYSICS MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY DIVISION Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH5/15) Analog Electronics Active Filters Copyright c Virgínio de Oliveira Sannibale, 23 (Revision
More informationBharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 Active Filters
Bharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 mbharat@cory.eecs.berkeley.edu 1. Introduction Active Filters In this chapter, we will deal with active filter circuits. Why even bother with active filters? Answer: Audio.
More informationPositive Feedback and Oscillators
Physics 3330 Experiment #6 Fall 1999 Positive Feedback and Oscillators Purpose In this experiment we will study how spontaneous oscillations may be caused by positive feedback. You will construct an active
More informationFILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.
FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in
More informationNAPIER University School of Engineering. Electronic Systems Module : SE32102 Analogue Filters Design And Simulation. 4 th order Butterworth response
NAPIER University School of Engineering Electronic Systems Module : SE32102 Analogue Filters Design And Simulation. 4 th order Butterworth response In R1 R2 C2 C1 + Opamp A  R1 R2 C2 C1 + Opamp B  Out
More informationFrequency Response of Filters
School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To
More informationAn elliptic filter, sometimes also called as a Cauer filter
1 EE172 Project: 5 th Order Elliptic BandPass Filter Wai Phyo, EE172, San Jose State University, Member, IEEE Abstract A 5 th order elliptical bandpass filter is designed, built and characterized in
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers Aims: To know: Basic Op Amp properties eal & Ideal Basic ideas of feedback. inv input noninv input output gnd To be able to do basic circuit analysis of op amps: using KCL, KL with
More informationAN649 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 020629106 Tel: 781/3294700 Fax: 781/3268703
APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 020629106 Tel: 781/3294700 Fax: 781/3268703 www.analog.com Using the Analog Devices Active Filter Design Tool By Hank Zumbahlen INTRODUCTION
More informationLab #9: AC Steady State Analysis
Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.
More informationActive Filters. Motivation:
Active Filters Motivation: Analyse filters Design low frequency filters without large capacitors Design filters without inductors Design electronically programmable filters Imperial College London EEE
More informationApplication Note 9. Digital FIR Decimator & Analog Lowpass
Application Note 9 App Note Application Note 9 Highlights Multirate FIR Design Cascade Analog Lowpass Circuit Optimization Comb Filter Correction Sin(x)/x Correction n Design Objective 16:1 FIR Decimation
More informationOutline. SwitchedCapacitor Circuits. Introduction (why and how) Integrators and filters Gain circuits Noise and charge injection INF4420
INF4420 SwitchedCapacitor Circuits Jørgen Andreas Michaelsen Spring 2013 1 / 42 Outline Introduction (why and how) Integrators and filters Gain circuits Noise and charge injection Spring 2013 SwitchedCapacitor
More informationBode Diagrams of Transfer Functions and Impedances ECEN 2260 Supplementary Notes R. W. Erickson
Bode Diagrams of Transfer Functions and Impedances ECEN 2260 Supplementary Notes. W. Erickson In the design of a signal processing network, control system, or other analog system, it is usually necessary
More informationCHAPTER 8 ANALOG FILTERS
ANALOG FILTERS CHAPTER 8 ANALOG FILTERS SECTION 8.: INTRODUCTION 8. SECTION 8.2: THE TRANSFER FUNCTION 8.5 THE SPLANE 8.5 F O and Q 8.7 HIGHPASS FILTER 8.8 BANDPASS FILTER 8.9 BANDREJECT (NOTCH) FILTER
More informationEE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (SallenKey Filter)
EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (SallenKey Filter) Objective The purpose of this experiment is to design a set of secondorder SallenKey active filters and to investigate
More informationChapter 15. Active Filter Circuits
hapter 5 Active Filter ircuits 5.0 Introduction Filter is circuit that capable of passing signal from input to put that has frequency within a specified band and attenuating all others side the band. This
More informationUSING THE ANALOG DEVICES ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN TOOL
USING THE ANALOG DEVICES ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN TOOL INTRODUCTION The Analog Devices Active Filter Design Tool is designed to aid the engineer in designing allpole active filters. The filter design process
More informationRealization of Microstrip BandPass Filter Design
ISSN: 2278 1323 All Rights Reserved 2014 IJARCET 4242 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Realization of Microstrip BandPass Filter Design Mr. K.S.Khandelwal
More informationProblem 9.36 Design an active lowpass filter with a gain of 4, a corner frequency of1khz,andagainrolloffrateof 60 db/decade.
