# Analog and Digital Filters Anthony Garvert November 13, 2015

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Analog and Digital Filters Anthony Garvert November 13, 2015"

## Transcription

1 Analog and Digital Filters Anthony Garvert November 13, 2015 Abstract In circuit analysis and performance, a signal transmits some form of information, such as a voltage or current. However, over a range of frequencies, not all of this signal is desirable. In audio circuits, for instance, factors such as ambient noise can affect what one would want to actually measure, record, and output. Thus, these extraneous portions of the signal should be cut out. This is done using a type of circuit known as a filter, which will pass and potentially amplify a certain desirable frequency signal, while simply attenuating the signal in other frequency regions. Keywords To properly learn about filter design, several key concepts must be covered. The first and most important concept is known as the gain of the circuit. This is simply the ratio of the output voltage or current to the input voltage or current. This gain depends on frequency, due to the frequencyvariant nature of capacitors and inductors. The next important concept to discuss bode plots. A bode plot will plot the magnitude and phase of the circuit gain, H(s), against the frequency of the circuit, on a logarithmic frequency scale. Figure 1. An example of the magnitude (above) and phase (below) of a bode plot. 1

2 Next, it is crucial to discuss the various types of filters that can be implemented. The first is a lowpass filter, which will allow lower-frequency signals to pass, and attenuate the high-frequency signals. The high-pass filter will perform the opposite function, instead allowing the higherfrequency signals to pass and attenuating the lower frequencies. Finally, the band-pass filter will pass a specific band of frequencies, while attenuating all signals lower and higher than that frequency band. In each of these types of circuits, there exists a specific frequency known as the cutoff frequency, which is the point at which the circuit gain drops 3dB from the pass band gain. This cutoff frequency represents the point where the filter transitions from passing a frequency to attenuating it. The last crucial concept to cover is the difference between analog and digital filters. Analog filters are created from circuit elements including resistors, inductors, capacitors, and operational amplifiers. Digital filters are created by converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal, and then altering it using simple mathematics (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) and the memory storage capabilities of a microcontroller. This signal will be converted back into a continuous signal and output. Introduction The signal that will be filtered in this instance is an audio sample of a diamond being polished, which will be picked up by a directional microphone. The process of polishing a diamond will tend to emit sounds at certain frequencies indicating the smoothness of the diamond surface. However, there are several kinds of noise that might interfere with the measurement of the noise strictly emitted between the diamond and polishing wheel. Such noises include the ambient noise of the environment, as well as the noise created by the machine without a diamond touching its surface. However, it is still important to monitor the noise created by the machine for balance purposes. Thus, filters will be used to separate out the different kind of noise and attenuate the unwanted parts of the signal. Objective The main objective is to create an effective band-pass filter to focus on the noise emitted by the diamond and machine. An analog high-pass filter will be used to filter out the ambient noise (any noise less than 5 khz) created by the environment around the diamond polishing machine. The higher end of the frequency measurement will be determined by the sensitivity of the microphone, thus creating the entire band of 5-20 khz. After this ambient noise is filtered out, the signal will be digitally filtered to differentiate the remaining types of noise. This digital filter will separate the signal into machine noise (5-12 khz) and the diamond noise (12-20 khz). The following steps will detail the process of designing the corresponding filters. Process The first aspect to the filter design incorporates an analog filter to clip off the ambient sounds lower than 5 khz. This analog filter can be chosen using a design from TI (Figure 3). This circuit is a Sallen-Key design with a Butterworth-type response. This design allows one to easily choose the resistor and capacitor values to achieve the desired cutoff frequency at 5 khz. This is the frequency shown on the x-axis in Figure 2. 2

