Fig. 1 :Block diagram symbol of the operational amplifier. Characteristics ideal op-amp real op-amp

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Fig. 1 :Block diagram symbol of the operational amplifier. Characteristics ideal op-amp real op-amp"

Transcription

1 Experiment: General Description An operational amplifier (op-amp) is defined to be a high gain differential amplifier. When using the op-amp with other mainly passive elements, op-amp circuits with various characteristics result. Lie the transistor, the op-amp belongs to the standard elements of circuit design []. In electronic circuit diagrams the op-amp is drawn as bloc diagram symbol in accordance to Fig.. Terminals for operating voltage, offset voltage compensation, frequency response compensation etc. frequently are not drawn. Fig. :Bloc diagram symbol of the operational amplifier When designing circuits with op-amps, they normally are based on the "ideal operational amplifier", whose characteristics are represented in Table. For comparison the data areas of real op-amps were listed as well. Characteristics ideal op-amp real op-amp DC voltage difference amplification o 5 o 5 common mode rejection CM 9 db CM 4dB Input impedances Z P and Z 6 Ω Z P,Z 5 Ω Input currents I P and I,pA I P, I,5µA Output resistance Z a 5 Ω Z a 5Ω Slew rate S,2 /µs S 5 /µs Transit frequency f T, MHz f T 6 MHz Table : Characteristics of ideal and real operational amplifiers

2 . Basic Circuits Circuits with op-amps mainly are based on two basic circuits, the inverting amplifier according to Fig. 2a and the non-inverting amplifier according to Fig. 2b. Fig. 2: Basic circuits with operational amplifiers a) inverting amplifiers b) non-inverting amplifier.. Calculation of the Inverting Amplifier The following equations result when setting mesh and node equations according to Fig.2a: Z I I I a 2 + a Z e d d a + d + a + a a 2 a a a I + I + I 2

3 The gain i of the inverting op-amp circuit is: i a + ( + ) + Z (.) e In Eq. (l.l) Z e can be neglected. When solving for the gain we receive: i +, (.2) using + feedbac factor. For a large differential gain, i becomes: I ( ). (.3)..2 Calculation of the on-inverting Amplifier For the non-inverting amplifier according to Fig. 2b we receive:. + (.4) If the differential gain is very large, Eq. (.4) simplifies to: I with +. (.5).2 Offset The differential amplifier stages of the op-amps are implemented with bipolar transistors or field-effect transistors. For the operating point adjustment of these transistors base or gate currents are necessary. With MOSFETS, parasitic currents occur. Examples for I P and I are given in Table. The linear average value of these currents is called idle or bias current: I B,5 ( I P + I ), (.6) while the difference is called offset current: I off I P - I. (.7) 3

4 The current I from Fig.2 through the resistors and causes voltages acting as additional input voltages. For the inverting amplifier this influence can be compensated by putting a resistor p onto the non-inverting input as seen in Fig. 7. With the current I P a further input voltage is generated. It compensates for the input voltage given as I, if I P and I are equal and p. The offset current I OFF prevents a complete alignment. Although the differential voltage d of a real operational amplifier is zero, DC voltage can occur at the output of the op-amp as well. In order to compensate this output voltage, DC voltage must be applied at the input. This offset voltage is called Off which is in the order of some m and subject to thermal drift. Besides the offset compensation circuits, which produce additional voltages in front of the operational amplifier, there are some op-amps with special pins to perform this compensation. They can be connected to a trimming potentiometer according to Fig.3a and Fig. 3b. ot all applications of operational amplifiers do rely on correct offset compensation (e.g., pure AC amplifiers with AC coupling). In these cases an offset is omitted. Fig. 3: Some possibilities of offset compensation.3 Common-Mode Gain and Common-Mode ejection If both inputs of the op-amp are connected to the same voltage eg, the differential voltage between both inputs is zero. In case of offset-compensation the output voltage ag should be zero as well. In reality this will not occur. This results in the definition of a so-called common-mode gain g : g ag. (.8) e g The common mode rejection ratio G relates the open-loop gain to the common-mode gain: G g. (.9) 4