Problem 9.36 Design an active lowpass filter with a gain of 4, a corner frequency of1khz,andagainrolloffrateof 60 db/decade. Solution: The rolloff rate of 60 db requires a threestage LP filter, similar
More informationYesterday s discrete. Ordinary Vector Network Analyzers Get Differential Port Measurement Capability DIFFERENTIAL MEASUREMENTS
From November 2003 High Frequency Electronics Copyright 2003 Summit Technical Media, LLC Ordinary Vector Network Analyzers Get Differential Port Measurement Capability By Dale D. Henkes Applied Computational
More informationDesigning Active High Speed Filters
Designing Active High Speed Filters Filters built from resistors (R), inductors (L) and capacitors (C) are known as RLC or passive filters and are the dominant type of filter for high frequency applications.
More informationDigital Filter Design
Digital Filter Design Objective  Determination of a realiable transfer function G() approximating a given frequency response specification is an important step in the development of a digital filter If
More informationMutual Inductance and Transformers F3 3. r L = ω o
utual Inductance and Transformers F3 1 utual Inductance & Transformers If a current, i 1, flows in a coil or circuit then it produces a magnetic field. Some of the magnetic flux may link a second coil
More informationUsing the Impedance Method
Using the Impedance Method The impedance method allows us to completely eliminate the differential equation approach for the determination of the response of circuits. In fact the impedance method even
More informationCHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance
ELECTRICAL CHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 1. State the fundamental concepts of Fourier analysis. 2. Determine the output of a filter for a given input consisting of sinusoidal
More informationApplication Report SLOA024B
Application Report July 999 Revised September 2002 Mixed Signal Products SLOA024B IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications,
More informationBJT Amplifier Circuits
JT Amplifier ircuits As we have developed different models for D signals (simple largesignal model) and A signals (smallsignal model), analysis of JT circuits follows these steps: D biasing analysis:
More informationCHAPTER 2 REALIZATION OF SOME NOVEL TRANSCONDUCTANCE FILTERS
CHAPTE EALZATON OF SOME NOEL TANSCONDUCTANCE FLTES This chapter is devoted to the realization of some novel active circuits by using transconductance amplifiers. The transconductance amplifier can be realized
More informationFREQUENCY RESPONSE AND PASSIVE FILTERS LABORATORY. We start with examples of a few filter circuits to illustrate the concept.
FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND PASSIVE FILTERS LABORATORY In this experiment we will analytically determine and measure the frequency response of networks containing resistors, AC source/sources, and energy storage
More informationDigital Filter Plus User's Guide. Version January, 2015
Digital Filter Plus User's Guide Version 2.50 3 January, 2015 2014 Numerix Ltd. Email : mailto:numerix@numerixdsp.com WWW : http://www.numerixdsp.com/ INTRODUCTION 3 INSTALLATION 4 USING DIGITAL FILTER
More informationELG3336: Converters Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) Digital to Analog Converters (DACs) 111 110 101 100 011 010
ELG3336: Converters Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) Digital to Analog Converters (DACs) Digital Output Dout 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 ΔV, V LSB V ref 8 V FS 4 V 8 ref 7 V 8 ref Analog Input V
More informationA Simple Method of Designing Multiple Order All Pole Bandpass Filters by Cascading 2nd Order Sections
A Simple Method of Designing Multiple Order All Pole Bandpass Filters by Cascading nd Order Sections Nello Sevastopoulos Richard Markell June 1988 INTRODUCTION Filter design, be it active, passive, or
More informationBJT Amplifier Circuits
JT Amplifier ircuits As we have developed different models for D signals (simple largesignal model) and A signals (smallsignal model), analysis of JT circuits follows these steps: D biasing analysis:
More informationLecture 7 Circuit analysis via Laplace transform
S. Boyd EE12 Lecture 7 Circuit analysis via Laplace transform analysis of general LRC circuits impedance and admittance descriptions natural and forced response circuit analysis with impedances natural
More informationGENESYS S/FILTER. Eagleware Corporation. Copyright
GENESYS S/FILTER Copyright 19862000 Eagleware Corporation 635 Pinnacle Court Norcross, GA 30071 USA Phone: (678) 2910995 FAX: (678) 2910971 Email: eagleware@eagleware.com Internet: http://www.eagleware.com
More informationChapter 21 BandPass Filters and Resonance
