# Basic Laws Circuit Theorems Methods of Network Analysis Non-Linear Devices and Simulation Models

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1 EE Modul 1: Electric Circuits Theory Basic Laws Circuit Theorems Methods of Network Analysis Non-Linear Devices and Simulation Models

2 EE Modul 1: Electric Circuits Theory Current, Voltage, Impedance Ohm s Law, Kirchhoff's Law Circuit Theorems Methods of Network Analysis

3 Electric Charges Charge is an electrical property of the atomic particles of which matter consists, measured in coulombs (C). The charge e on one electron is negative and equal in magnitude to C which is called as electronic charge. The charges that occur in nature are integral multiples of the electronic charge.

4 Electric Current (1) Electric current i = dq/dt. The unit of ampere can be derived as 1 A = 1C/s. A direct current (dc) is a current that remains constant with time. An alternating current (ac) is a current that varies sinusoidally with time.

5 Electric Current (2) The direction of current flow: Positive ions Negative ions

6 Example 1 Electric Current (3) A conductor has a constant current of 5 A. How many electrons pass a fixed point on the conductor in one minute? Solution Total no. of charges pass in 1 min is given by 5 A = (5 C/s)(60 s/min) = 300 C/min Total no. of electrons pass in 1 min is given by

7 Electric Voltage Voltage (or potential difference) is the energy required to move a unit charge through an element, measured in volts (V). Mathematically, (volt) w is energy in joules (J) and q is charge in coulomb (C). Electric voltage, v ab, is always across the circuit element or between two points in a circuit. v ab > 0 means the potential of a is higher than potential of b. v ab < 0 means the potential of a is lower than potential of b.

8 Power and Enegy (1) Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy, measured in watts (W). Mathematical expression: p = dw dt = dw dq dq dt = v i i i + v + v Passive sign convention P = +vi p = vi absorbing power supplying power

9 Power and Enegy (2) The law of conservation of energy p = 0 Energy is the capacity to do work, measured in joules (J). Mathematical expression = t = w pdt t0 0 t t vidt

10 Circuit Elements (1) Active Elements Passive Elements Independent sources Dependant sources A dependent source is an active element in which the source quantity is controlled by another voltage or current. They have four different types: VCVS, CCVS, VCCS, CCCS. Keep in minds the signs of dependent sources.

11 Circuit Elements (2) Example Obtain the voltage v in the branch shown below for i 2 = 1A. Solution Voltage v is the sum of the currentindependent 10-V source and the current-dependent voltage source v x. Note that the factor 15 multiplying the control current carries the units Ω. Therefore, v = 10 + v x = (1) = 25 V

12 BSC Modul 1: Electric Circuits Theory Basics Current, Voltage, Impedance Ohm s Law, Kirchhoff's Laws, Circuit Theorems Methods of Network Analysis Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

13 Ohm s Law (1) Ohm s law states that the voltage across a resistor is directly proportional to the current I flowing through the resistor. Mathematical expression for Ohm s Law is as follows: R = Resistance v = i R Two extreme possible values of R: 0 (zero) and (infinite) are related with two basic circuit concepts: short circuit and open circuit.

14 Ohm s Law (2) Conductance is the ability of an element to conduct electric current; it is the reciprocal of resistance R and is measured in siemens. (sometimes mho s) G = 1 = R i v The power dissipated by a resistor: p = v i = i 2 R = 2 v R

15 Branches, Nodes, Loops (1) A branch represents a single element such as a voltage source or a resistor. A node is the point of connection between two or more branches. A loop is any closed path in a circuit. A network with b branches, n nodes, and l independent loops will satisfy the fundamental theorem of network topology: b = l + n 1

16 Branches, Nodes, Loops (2) Example 1 Original circuit Network schematics or graph How many branches, nodes and loops are there?

17 Branches, Nodes, Loops (3) Example 2 Should we consider it as one branch or two branches? How many branches, nodes and loops are there?

18 Kirchhoff s Current Law (1) Kirchhoff s current law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of currents entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero. Mathematically, N n= 1 i n = 0

19 Kirchhoff s Current Law (2) Determine the current I for the circuit shown in the figure below. I (-3) -2 = 0 I = -5A We can consider the whole enclosed area as one node. This indicates that the actual current for I is flowing in the opposite direction.