5 .4 Slew ate In a real op-amp both, output and internal voltages and currents are limited. Therefore, internal parasitic capacitors can only be loaded with finite currents. That is one reason for the output voltage change delay of an op-amp. The amplifier responds to an input voltage step with a ramp shaped output signal. This signal's gradient is called 'slew rate' (S). The slew rate influences in particular the reaction to large signals: A sine output voltage of the amplitude Û A and the frequency f can reach a maximum gradient: d dt t f a ( ) 2π \$. max A (.) For a given signal amplitude Û A the maximum frequency f max is limited by the slew rate S to: S f. 2π (.) max \$ A When these boundaries are not respected, nonlinear distortions occur..5 Frequency esponse and Stability Apart from the slew rate the small signal behavior of an op-amp limits the bandwidth where the circuits can be used. We have to consider that an op-amp usually consists of several amplifier stages (differential amplifier stage, intermediate stage, output stage). Each of these stages shows a low-pass behavior of first order with threshold frequency ω gn. The gain of the op-amp can therefore be given in complex form: ( jω ). ω ω ω ( + j ) ( + j ) ( + j ) ω ω ω g g 2 g3 (.2) The transit frequency is defined as the frequency f T of an op-amp at which the gain drops below, i.e.: ( 2ω ). (.3) f T This value can only be regarded as a very preliminary criteria for the selection of opamps. In Fig. 4, the frequency and phase response are drawn logarithmically with respect to the frequency (Bode diagram) and are approximated by line segments. This approximation maes it easier to understand how frequency and phase characteristics are constructed. The linear approximation is possible only with logarithmically scaled frequency and gain axis in db..5. Stability For dimensioning op-amp - circuits a further characteristic of the op-amp - model is important. 5

6 The angle arg{((jω)} taes values between and -27 for positive frequencies. A real feedbac ratio according to Eq. (.2) to Eq. (.5) leads to instability of the circuit, if no suitable measures are taen. For the loop gain of these op-amp circuits we can state: ( jω ). ω ω ω (+ j ) ( + j ) (+ j ) ω ω ω (.4) g Instability occurs whenever the amount of the gain '(jω) is greater or equal to, and the phase shift is large enough that the inverse feedbac degenerates to a positive feedbac, i.e. the amount of the phase shift arg { (jω)} becomes smaller or equal 8. An op-amp circuit is stable for all frequencies ω that fullfil: or equivalently: (jω) < for all ω with arg{ (jω)} 8 (.5) arg{ (jω)} < 8 for all ω with (jω) > (.6) The difference between -8 and the actual angle for which (jω) is called phase reserve Φ r. It is a quantity which determines the transient behavior of an op-amp circuit. g 2 g3 Fig. 4: Typical frequency and phase response of an operational amplifier depicted in a logarithmically scaled frequency and gain axis in db(bode diagram) 6

7 .5.2 Frequency esponse Compensation If we want to avoid instability of the op-amp circuit, frequency response compensation has to be applied. Essentially, two principles can be introduced. The easiest method is lag compensation. Here the op-amp is followed by a low-pass filter with low cutoff frequency. This causes the gain to drop below unity before achieving the critical phase shift of -8. The open-loop gain results from: T ( jω ) ( jω ). (.7) ω + j ω The cutoff frequency f of the compensating low-pass depends on the feedbac ratio. If (no feedbac), then there is no need of compensation. On the other hand, if (full feedbac), then f is to be selected at least in such a way that (jω), if Φ -8 is achieved. If this is fulfilled exactly, the op-amp would have no phase reserve and the amplifier circuit would operate on the boundary between stability and instability. In Fig. 5, the low-pass compensation for a phase reserve Φ in the case of < < is drawn (solid line). A compensation with a phase reserve of 65 is considered to be the optimum in most cases. Following Eq. (.5), the non-inverting op-amp circuit reaches the amplification >. The product (jω)* equals to unity if (jω T ) has dropped to the value /. According to Fig. 5, the compensation frequency f has to be chosen such that at the frequency f T an angular phase shift of: is reached. Φ K Φ r 8 with Φ r phase reserve (.8) For the graphic construction of f we often can assume f T > f. This means that at frequency f T the compensating low-pass filter shifts the phase by - 9 additionally. The amplitude gain decreases by 2 db/decade. 7