3 Figure 2. The bode plot of the low-pass filter, eliminating all the ambient noise and machine noise below 5 khz. Figure 3. The circuit schematic of the high-pass analog filter, with values to be determined. The first step is to pick values for C1 and C2 which are equal to each other. Next, the value of R1 can be chosen using the cutoff frequency and value of C1, with the equation below: Next, the value of R2 can be chosen using the value of C1 and the cutoff frequency: Finally, Cout will be chosen as a value 100 to 1000 times C1. This capacitor will help stabilize the signal and avoid noise and rippling, especially in the pass band. It is important to consider that the values of R1, R2, C1, and C2 should be standard values. They will contain tolerances that will vary the values slightly, which is why the signal will be filtered again using a digital filter. When this signal is filtered into two distinct regions, 5-12 khz and khz, it will be done so digitally. The digital filter is implemented by using a third order lattice wave filter. This filter alters the values of the discrete signal it receives from the analog-to-digital converter (Figure 4). 3

4 Figure 4. The flowchart describing the process of filtering a signal digitally. The microprocessor only uses simple mathematics, as well as values for an input using a program written in the SLAA331 datasheet provided by TI. This datasheet references a program which will take in the parameters for a particular type of filter, and then output the values of three variables alpha in order to implement the desired filter. The prompts for this program are shown below, as well as the input for this particular example: Type: LP Design: Butter Structure: Normal Pass Band Edge Frequency: 12,000 Stop Band Edge Frequency: 13,000 Sampling Frequency: 32,000 Pass Band Ripple: 0.5 Stop Band Attenuation: 18 Design Margin: 0.5 Number of Bits for Binary: 16 Type: HP Design: Butter Structure: Normal Pass Band Edge Frequency: 12,000 Stop Band Edge Frequency: 11,000 Sampling Frequency: 32,000 Pass Band Ripple: 0.5 Stop Band Attenuation: 18 Design Margin: 0.5 Number of Bits for Binary: 16 In this case, this will filter the signal digitally after the analog filter has attenuated everything lower than 5 khz. The low pass filter will pass the frequencies ranging from 5-12 khz, which will be generated by the machine and spinning wheel. The high-pass filter will attenuate the machine noises from 5-12 khz, and will pass instead the khz frequencies. However, the upper end of this band is determined by the sensitivity of the microphone, as many microphones today have a sensitivity of 16 khz or less. The program above will output alpha values based on what it calculates the order of the circuit to be. The order is determined by how many inputs are used in the simple mathematics. For a third order circuit, it will take two previous inputs that are stored in the memory, and use the current input as the third. These alpha values are plugged into the code shown below, and the high-pass and low-pass filters are created after altering the values. The variables can be stored in a microcontroller such as an Arduino or MSP430. alpha0 = ; alpha1 = ; alpha2 = ; inp1 = voltageraw; inp2 = delay0; p1 = inp1 - inp2; outp2 = (alpha0 * p1) + inp2; 4

5 delay0 = outp2; outp1 = outp2 - p1; topout = outp1; inp1 = delay1; inp2 = delay2; p1 = inp1 - inp2; outp2 = (alpha2 * p1) + inp2; delay2 = outp2; outp1 = outp2 - p1; inp1 = voltageraw; inp2 = outp1; p1 = inp2 - inp1; outp2 = (alpha1 * p1) - inp2; delay1 = outp2; outp1 = outp2 - p1; botout = outp1; lpfout = ((topout + botout)/2); hpfout = ((topout - botout)/2); Results/Conclusion The final product of this design will be a band-pass filter separated into two portions for each of the two noises that will be analyzed. The frequencies will be sampled at a certain rate and output to be analyzed. It is important to consider the noise created by the filters that might distort the signal. Equally significant is the sampling rate, which must be at least twice the bandwidth of the signal. The final factor that must be considered is the rate of attenuation, which might alter the cutoff frequency. The Butterworth filter effectively combats this issue, but there are filters that exist which have an even steeper attenuation rate but will cause more ripple in the pass band of the signal. 5 khz 12 khz 20 khz Figure 6. The final design of the bandpass filter, with the sound less than 5 khz being ambient noise and the sound greater than 20 khz being inaudible. 5

6 References 1. Analog Devices, Inc, Analog Filters, Linear Circuit Design Handbook. Ch. 8. Newnes, Bierl, Lutz, MSP430 Mixed Signal Microcontroller, SLAS735J, Texas Instruments, Venkat, Kripasagar, Wave Digital Filtering Using the MSP430, SLAA331, Texas Instruments, Carter, Bruce, Filter Design in Thirty Seconds, SLOA093, Texas Instruments,

### Chapter 5. Basic Filters

Chapter 5 Basic Filters 39 CHAPTER 5. BASIC FILTERS 5.1 Pre-Lab The answers to the following questions are due at the beginning of the lab. If they are not done at the beginning of the lab, no points will

### Analog Filters. A common instrumentation filter application is the attenuation of high frequencies to avoid frequency aliasing in the sampled data.