20 Kirchhoff s Voltage Law (1) Kirchhoff s voltage law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero. M v n m= 1 Mathematically, 0 =

21 Example Electrical Engineering Electric Circuits Theory Kirchhoff s Voltage Law (2) Applying the KVL equation for the circuit of the figure below. v a - v 1 - v b - v 2 - v 3 = 0 V 1 = I R 1 ; v 2 = I R 2 ; v 3 = I R 3 v a -v b = I (R 1 + R 2 + R 3 ) I = R v v a b 1 + R2 + R3

22 Series Circuit and Voltage Division (1) Series: Two or more elements are in series if they are cascaded or connected sequentially and consequently carry the same current. The equivalent resistance of any number of resistors connected in a series is the sum of the individual resistances. R eq = The voltage divider can be expressed as R 1 + R R N = N n= 1 R n v n = R 1 + R 2 R n + + R N v

23 Series Circuit and Voltage Division (2) Example 10V and 5Ω are in series.

24 Parallel Circuit and Current Division (1) Parallel: Two or more elements are in parallel if they are connected to the same two nodes and consequently have the same voltage across them. The equivalent resistance of a circuit with N resistors in parallel is: 1 R = 1 R + 1 R + + eq 1 2 R The total current i is shared by the N resistors in inverse proportion to their resistances. The current divider can be expressed as: v i Req in = = R R n 1 n

25 Parallel Circuit and Current Division (2) Example 2Ω, 3Ω and 2A are in parallel

26 BSC Modul 1: Electric Circuits Theory Basics Current, Voltage, Impedance Ohm s Law, Kirchhoff's Laws, Circuit Theorems Methods of Network Analysis Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

27 Linearity Property (1) It is the property of an element describing a linear relationship between cause and effect. A linear circuit is one whose output is linearly related (or directly proportional) to its input. Homogeneity (scaling) property v = i R k v = k i R Additive property v 1 = i 1 R and v 2 = i 2 R v = (i 1 + i 2 ) R = v 1 + v 2

28 Example Electrical Engineering Electric Circuits Theory Linearity Property (2) By assume I o = 1 A for I S = 5 A, use linearity to find the actual value of I o in the circuit shown below. Answer: I o = 3A 28

29 Superposition Theorem (1) It states that the voltage across (or current through) an element in a linear circuit is the algebraic sum of the voltage across (or currents through) that element due to EACH independent source acting alone. The principle of superposition helps us to analyze a linear circuit with more than one independent source by calculating the contribution of each independent source separately.

30 Superposition Theorem (2) We consider the effects of the 8A and 20V sources one by one, then add the two effects together for final v o.

31 Superposition Theorem (3) Steps to apply superposition principle 1. Turn off all independent sources except one source. Find the output (voltage or current) due to that active source using nodal or mesh analysis. 2. Repeat step 1 for each of the other independent sources. 3. Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the contributions due to the independent sources.

32 Superposition Theorem (4) Two things have to be keep in mind: 1. When we say turn off all other independent sources: Independent voltage sources are replaced by 0 V (short circuit) and Independent current sources are replaced by 0 A (open circuit). 2. Dependent sources are left intact because they are controlled by circuit variables.

33 Example Electrical Engineering Electric Circuits Theory Superposition Theorem (5) Use the superposition theorem to find v in the circuit shown below. 3A is discarded by open-circuit 6V is discarded by short-circuit Answer: v = 10V

34 Source Transformation (1) An equivalent circuit is one whose v-i characteristics are identical with the original circuit. It is the process of replacing a voltage source v S in series with a resistor R by a current source i S in parallel with a resistor R, or vice versa.

35 Source Transformation (2) + - (a) Independent source transform + - (b) Dependent source transform R v s open circuit voltage i s short circuit current Remarks: = v i The arrow of the current source is directed toward the positive terminal of the voltage source. The source transformation is not possible when R = 0 for voltage source and R = for current source. s s

36 Source Transformation (3) Example Find v o in the circuit shown below using source transformation.

37 Thevenin s Theorem (1) It states that a linear two-terminal circuit (Fig. a) can be replaced by an equivalent circuit (Fig. b) consisting of a voltage source V TH in series with a resistor R TH, where V Th is the open-circuit voltage at the terminals. R Th is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals when the independent sources are turned off.