8 Fig. 5: Frequency response compensation A few op-amps have a special pin, at which an external compensating capacitor can be attached, see Fig. 6. The resistor x is integrated into the op-amp chip. Fig. 6: Compensation circuit of an op-amp To determine the value of the compensating capacitor from Fig. 6, Eq.(.9) is used: C 2π. (.9) f x 8

9 For most of all of op-amp chips, the compensation is not achieved by insertion of an additional low-pass of low cutoff frequency, but rather by shifting the cutoff frequencies f g and f g2 (Miller compensation). Here, the compensating capacitor is not attached to ground as shown in Fig. 6, but connected to two pins of the integrated circuit of the op-amp. This method of compensation maes use of the so-called "Miller-effect" of the capacitive feedbac [2]. The first cutoff frequency f g of the non-compensated op-amp is shifted to the frequency f M fm (.2) 2π C x which causes no change in Eq.(.9) to calculate C. However, f g disappears in the Bode diagram of the compensated op-amp. The frequency f g2 is shifted with C to a higher frequency f M2 f M 2 2π x2 ( C + C C C 2. (.2) ) Here, x, x2, C and C 2 are integrated in the op-amp IC s and could not be altered from outside. Their values are not found in data sheets. If these elements must be considered in the compensation, their values have to be determined by frequency response measurements. In Fig. 5, the frequency response curve for an op-amp using this compensation technique is drawn (dotted line). When comparing low-pass with frequency shift compensation, a larger phase reserve can be attained with this frequency shift, and thus a larger bandwidth of the amplifier can be used. In the experiment, an op-amp with " Miller-compensation " is used. 2 eferences [] Tietze, Ch. Schen: Halbleiterschaltungstechni, Springer erlag Berlin, Heidelberg, ew Yor [2]. Fliege: Lineare Schaltungen mit Operationsverstärern, Springer erlag Berlin, Heidelberg, ew Yor 979 [3] W.Bauer, H.H. Wagener Bauelemente und Grundschaltungen der Eletroni, Band 2: Grundschaltungen, Carl Hanser erlag München,Wien 98. Elt 5-2 9

10 3 The Experiment 3. Equipment dual channel oscilloscope Hz...MHz multimeter function generator Hz... 5MHz frequency counter test circuit 3.2 Tass ) Before the experiment (this means: at home) the resistors and have to be calculated for the ideal and real op-amp for a DC voltage amplification of 4dB, both in the non- inverting and in the inverting circuit. Additionally, the compensating capacitor for a phase reserve Φ r 45 has to be calculated, if the cutoff frequencies of the non-compensated op-amp are given by f g 6Hz and f g2 37Hz. The open-loop gain is determined to db and the resistance x 9 Ω. Calculate a low-pass compensation. 2) The offset voltage of the op-amp has to be measured with the circuit in Fig.7. The resistor p is used only for compensation of the bias current influence. The equation for the offset voltage given here has to be derived from the theoretical equations. Fig. 7: Circuit for offset voltage detection 3) In the circuit configuration in accordance to Fig. 7, a variable resistor has to be inserted into the socet mared "offset", and the offset voltage compensation has to be carried out. For zero indication a multimeter can be used. 4) With the circuit according to Fig. 8 the offset correction has to be done. Closed switches S and S2 and tae into account the effect. For further experiments, the offset compensation should not be changed. ow the input currents as well as the offset current have to be determined. The following currents result:

11 Fig. 8: Circuit for measuring the input currents 5) According to Fig. 9, the common mode rejection ratio G has to be measured for a frequency of Hz. This is done by using the equation: 2 GdB 2log( ) a This has to be done for, 5 and 8 Fig. 9: Circuit for measurement of the common-mode rejection ratio 6) With the circuit given in Fig., the frequency response curve of an op-amp without feedbac branch can be measured and drawn on logarithmically spaced paper in a Bode-diagram. Here, the open-loop gain (jω) in db and the phase curve Φ(jω) should be approximated linearly. With an adjustable DC voltage of +/- 6 m the output voltage drift always has to be corrected. It should be adjusted during the experiment continuously, so that the average value of the output voltage is zero. The output signal of the op-amp is connected with channel 2 of