Analog Filters Filters can be used to attenuate unwanted signals such as interference or noise or to isolate desired signals from unwanted. They use the frequency response of a measuring system to alter

### FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

### Lab 4 Op Amp Filters

Lab 4 Op Amp Filters Figure 4.0. Frequency Characteristics of a BandPass Filter Adding a few capacitors and resistors to the basic operational amplifier (op amp) circuit can yield many interesting analog

### How to Design 10 khz filter. (Using Butterworth filter design) Application notes. By Vadim Kim

How to Design 10 khz filter. (Using Butterworth filter design) Application notes. By Vadim Kim This application note describes how to build a 5 th order low pass, high pass Butterworth filter for 10 khz

### EXPERIMENT 6 - ACTIVE FILTERS

1.THEORY HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING ELE-313 ELECTRONICS LABORATORY II EXPERIMENT 6 - ACTIVE FILTERS A filter is a circuit that has designed to pass a specified

### Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design

EEE 194 RF Laboratory Exercise 5 1 Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design I. OBJECTIVES A. Design a third order low-pass Chebyshev filter with a cutoff frequency of 330 MHz and 3 db ripple with equal terminations

### Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH005/105)

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PHYSICS MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY DIVISION Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH5/15) Analog Electronics Active Filters Copyright c Virgínio de Oliveira Sannibale, 23 (Revision

### Filters and Waveform Shaping

Physics 333 Experiment #3 Fall 211 Filters and Waveform Shaping Purpose The aim of this experiment is to study the frequency filtering properties of passive (R, C, and L) circuits for sine waves, and the

### Analog signals are those which are naturally occurring. Any analog signal can be converted to a digital signal.

3.3 Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) Analog signals are those which are naturally occurring. Any analog signal can be converted to a digital signal. 1 3.3 Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) WCB/McGraw-Hill

### Chapter 21 Band-Pass Filters and Resonance

Chapter 21 Band-Pass Filters and Resonance In Chapter 20, we discussed low-pass and high-pass filters. The simplest such filters use RC components resistors and capacitors. It is also possible to use resistors

### The Electronic Scale

The Electronic Scale Learning Objectives By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain what an operational amplifier is and how it can be used in amplifying signal

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different

Introduction In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different frequency regions. In analog electronics, four classes of filters exist to process an input signal: low-pass,

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### Modern Definition of Terms

Filters In the operation of electronic systems and circuits, the basic function of a filter is to selectively pass, by frequency, desired signals and to suppress undesired signals. The amount of insertion

### Designing Gain and Offset in Thirty Seconds

Application Report SLOA097 February 2002 Designing Gain and Offset in Thirty Seconds Bruce Carter High Performance Linear ABSTRACT This document discusses how to design an operational amplifier (op amp)

### Bharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 Active Filters

Bharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 mbharat@cory.eecs.berkeley.edu 1. Introduction Active Filters In this chapter, we will deal with active filter circuits. Why even bother with active filters? Answer: Audio.

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF and BPF.