Chapter 21 BandPass Filters and Resonance In Chapter 20, we discussed lowpass and highpass filters. The simplest such filters use RC components resistors and capacitors. It is also possible to use resistors
More informationAUTOMATED KNOWLEDGE BASED FILTER SYNTHESIS USING MODIFIED CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIALS OF THE FIRST KIND
FACTA UNIVERSITATIS Ser: Elec. Energ. Vol. 5, N o 1, April 01, pp. 5968 DOI: 10.98/FUEE101059P AUTOMATED KNOWLEDGE BASED FILTER SYNTHESIS USING MODIFIED CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIALS OF THE FIRST KIND Vlastimir
More informationModule 4. Contents. Digital Filters  Implementation and Design. Signal Flow Graphs. Digital Filter Structures. FIR and IIR Filter Design Techniques
Module 4 Digital Filters  Implementation and Design Digital Signal Processing. Slide 4.1 Contents Signal Flow Graphs Basic filtering operations Digital Filter Structures Direct form FIR and IIR filters
More informationLab 8: Basic Filters: Low Pass and High Pass
Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low Pass and High Pass Names: 1.) 2.) 3.) Beginning Challenge: Build the following circuit. Charge the capacitor by itself, and then discharge it through the inductor. Measure the
More informationPIEZO FILTERS INTRODUCTION
For more than two decades, ceramic filter technology has been instrumental in the proliferation of solid state electronics. A view of the future reveals that even greater expectations will be placed on
More informationApplication Note 1. Linear Phase 8th Order Elliptic Lowpass
Application Note 1 App Note Application Note 1 Highlights Multistage Analog Design Elliptic Filters and Allpass Filters Using the Curve Editor Target Optimizer Circuit Optimizer n Design Objective Lowpass:
More informationLoop Bandwidth and Clock Data Recovery (CDR) in Oscilloscope Measurements. Application Note 13046
Loop Bandwidth and Clock Data Recovery (CDR) in Oscilloscope Measurements Application Note 13046 Abstract Time domain measurements are only as accurate as the trigger signal used to acquire them. Often
More informationPreamble. Kirchoff Voltage Law (KVL) Series Resistors. In this section of my lectures we will be. resistor arrangements; series and
Preamble Series and Parallel Circuits Physics, 8th Edition Custom Edition Cutnell & Johnson Chapter 0.60.8, 0.0 Pages 6068, 696 n this section of my lectures we will be developing the two common types
More informationAnalog Filter Design Demystified
FILTER CIRCUITS (ANALOG) VIDEO CIRCUITS Dec 03, 2002 Analog Filter Design Demystified This article shows the reader how to design analog filters. It starts by covering the fundamentals of filters, it then
More informationChapter 5. Basic Filters
Chapter 5 Basic Filters 39 CHAPTER 5. BASIC FILTERS 5.1 PreLab The answers to the following questions are due at the beginning of the lab. If they are not done at the beginning of the lab, no points will
More informationDesign of a TL431Based Controller for a Flyback Converter
Design of a TL431Based Controller for a Flyback Converter Dr. John Schönberger Plexim GmbH Technoparkstrasse 1 8005 Zürich 1 Introduction The TL431 is a reference voltage source that is commonly used
More informationLABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common
More informationChebyshev I Bandpass IIR Filter with 6 th Order
Chebyshev I Bandpass IIR Filter with 6 th Order Study Group: IEM2 Hand in Date: 22.07.2003 Group Members: Chao Chen Bing Li Chao Wang Professor: Prof. Dr. Schwarz 1 Contents 1. Introduction...3 2. Analysis...4
More informationMassachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science : DiscreteTime Signal Processing
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6.341: DiscreteTime Signal Processing OpenCourseWare 2006 Lecture 8 DT Filter Design: IIR Filters Reading:
More informationIn modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different
Introduction In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different frequency regions. In analog electronics, four classes of filters exist to process an input signal: lowpass,
More informationR f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response
More informationFig. 1 :Block diagram symbol of the operational amplifier. Characteristics ideal opamp real opamp
Experiment: General Description An operational amplifier (opamp) is defined to be a high gain differential amplifier. When using the opamp with other mainly passive elements, opamp circuits with various
More informationFilter Considerations for the IBC
application note AN:202 Filter Considerations for the IBC Mike DeGaetano Application Engineering July 2013 Contents Page Introduction 1 IBC Attributes 1 Damping and 2 Converter Bandwidth Filtering 3 Filter