12 the oscilloscope. The frequency of the input signal has to be read from the frequency counter. Always be aware of the connection between grounds in experimental setup, the wave generator and the oscilloscope. The input voltage has to be determined in such a way that the op-amp output is not clipped. This can be detected on the oscilloscope, when the upper amplitude values of the output voltage are cut off (dynamic range exceeded) or when at higher frequencies the sine signal is distorted to a triangle signal (slew rate exceeded). Fig. : Circuit for measurement of the open-loop gain (jω) 7) The experiment according to Fig. has to be implemented with a capacitor of 22pF. Then, a new Bode diagram has to be drawn. With the newly detected cutoff frequency f the value of the resistor x can be calculated. For this, Eq.(.9) is used. 8) For an inverting amplifier according to Fig., calculate the compensating capacitor C and the resistors / for a DC gain of 8.3 db. The phase reserve should be 65. Fig. : Circuit of an inverting amplifier 2

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

ε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied

Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers By: Gary A. Ybarra Christopher E. Cramer Duke University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Durham, NC. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to examine the properties

Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

PIN CONFIGURATION FEATURES ORDERING INFORMATION ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS. D, F, N Packages

DESCRIPTION The µa71 is a high performance operational amplifier with high open-loop gain, internal compensation, high common mode range and exceptional temperature stability. The µa71 is short-circuit-protected

Precision Diode Rectifiers

by Kenneth A. Kuhn March 21, 2013 Precision half-wave rectifiers An operational amplifier can be used to linearize a non-linear function such as the transfer function of a semiconductor diode. The classic

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

PIEZO FILTERS INTRODUCTION

For more than two decades, ceramic filter technology has been instrumental in the proliferation of solid state electronics. A view of the future reveals that even greater expectations will be placed on

Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH005/105)

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PHYSICS MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY DIVISION Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH5/15) Analog Electronics Active Filters Copyright c Virgínio de Oliveira Sannibale, 23 (Revision

ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012. A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742

1.1. Differential Amplifiers ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012 A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742 Differential Amplifiers

Digital to Analog Converter. Raghu Tumati

Digital to Analog Converter Raghu Tumati May 11, 2006 Contents 1) Introduction............................... 3 2) DAC types................................... 4 3) DAC Presented.............................

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op amp circuits,

APPLICATION BULLETIN

APPLICATION BULLETIN Mailing Address: PO Box 11400, Tucson, AZ 85734 Street Address: 6730 S. Tucson Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85706 Tel: (520) 746-1111 Telex: 066-6491 FAX (520) 889-1510 Product Info: (800) 548-6132

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

BJT Amplifier Circuits

JT Amplifier ircuits As we have developed different models for D signals (simple large-signal model) and A signals (small-signal model), analysis of JT circuits follows these steps: D biasing analysis:

Design of a TL431-Based Controller for a Flyback Converter

Design of a TL431-Based Controller for a Flyback Converter Dr. John Schönberger Plexim GmbH Technoparkstrasse 1 8005 Zürich 1 Introduction The TL431 is a reference voltage source that is commonly used

Positive Feedback and Oscillators

Physics 3330 Experiment #6 Fall 1999 Positive Feedback and Oscillators Purpose In this experiment we will study how spontaneous oscillations may be caused by positive feedback. You will construct an active

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3. AC Circuit Analysis

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 AC Circuit Analysis 3.1 Introduction The steady-state behavior of circuits energized by sinusoidal sources is an important area of study for several reasons. First, the

Operational Amplifiers

Module 6 Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers The Ideal Amplifier What you ll learn in Module 6. Section 6.0. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Understand Concept of the Ideal Amplifier and the Need

Building the AMP Amplifier

Building the AMP Amplifier Introduction For about 80 years it has been possible to amplify voltage differences and to increase the associated power, first with vacuum tubes using electrons from a hot filament;

Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications

Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications Srudeep Patil, Member of Technical Staff, Maxim Integrated - January 01, 2014 This article discusses the DC limitations of

WHY DIFFERENTIAL? instruments connected to the circuit under test and results in V COMMON.