Laboratory of the circuits and signals Laboratory work No. 4 ACTIVE FILTERS Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF

Application Report SLOA093 December 2001 Filter Design in Thirty Seconds Bruce Carter High Performance Analog ABSTRACT Need a filter fast? No theory, very little math just working filter designs, and in

### Application Report SLOA024B

Application Report July 999 Revised September 2002 Mixed Signal Products SLOA024B IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications,

### More Filter Design on a Budget

Application Report SLOA096 December 2001 More Filter Design on a Budget Bruce Carter High Performance Linear Products ABSTRACT This document describes filter design from the standpoint of cost. Filter

### CHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

ELECTRICAL CHAPTER 6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 1. State the fundamental concepts of Fourier analysis. 2. Determine the output of a filter for a given input consisting of sinusoidal

### NAPIER University School of Engineering. Electronic Systems Module : SE32102 Analogue Filters Design And Simulation. 4 th order Butterworth response

NAPIER University School of Engineering Electronic Systems Module : SE32102 Analogue Filters Design And Simulation. 4 th order Butterworth response In R1 R2 C2 C1 + Opamp A - R1 R2 C2 C1 + Opamp B - Out

### AN-649 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 02062-9106 Tel: 781/329-4700 Fax: 781/326-8703

APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 02062-9106 Tel: 781/329-4700 Fax: 781/326-8703 www.analog.com Using the Analog Devices Active Filter Design Tool By Hank Zumbahlen INTRODUCTION

### ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequency-dependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence

### What you will do. Build a 3-band equalizer. Connect to a music source (mp3 player) Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter

Audio Filters What you will do Build a 3-band equalizer Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter Connect to a music source (mp3 player) Adjust the strength of low, high, and middle frequencies

### APPLICATION NOTE - 016

APPLICATION NOTE - 016 Testing RFI Line Filters Frequency Response Analysis Testing RFI line filters Radio frequency interference (RFI) is unwanted electromagnetic noise within a radio communications frequency

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

### Analogue Filter Design

Analogue Filter Design Module: SEA Signals and Telecoms Lecturer: URL: http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~stsgrimb/ email: j.b.grimbleby reading.ac.uk Number of Lectures: 5 Reference text: Design with Operational

### University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Communication Engineering Lab.

OBJECT: To establish the pass-band characteristic. APPARTUS: 1- Signal function generator 2- Oscilloscope 3- Resisters,capacitors 4- A.V.O. meter. THEORY: Any combination of passive (R, L, and C) and/or

### EE133 Winter 2002 Cookbook Filter Guide Welcome to the Cookbook Filter Guide!

Welcome to the! Don t have enough time to spice out that perfect filter before Aunt Thelma comes down for dinner? Well this handout is for you! The following pages detail a fast set of steps towards the

### Chapter 16. Active Filter Design Techniques. Excerpted from Op Amps for Everyone. Literature Number SLOA088. Literature Number: SLOD006A

hapter 16 Active Filter Design Techniques Literature Number SLOA088 Excerpted from Op Amps for Everyone Literature Number: SLOD006A hapter 16 Active Filter Design Techniques Thomas Kugelstadt 16.1 Introduction

### LM833,LMF100,MF10. Application Note 779 A Basic Introduction to Filters - Active, Passive,and. Switched Capacitor. Literature Number: SNOA224A

LM833,LMF100,MF10 Application Note 779 A Basic Introduction to Filters - Active, Passive,and Switched Capacitor Literature Number: SNOA224A A Basic Introduction to Filters Active, Passive, and Switched-Capacitor

### CONVERTERS. Filters Introduction to Digitization Digital-to-Analog Converters Analog-to-Digital Converters

CONVERTERS Filters Introduction to Digitization Digital-to-Analog Converters Analog-to-Digital Converters Filters Filters are used to remove unwanted bandwidths from a signal Filter classification according

### Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier

ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Laboratory work Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier Task 1: Design a broadband amplifier using a bipolar NPN transistor in a common emitter orientation. For input signal

### Using the Texas Instruments Filter Design Database

Application Report SLOA062 July, 2001 Bruce Carter Using the Texas Instruments Filter Design Database High Performance Linear Products ABSTRACT Texas Instruments applications personnel have decades of

### A Differential Op-Amp Circuit Collection

Application Report SLOA0 July 00 Bruce Carter A Differential OpAmp Circuit Collection High Performance Linear Products ABSTRACT All opamps are differential input devices. Designers are accustomed to working

### Suggested Reading. Signals and Systems 12-2

12 Filtering In discussing Fourier transforms, we developed a number of important properties, among them the convolution property and the modulation property. The convolution property forms the basis for

### Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals

Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals Donald J. VanderLaan November 26, 2008 Abstract. Modern day electronics are often battery powered, forcing the

### A Basic Introduction to Filters Active Passive and Switched-Capacitor

A Basic Introduction to Filters Active Passive and Switched-Capacitor 1 0 INTRODUCTION Filters of some sort are essential to the operation of most electronic circuits It is therefore in the interest of

### CTCSS REJECT HIGH PASS FILTERS IN FM RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AN EVALUATION. Virgil Leenerts WØINK 8 June 2008

CTCSS REJECT HIGH PASS FILTERS IN FM RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AN EVALUATION Virgil Leenerts WØINK 8 June 28 The response of the audio voice band high pass filter is evaluated in conjunction with the rejection

### Pressure Transducer to ADC Application

Application Report SLOA05 October 2000 Pressure Transducer to ADC Application John Bishop ABSTRACT Advanced Analog Products/OpAmp Applications A range of bridgetype transducers can measure numerous process

### Introduction to Digital Audio

Introduction to Digital Audio Before the development of high-speed, low-cost digital computers and analog-to-digital conversion circuits, all recording and manipulation of sound was done using analog techniques.

### 1 pole lowpass (Fc = 1kHz) Bode plot. 5 Magnitude (db) Frequency (Hz) Phase (deg) Frequency (Hz)

Filtered Audio Demo Max Kamenetsky In this demo you'll listen to a second segment of music, alternating with various filtered versions of it. You should try to relate what you hear to the frequency response,

### Chapter 4: Passive Analog Signal Processing

hapter 4: Passive Analog Signal Processing In this chapter we introduce filters and signal transmission theory. Filters are essential components of most analog circuits and are used to remove unwanted

### Differential Op Amp Single-Supply Design Techniques

Application Note SLOA07 September 00 Differential Op Amp Single-Supply Design Techniques Bruce Carter High Performance Linear ABSTRACT There is a lot of confusion about how to operate a fully differential

### Filter Comparison. Match #1: Analog vs. Digital Filters

CHAPTER 21 Filter Comparison Decisions, decisions, decisions! With all these filters to choose from, how do you know which to use? This chapter is a head-to-head competition between filters; we'll select

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### Lab 4 Band Pass and Band Reject Filters

Lab 4 Band Pass and Band Reject Filters Introduction During this lab you will design and build three filters. First you will build a broad-band band-pass filter by cascading the high-pass and low-pass

### Application Note 9. Digital FIR Decimator & Analog Lowpass

Application Note 9 App Note Application Note 9 Highlights Multirate FIR Design Cascade Analog Lowpass Circuit Optimization Comb Filter Correction Sin(x)/x Correction n Design Objective 16:1 FIR Decimation

### 6 Output With 1 kω in Series Between the Output and Analyzer... 7 7 Output With RC Low-Pass Filter (1 kω and 4.7 nf) in Series Between the Output

Application Report SLAA313 December 26 Out-of-Band Noise Measurement Issues for Audio Codecs Greg Hupp... Data Acquisition Products ABSTRACT This report discusses the phenomenon of out-of-band noise, and

### High Sensitivity Receiver Applications Benefit from Unique Features in 16-bit 130Msps ADC

High Sensitivity Receiver Applications Benefit from Unique Features in 16-bit 130Msps ADC RF IN RF BPF IF BPF LTC2208 ADC DDC/DSP LO1 ADC Driver Wireless receiver design requires extreme care in dealing

### Problem 9.36 Design an active lowpass filter with a gain of 4, a corner frequency of1khz,andagainroll-offrateof 60 db/decade.