More informationHIGH FREQUENCY FILTER DESIGN
HIGH FREQUENCY FILTER DESIGN for HighFrequency Circuit Design Elective by Michael Tse Septeber 2003 CONTENTS. Introduction. Types of filters.2 Monolithic filters.3 Integrators.4 Siple firstorder gc
More informationElectronics for Analog Signal Processing  II Prof. K. Radhakrishna Rao Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electronics for Analog Signal Processing  II Prof. K. Radhakrishna Rao Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Lecture  18 Wideband (Video) Amplifiers In the last class,
More informationApéndice C CONIELECOMP 2005. Articulo IEEE. On the Approximation and Synthesis of Elliptic Filters
Apéndice C CONIELECOMP 2005 Articulo IEEE On the Approximation and Synthesis of Elliptic Filters Jesús Rufino, David BáezLópez, J. RodríguezAsomoza, and L.G. GuerreroOjeda Departmento de Ingeniería
More informationSince any real component also has loss due to the resistive component, the average power dissipated is 2 2R
Quality factor, Q Reactive components such as capacitors and inductors are often described with a figure of merit called Q. While it can be defined in many ways, it s most fundamental description is: Q
More informationDigital Signal Processing IIR Filter Design via Impulse Invariance
Digital Signal Processing IIR Filter Design via Impulse Invariance D. Richard Brown III D. Richard Brown III 1 / 11 Basic Procedure We assume here that we ve already decided to use an IIR filter. The basic
More informationLaboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation
Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 2024) and Week 10 (Oct. 2731) Due Week 11 (Nov. 37) 1 PreLab This PreLab should be completed before attending your regular
More informationDiploma in Applied Electronics
DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KEVIN STREET, DUBLIN 8 Diploma in Applied Electronics YEAR II SUMMER EXAMINATIONS 1999 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS MR. P. Tobin MR. C. Bruce DATE Attempt FIVE questions with a maximum
More informationThe Calculation of G rms
The Calculation of G rms QualMark Corp. Neill Doertenbach The metric of G rms is typically used to specify and compare the energy in repetitive shock vibration systems. However, the method of arriving
More informationActive and Passive Filter Synthesis using MATLAB*
Int. J. Engng Ed. Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 56±57, 2005 094949X/9 $3.00+0.00 Printed in Great Britain. # 2005 TEMPUS Publications. Active and Passive Filter Synthesis using MATLAB* BOGDAN M. WILAMOWSKI and RAMRAJ
More informationHow to Design 10 khz filter. (Using Butterworth filter design) Application notes. By Vadim Kim
How to Design 10 khz filter. (Using Butterworth filter design) Application notes. By Vadim Kim This application note describes how to build a 5 th order low pass, high pass Butterworth filter for 10 khz
More informationSECTION 55: FREQUENCY TRANSFORMATIONS
ANALOG FILTERS FREQUENCY TRANSFORMATIONS SECTION 55: FREQUENCY TRANSFORMATIONS Until now, only filters using the lowpass configuration have been examined. In this section, transforming the lowpass prototype
More informationLow Frequency Active Tuned Oscillator Using Simulated Inductor
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 6(7): 11711177, 2013 ISSN: 20407459; eissn: 20407467 Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013 Submitted: July 13, 2012 Accepted: September
More informationThe Evolution of an EQ Design By Fred Forssell, Forssell Technologies Inc. 1 st draft
The Evolution of an EQ Design By Fred Forssell, Forssell Technologies Inc. st draft This discussion covers the steps used to design a functional multiband equalizer for use in professional audio applications
More informationAnalog Filters. A common instrumentation filter application is the attenuation of high frequencies to avoid frequency aliasing in the sampled data.
Analog Filters Filters can be used to attenuate unwanted signals such as interference or noise or to isolate desired signals from unwanted. They use the frequency response of a measuring system to alter
More informationLab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment
3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: HandsOn chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The
More informationDesign and Analysis of Stepped Impedance Microstrip Low Pass Filter Using ADS Simulation Tool for Wireless Applications
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2013 1 Design and Analysis of Stepped Impedance Microstrip Low Pass Filter Using ADS Simulation Tool for Wireless
More informationMonolithic Crystal Filters 2 Quartz resonator internally coupled utilizing piezoelectric effect.
The following describes filter types, what they do and how they perform. Along with definitions and detailed graphs, we are hopeful this information is both useful and informative. Filter Types Monolithic
More informationCONVERTERS. Filters Introduction to Digitization DigitaltoAnalog Converters AnalogtoDigital Converters
CONVERTERS Filters Introduction to Digitization DigitaltoAnalog Converters AnalogtoDigital Converters Filters Filters are used to remove unwanted bandwidths from a signal Filter classification according
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (opamp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the opamp
More informationExperiment V: The AC Circuit, Impedance, and Applications to High and Low Pass Filters
Experiment : The AC Circuit, Impedance, and Applications to High and Low Pass Filters I. eferences Halliday, esnick and Krane, Physics, ol. 2, 4th Ed., Chapters 33 Purcell, Electricity and Magnetism, Chapter
More informationElectronic Components. Electronics. Resistors and Basic Circuit Laws. Basic Circuits. Basic Circuit. Voltage Dividers
Electronics most instruments work on either analog or digital signals we will discuss circuit basics parallel and series circuits voltage dividers filters highpass, lowpass, bandpass filters the main
More informationEE301  PARALLEL CIRCUITS AND KIRCHHOFF S CURRENT LAW
Objectives a. estate the definition of a node and demonstrate how to measure voltage and current in parallel circuits b. Solve for total circuit resistance of a parallel circuit c. State and apply KCL
More informationModern Definition of Terms
Filters In the operation of electronic systems and circuits, the basic function of a filter is to selectively pass, by frequency, desired signals and to suppress undesired signals. The amount of insertion
More informationUnderstanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling
Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,
More informationLCR Parallel Circuits
Module 10 AC Theory Introduction to What you'll learn in Module 10. The LCR Parallel Circuit. Module 10.1 Ideal Parallel Circuits. Recognise ideal LCR parallel circuits and describe the effects of internal
More informationUniversity of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Communication Engineering Lab.
OBJECT: To establish the passband characteristic. APPARTUS: 1 Signal function generator 2 Oscilloscope 3 Resisters,capacitors 4 A.V.O. meter. THEORY: Any combination of passive (R, L, and C) and/or
More informationImproved LC filter in class D. audio power amplifier using. simulated inductor *
CHAPTER 6 Improved LC filter in class D audio power amplifier using simulated inductor * * Partial contents of this Chapter has been published in D.Susan, S.Jayalalitha, Improved LC filter in Class D amplifier
More informationFilters and Waveform Shaping
Physics 333 Experiment #3 Fall 211 Filters and Waveform Shaping Purpose The aim of this experiment is to study the frequency filtering properties of passive (R, C, and L) circuits for sine waves, and the
More informationElectronic filters design tutorial  3
High pass, low pass and notch passive filters In the first and second part of this tutorial we visited the band pass filters, with lumped and distributed elements. In this third part we will discuss about
More informationEECS 247 AnalogDigital Interface Integrated Circuits 2006. Lecture 1: Introduction
EECS 247 AnalogDigital Interface Integrated Circuits 26 Instructor: Haideh Khorramabadi UC Berkeley Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Lecture 1: Introduction EECS 247 Lecture
More informationPart 2: Receiver and Demodulator
University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System MiniProject Part : Receiver
More informationFilter Design Introduction
FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Filter Design Introduction Utilizing CAD Tools Christian D. Archilla, B.S.C.E., Research Associate, VLSI Assistant Lab Manager June 2008 Table of Contents 1. Introduction...
More informationAnalysis of Dynamic Circuits in MATLAB
Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Vol. 4 (2015), No. 3 64 Analysis of Dynamic Circuits in MATLAB Iveta Tomčíková 1) 1) Technical University in Košice/Department of Theoretical and Industrial Electrical
More informationLecture 9. Poles, Zeros & Filters (Lathi 4.10) Effects of Poles & Zeros on Frequency Response (1) Effects of Poles & Zeros on Frequency Response (3)
Effects of Poles & Zeros on Frequency Response (1) Consider a general system transfer function: zeros at z1, z2,..., zn Lecture 9 Poles, Zeros & Filters (Lathi 4.10) The value of the transfer function
More informationBand pass filter design Part 8. Compensating for inductor losses
Band pass filter design Part 8. Compensating for inductor losses 1. Introduction In Part 6 we looked at the effects of the inevitable losses in practical inductors. The higher circulating currents in the
More informationModule 2: Op Amps Introduction and Ideal Behavior
Module 2: Op Amps Introduction and Ideal Behavior Dr. Bonnie H. Ferri Professor and Associate Chair School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Introduce Op Amps and examine ideal behavior School of
More information