WHY DIFFERENTIAL? Voltage, The Difference Whether aware of it or not, a person using an oscilloscope to make any voltage measurement is actually making a differential voltage measurement. By definition,

LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

Current vs. ltage Feedback Amplifiers One question continuously troubles the analog design engineer: Which amplifier topology is better for my application, current feedback or voltage feedback? In most

1ED Compact A new high performance, cost efficient, high voltage gate driver IC family

1ED Compact A new high performance, cost efficient, high voltage gate driver IC family Heiko Rettinger, Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 1-12, 85579 Neubiberg, Germany, heiko.rettinger@infineon.com

Content Map For Career & Technology

Content Strand: Applied Academics CT-ET1-1 analysis of electronic A. Fractions and decimals B. Powers of 10 and engineering notation C. Formula based problem solutions D. Powers and roots E. Linear equations

Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems

Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems PHOTODIODE VOLTAGE SHORT-CIRCUIT PHOTODIODE SHORT- CIRCUIT VOLTAGE 0mV DARK ark By Luis Orozco Introduction Precision

TS321 Low Power Single Operational Amplifier

SOT-25 Pin Definition: 1. Input + 2. Ground 3. Input - 4. Output 5. Vcc General Description The TS321 brings performance and economy to low power systems. With high unity gain frequency and a guaranteed

5B5BBasic RC Oscillator Circuit

5B5BBasic RC Oscillator Circuit The RC Oscillator which is also called a Phase Shift Oscillator, produces a sine wave output signal using regenerative feedback from the resistor-capacitor combination.

2.161 Signal Processing: Continuous and Discrete Fall 2008

MT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu.6 Signal Processing: Continuous and Discrete Fall 00 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. MASSACHUSETTS

BJT Amplifier Circuits

JT Amplifier ircuits As we have developed different models for D signals (simple large-signal model) and A signals (small-signal model), analysis of JT circuits follows these steps: D biasing analysis:

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS IN ANALOG ELECTRONICS

1. The early effect in a bipolar junction transistor is caused by (a) fast turn-on (c) large collector-base reverse bias (b)fast turn-off (d) large emitter-base forward bias 2. MOSFET can be used as a

Objectives The purpose of this lab is build and analyze Differential amplifiers based on NPN transistors (or NMOS transistors).

1 Lab 03: Differential Amplifiers (BJT) (20 points) NOTE: 1) Please use the basic current mirror from Lab01 for the second part of the lab (Fig. 3). 2) You can use the same chip as the basic current mirror;

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:223 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Laboratory Experiment #4 Title: Operational Amplifiers 1 Introduction Objectives

Using the Impedance Method

Using the Impedance Method The impedance method allows us to completely eliminate the differential equation approach for the determination of the response of circuits. In fact the impedance method even

www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242

Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LF411 Low Offset, Low Drift JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description

Op Amp Circuit Collection

Op Amp Circuit Collection Note: National Semiconductor recommends replacing 2N2920 and 2N3728 matched pairs with LM394 in all application circuits. Section 1 Basic Circuits Inverting Amplifier Difference

INDUSTRIAL VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER IC AM401 PRINCIPLE FUNCTION

PINCIPLE FUNCTION Amplification and conversion of differential signals referenced to ground to adjustable industrial voltages (0...Vcc-5V, e.g. 0...5/10V etc.) Variable current/voltage source and integrated

Step Response of RC Circuits

Step Response of RC Circuits 1. OBJECTIVES...2 2. REFERENCE...2 3. CIRCUITS...2 4. COMPONENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS...3 QUANTITY...3 DESCRIPTION...3 COMMENTS...3 5. DISCUSSION...3 5.1 SOURCE RESISTANCE...3

High Speed, Low Power Monolithic Op Amp AD847

a FEATURES Superior Performance High Unity Gain BW: MHz Low Supply Current:.3 ma High Slew Rate: 3 V/ s Excellent Video Specifications.% Differential Gain (NTSC and PAL).9 Differential Phase (NTSC and

LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers

LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM118 series are precision high speed operational amplifiers designed for applications requiring wide bandwidth and high slew rate. They

Technical Note #3. Error Amplifier Design and Applications. Introduction

Technical Note #3 Error Amplifier Design and Applications Introduction All regulating power supplies require some sort of closed-loop control to force the output to match the desired value. Both digital