Problem 9.36 Design an active lowpass filter with a gain of 4, a corner frequency of1khz,andagainroll-offrateof 60 db/decade. Solution: The roll-off rate of 60 db requires a three-stage LP filter, similar

### AN1991. Audio decibel level detector with meter driver

Rev. 2.1 20 March 2015 Application note Document information Info Keywords Abstract Content SA604A, LM358, RSSI, cellular radio The SA604A can provide a logarithmic response proportional to the input signal

### Application Note 2. Analog Audio Parametric Equalizer

Application Note 2 App Note Application Note 2 Highlights Pot and Switch Components Target Optimizer for Curve Parameters Potentiometer Analysis Noise Analysis LEQ, HEQ, BEQ Filters n Design Objective

### A Differential Op-Amp Circuit Collection

Application Report SLOA0A April 00 A Differential OpAmp Circuit Collection Bruce Carter High Performance Linear Products ABSTRACT All opamps are differential input devices. Designers are accustomed to

### Simplify communication system design while increasing available bandwidth

Simplify communication system design while increasing available bandwidth Clarence Mayott - July 13, 2015 Introduction In modern communications systems, the more bandwidth that is available, the more information

### Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in

### A Constant-current Source

A Constant-current Source Frequently, such as when you want to measure temperature with a silicon diode, it is desirable to have a source of a reproducible, constant current. Many laboratory power supplies

### Time series analysis Matlab tutorial. Joachim Gross

Time series analysis Matlab tutorial Joachim Gross Outline Terminology Sampling theorem Plotting Baseline correction Detrending Smoothing Filtering Decimation Remarks Focus on practical aspects, exercises,

### Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total

### Module 2: Op Amps Introduction and Ideal Behavior

Module 2: Op Amps Introduction and Ideal Behavior Dr. Bonnie H. Ferri Professor and Associate Chair School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Introduce Op Amps and examine ideal behavior School of

### Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power

Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power Kris Lokere The op amp produces differential outputs, making it ideal for processing fully differential analog signals or taking

### UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

### The front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal.

Many receivers must be capable of handling a very wide range of signal powers at the input while still producing the correct output. This must be done in the presence of noise and interference which occasionally

### An Adjustable Audio Filter System for the Receiver - Part 1

1 of 7 An Adjustable Audio Filter System for the Receiver - Part 1 The audio response is shaped as required using Switched Capacitor Filters Lloyd Butler VK5BR Front panel view of the original receiver

### 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal.

CHAPTER 3: OSCILLOSCOPE AND SIGNAL GENERATOR 3.1 Introduction to oscilloscope 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal. 2. The graph show signal change

### 2: Audio Basics. Audio Basics. Mark Handley

2: Audio Basics Mark Handley Audio Basics Analog to Digital Conversion Sampling Quantization Aliasing effects Filtering Companding PCM encoding Digital to Analog Conversion 1 Analog Audio Sound Waves (compression

### PIEZO FILM LAB AMPLIFIER

SPECIFICATIONS Charge or Voltage Mode Operation BNC Input and Output 0.01 to 1000 mv/pc Sensitivity Range in Charge Mode 1M to 1G Input Resistance, -40 to 40dB Gain in Voltage Mode Multi-Pole, Low-Pass

### PIEZO FILTERS INTRODUCTION

For more than two decades, ceramic filter technology has been instrumental in the proliferation of solid state electronics. A view of the future reveals that even greater expectations will be placed on

### Monolithic Crystal Filters 2 Quartz resonator internally coupled utilizing piezoelectric effect.

The following describes filter types, what they do and how they perform. Along with definitions and detailed graphs, we are hopeful this information is both useful and informative. Filter Types Monolithic

### TDA2040. 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER

20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESCRIPTION The TDA2040 is a monolithic integrated circuit in Pentawatt package, intended for use as an audio class AB amplifier. Typically it provides 22W output power

### 11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

### Fundamental Concepts in EMG Signal Acquisition

Fundamental Concepts in EMG Signal Acquisition Gianluca De Luca Copyright DelSys Inc, 2 Rev.2., March 23 The information contained in this document is presented free of charge, and can only be used for

### The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive

The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive approximation converter. 1 2 The idea of sampling is fully covered

### Fully Differential Op Amps Made Easy

Application Report SLOA099 - May 2002 Fully Differential Op Amps Made Easy Bruce Carter High Performance Linear ABSTRACT Fully differential op amps may be unfamiliar to some designers. This application

### Designing a Feedback ANC headset using AS3435

Designing a Feedback ANC headset using AS3435 By Horst Gether Product Manager for Active Noise Cancellation ams AG www.ams.com My previous article (Design an ANC headset using AS3415) provided insight

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### SUMMARY. Additional Digital/Software filters are included in Chart and filter the data after it has been sampled and recorded by the PowerLab.