38 Thevenin s Theorem (2) Example 6 Ω 6 Ω Using Thevenin s theorem, find the equivalent circuit to the left of the terminals in the circuit shown below. Hence find i. (a) 4 Ω R Th 6 Ω 2A 6 Ω 2A 4 Ω + V T h (b) Answer: V TH = 6V, R TH = 3Ω, i = 1.5A

39 Norton s Theorem (1) It states that a linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit of a current source I N in parallel with a resistor R N, Where I N is the short circuit current through the terminals. R N is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals when the independent sources are turned off. The Thevenin s and Norton equivalent circuits are related by a source transformation.

40 Norton s Theorem (2) Example Find the Norton equivalent circuit of the circuit shown below. v x + 6 Ω 2v x + i x 2 Ω + v x i 1V + (a) 2v x + 6 Ω 10 A 2 Ω + v x I sc Answer: R N = 1Ω, I N = 10A (b)

41 EE Modul 1: Electric Circuits Theory Current, Voltage, Impedance Ohm s Law, Kirchhoff's Laws Circuit Theorems Methods of Network Analysis

42 Introduction Things we need to know in solving any resistive circuit with current and voltage sources only: Ohm s Law b Kirchhoff s Current Laws (KCL) n-1 Number of equations Kirchhoff s Voltage Laws (KVL) b (n-1) Number of branch currents and branch voltages = 2b (variables) mesh = independend loop Problem: Number of equations!

43 Mesh Analysis (1) 1. Mesh analysis provides a general procedure for analyzing circuits using mesh currents as the circuit variables. 2. Mesh analysis applies KVL to find unknown currents. 3. A mesh is a loop which does not contain any other loops within it (independent loop).

44 Mesh Analysis (2) Example circuit with independent voltage sources Equations: R 1 i 1 + (i 1 i 2 ) R 3 = V 1 R 2 i 2 + R 3 (i 2 i 1 ) = -V 2 reordered: Note: i 1 and i 2 are mesh current (imaginative, not measurable directly) I 1, I 2 and I 3 are branch current (real, measurable directly) I 1 = i 1 ; I 2 = i 2 ; I 3 = i 1 - i 2 (R 1 + R 3 ) i 1 - i 2 R 3 = V 1 - R 3 i 1 + (R 2 + R 3 ) i 2 = -V 2

45 Mesh Analysis (3) Formalization: Network equations by inspection. ( R1 + R R3 3 ) ( R 2 R + Impedance matrix 3 R 3 i ) i 1 2 = V1 V General rules: 1. Main diagonal: ring resistance of mesh n 2. Other elements: connection resistance between meshes n and m Sign depends on direction of mesh currents! 2 Excitation Mesh currents

46 Mesh Analysis (4) Example: By inspection, write the mesh-current equations in matrix form for the circuit below.

47 Nodal Analysis (1) It provides a general procedure for analyzing circuits using node voltages as the circuit variables. Example 3

48 Nodal Analysis (2) Steps to determine the node voltages: 1. Select a node as the reference node. 2. Assign voltages v 1,v 2,,v n-1 to the remaining n-1 nodes. The voltages are referenced with respect to the reference node. 3. Apply KCL to each of the n-1 non-reference nodes. Use Ohm s law to express the branch currents in terms of node voltages. 4. Solve the resulting simultaneous equations to obtain the unknown node voltages.

49 Nodal Analysis (3) Example Apply KCL at node 1 and 2 v 1 v 2 G 3 G 1 v 1 + (v 1 v 2 ) G 3 = 1A G 2 v 2 + G 3 (v 2 v 1 ) = - 4A reordered: (G 1 + G 3 ) v 1 - v 2 G 3 = 1A - G 3 v 1 + (G 2 + G 3 ) v 2 = - 4A G 1 G 2 3

50 Nodal Analysis (4) Formalization: Network equations by inspection. General rules: ( G1 + G G3 3 ) ( G G G Admittance matrix 3 v ) v 1 2 = 1A 2A 1. Main diagonal: sum of connected admittances at node n 2. Other elements: connection admittances between nodes n and m Sign: negative! Excitation Node voltages

51 Nodal Analysis (5) Example: By inspection, write the node-voltage equations in matrix form for the circuit below.

52 Summary

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