Application Note SAW-Components

Application Note SAW-Components Principles of SAWR-stabilized oscillators and transmitters. App: Note #1 This application note describes the physical principle of SAW-stabilized oscillator. Oscillator

Laboratory Manual. ELEN-325 Electronics

Laboratory Manual ELEN-325 Electronics Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Texas A&M University Prepared by: Dr. Jose Silva-Martinez (jsilva@ece.tamu.edu) Rida Assaad (rida@ece.tamu.edu) Raghavendra

LF442 Dual Low Power JFET Input Operational Amplifier

LF442 Dual Low Power JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description The LF442 dual low power operational amplifiers provide many of the same AC characteristics as the industry standard LM1458 while

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis An In-depth Overview of Power-off Testing Using Analog Signature Analysis www.huntron.com 1 www.huntron.com 2 Table of Contents SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION... 7 PURPOSE...

Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors - Ohmic region

Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors - Ohmic region The FET can be used in two extreme ways. One is as a voltage controlled resistance, in the so called "Ohmic" region, for which V DS < V GS - V

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Op-amps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common

Kit 106. 50 Watt Audio Amplifier

Kit 106 50 Watt Audio Amplifier T his kit is based on an amazing IC amplifier module from ST Electronics, the TDA7294 It is intended for use as a high quality audio class AB amplifier in hi-fi applications

DESCRIPTIO. LT1226 Low Noise Very High Speed Operational Amplifier

FEATRES Gain of Stable GHz Gain Bandwidth V/µs Slew Rate.6nV/ Hz Input Noise Voltage V/mV Minimum DC Gain, R L = Ω mv Maximum Input Offset Voltage ±V Minimum Output Swing into Ω ide Supply Range ±.V to

Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)

Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept: circuits Time: 30 m SW Interface: 750 Windows file: RLC.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage

Application of Rail-to-Rail Operational Amplifiers

Application Report SLOA039A - December 1999 Application of Rail-to-Rail Operational Amplifiers Andreas Hahn Mixed Signal Products ABSTRACT This application report assists design engineers to understand

Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals

Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals November 2007 Introduction Scaling and biasing the range and offset of analog signals is a useful skill for working with a variety of electronics. Not only can it interface

3.4 - BJT DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS

BJT Differential Amplifiers (6/4/00) Page 1 3.4 BJT DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS INTRODUCTION Objective The objective of this presentation is: 1.) Define and characterize the differential amplifier.) Show the

TL084 TL084A - TL084B

A B GENERAL PURPOSE JFET QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS WIDE COMMONMODE (UP TO V + CC ) AND DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE RANGE LOW INPUT BIAS AND OFFSET CURRENT OUTPUT SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTION HIGH INPUT IMPEDANCE

High Common-Mode Rejection. Differential Line Receiver SSM2141. Fax: 781/461-3113 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM FEATURES. High Common-Mode Rejection

a FEATURES High Common-Mode Rejection DC: 00 db typ 60 Hz: 00 db typ 20 khz: 70 db typ 40 khz: 62 db typ Low Distortion: 0.00% typ Fast Slew Rate: 9.5 V/ s typ Wide Bandwidth: 3 MHz typ Low Cost Complements

b 1 is the most significant bit (MSB) The MSB is the bit that has the most (largest) influence on the analog output

CMOS Analog IC Design - Chapter 10 Page 10.0-5 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A DIGITAL-ANALOG CONVERTER b 1 is the most significant bit (MSB) The MSB is the bit that has the most (largest) influence on the analog output

Chapter 16. Active Filter Design Techniques. Excerpted from Op Amps for Everyone. Literature Number SLOA088. Literature Number: SLOD006A

hapter 16 Active Filter Design Techniques Literature Number SLOA088 Excerpted from Op Amps for Everyone Literature Number: SLOD006A hapter 16 Active Filter Design Techniques Thomas Kugelstadt 16.1 Introduction

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP Purpose: To demonstrate the relationship between the voltage and current of a capacitor. Theory: A capacitor is a linear circuit element whose

Since any real component also has loss due to the resistive component, the average power dissipated is 2 2R

Quality factor, Q Reactive components such as capacitors and inductors are often described with a figure of merit called Q. While it can be defined in many ways, it s most fundamental description is: Q

LF412 Low Offset Low Drift Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier

LF412 Low Offset Low Drift Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost high speed JFET input operational amplifiers with very low input offset voltage and guaranteed

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET. TDA7000 FM radio circuit. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC01

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET File under Integrated Circuits, IC01 May 1992 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The is a monolithic integrated circuit for mono FM portable radios, where a minimum on peripheral components

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

MODULE3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. Operational Amplifier Block Diagram... 3 3. Operational Amplifier Characteristics... 3 4. Operational Amplifier Package... 4 4.1 Op Amp Pins

Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

High Speed, Low Power Dual Op Amp AD827

a FEATURES High Speed 50 MHz Unity Gain Stable Operation 300 V/ms Slew Rate 120 ns Settling Time Drives Unlimited Capacitive Loads Excellent Video Performance 0.04% Differential Gain @ 4.4 MHz 0.198 Differential

Step response of an RLC series circuit

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 5 Step response of an RLC series circuit 1 Introduction Objectives

*For stability of the feedback loop, the differential gain must vary as

ECE137a Lab project 3 You will first be designing and building an op-amp. The op-amp will then be configured as a narrow-band amplifier for amplification of voice signals in a public address system. Part

ELECTRONICS. EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps. Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EE 100 / 42 Lecture 8 p. 1/23 EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps ELECTRONICS Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

Zero voltage drop synthetic rectifier

Zero voltage drop synthetic rectifier Vratislav Michal Brno University of Technology, Dpt of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering Kolejní 4/2904, 612 00 Brno Czech Republic vratislav.michal@gmail.com,

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

PHYSICS 360 - LAB #2 Passive Low-pass and High-pass Filter Circuits and Integrator and Differentiator Circuits

PHYSICS 360 - LAB #2 Passie Low-pass and High-pass Filter Circuits and Integrator and Differentiator Circuits Objectie: Study the behaior of low-pass and high-pass filters. Study the differentiator and

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost high speed dual JFET input operational amplifiers with an internally trimmed input offset voltage

Linear Optocoupler, High Gain Stability, Wide Bandwidth

ishay Semiconductors Linear Optocoupler, High Gain Stability, Wide Bandwidth i9 DESCRIPTION The linear optocoupler consists of an AlGaAs IRLED irradiating an isolated feedback and an output PIN photodiode

Constant Current Control for DC-DC Converters

Constant Current Control for DC-DC Converters Introduction... Theory of Operation... Power Limitations... Voltage Loop Stability...2 Current Loop Compensation...3 Current Control Example...5 Battery Charger

The Operational Amplfier Lab Guide

EECS 100 Lab Guide Bharathwaj Muthuswamy The Operational Amplfier Lab Guide 1. Introduction COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR THIS LAB : 1. LM741 op-amp integrated circuit (IC) 2. 1k resistors 3. 10k resistor 4.

Description. 5k (10k) - + 5k (10k)

THAT Corporation Low Noise, High Performance Microphone Preamplifier IC FEATURES Excellent noise performance through the entire gain range Exceptionally low THD+N over the full audio bandwidth Low power

Homework Assignment 03

Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 03 1. A 9-V dc power supply generates 10 W in a resistor. What peak-to-peak amplitude should an ac source have to generate the same

6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier

6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier Mark Spatz 4/3/2014 1 1 Introduction For my final project, I designed and built a 150 Watt audio amplifier to replace the underpowered and unreliable

Application Note 148 September 2014. Does Your Op Amp Oscillate? AN148-1. Barry Harvey, Staff Design Engineer, Linear Technology Corp.

September 2014 Does Your Op Amp Oscillate? Barry Harvey, Staff Design Engineer, Linear Technology Corp. Well, it shouldn t. We analog designers take great pains to make our amplifiers stable when we design

AC 2012-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY

AC 212-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY Dr. Tooran Emami, U.S. Coast Guard Academy Tooran Emami received her M.S. and Ph.D.

30. Bode Plots. Introduction

0. Bode Plots Introduction Each of the circuits in this problem set is represented by a magnitude Bode plot. The network function provides a connection between the Bode plot and the circuit. To solve these