This technique note was compiled by ADInstruments Pty Ltd. It includes figures and tables from S.S. Young (2001): Computerized data acquisition and analysis for the life sciences. For further information

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### Application Report. 1 Introduction. 2 Resolution of an A-D Converter. 2.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Harman Grewal... ABSTRACT

Application Report SLAA323 JULY 2006 Oversampling the ADC12 for Higher Resolution Harman Grewal... ABSTRACT This application report describes the theory of oversampling to achieve resolutions greater than

### Lecture 24. Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works)

Lecture 24 Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works) Copyright 2014 by Mark Horowitz 1 Roadmap: How Does This Work? 2 Processor Board 3 More Detailed Roadmap

### Analog Representations of Sound

Analog Representations of Sound Magnified phonograph grooves, viewed from above: The shape of the grooves encodes the continuously varying audio signal. Analog to Digital Recording Chain ADC Microphone

### Analog to Digital Conversion of Sound with the MSP430F2013

Analog to Digital Conversion of Sound with the MSP430F2013 Christopher Johnson 4/2/2010 Abstract Several modern-day applications require that analog signals be converted to digital signals in order to

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### Choosing Components Part 2: Audio Amplifier Basics

Choosing Components Part 2: Audio Amplifier Basics AUDIO AMPLIFIERS Once upon a time, if you were designing an electronic system and you needed an audio amplifier, you had to design it yourself. Today

### CHAPTER 8 ANALOG FILTERS

ANALOG FILTERS CHAPTER 8 ANALOG FILTERS SECTION 8.: INTRODUCTION 8. SECTION 8.2: THE TRANSFER FUNCTION 8.5 THE SPLANE 8.5 F O and Q 8.7 HIGHPASS FILTER 8.8 BANDPASS FILTER 8.9 BANDREJECT (NOTCH) FILTER

### See Horenstein 4.3 and 4.4

EE 462: Laboratory # 4 DC Power Supply Circuits Using Diodes by Drs. A.V. Radun and K.D. Donohue (2/14/07) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506 Updated

### Practical Analog Filters Overview Types of practical filters Filter specifications Tradeoffs Many examples

Practical Analog Filters Overview Types of practical filters Filter specifications Tradeoffs Many examples J. McNames Portland State University ECE 222 Practical Analog Filters Ver. 1.4 1 Ideal Filters

### Design of op amp sine wave oscillators

Design of op amp sine wave oscillators By on Mancini Senior Application Specialist, Operational Amplifiers riteria for oscillation The canonical form of a feedback system is shown in Figure, and Equation

### Voltage. Oscillator. Voltage. Oscillator

fpa 147 Week 6 Synthesis Basics In the early 1960s, inventors & entrepreneurs (Robert Moog, Don Buchla, Harold Bode, etc.) began assembling various modules into a single chassis, coupled with a user interface

### Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

### AN48. Application Note DESIGNNOTESFORA2-POLEFILTERWITH DIFFERENTIAL INPUT. by Steven Green. 1. Introduction AIN- AIN+ C2

Application Note DESIGNNOTESFORA2-POLEFILTERWITH DIFFERENTIAL INPUT by Steven Green C5 AIN- R3 C2 AIN C2 R3 C5 Figure 1. 2-Pole Low-Pass Filter with Differential Input 1. Introduction Many of today s Digital-to-Analog

### LABORATORY EXPERIMENT. Infrared Transmitter/Receiver

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Infrared Transmitter/Receiver (Note to Teaching Assistant: The week before this experiment is performed, place students into groups of two and assign each group a specific frequency

### The Class-D Amplifier

The Class-D Amplifier (From the book Introduction to Electroacoustics and Audio Amplifier Design, Second Edition - Revised Printing, by W. Marshall Leach, Jr., published by Kendall/Hunt, c 2001.) A class-d

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus