# Frequency Response of Filters

 To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video
Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To introduce frequency response by studying the characteristics of two resonant circuits on either side of resonance Overview This experiment treats the subject of filters both in theory as well as with realized circuits. The Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass, Band Reject and All Pass filters are introduced. These filters are characterized by their frequency response that indicates how nearideal their filter operation actually is. Filters of different specifications are realized as mostly 2 nd order active filters utilizing opamps. Their frequency response (mostly the magnitude part but the phase part as well) is measured and the cutoff frequencies are determined. Rutgers University Authored by P. Sannuti Latest revision: December 16, 2005, 2004 by P. Panayotatos

2 PEEIIIV2/15 2 Theory 2.1 Filters 1 An ideal filter is a network that allows signals of only certain frequencies to pass while blocking all others. Depending on the regime of frequencies that are allowed through or not they are characterized as lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandreject and allpass. There are many needs for electric filters, some of the more common being those used in radio and television sets, which allow tuning in a certain channel by passing its band of frequencies while filtering out those of other channels. The frequency response is divided into magnitude (amplitude) and phase parts. The amplitude curve of a filter will indicate how closely the practical circuit imitates the ideal filter characteristics that are as follows: V(j) V(j) V(j) Low pass High pass Band pass c c c1 c2 V(j) V(j) All pass Band reject c c1 c2 Notice that, depending on the relative magnitude of their corner frequencies, a low pass in series with a high pass can either completely block all signals or give a band reject. By the same token, a low pass in parallel with a high pass can give either a bandpass or an all pass. These ideal characteristics will at best be approximated by real circuits. How closely this will be achieved will depend on the frequency response of the particular circuit. The design of electric filters is based on a compromise between deviation from ideality vs. complexity (and cost). The order of the polynomial being used (thus the order of the filter) is the major 1 The subject is treated in detail beginning with section 14.1 of the text.

3 PEEIIIV3/15 indicator: the higher the order 2, the more complex the circuit and the closer the frequency response to the ideal curve. Filter operation is considered when the amplitude of the output signal of the circuit is relatively large for some frequencies and small for others. Then one can say that for the former the signal passes and for the latter it does not. 2.2 Practical Filters Low Pass Filter A low pass filter is a circuit whose amplitude (magnitude) function decreases as increases, that is, the circuit passes low frequencies (relatively large amplitudes at the output) and rejects high frequencies (relatively small amplitudes at the output) as shown in fig. 1. (2) 1/2 Fig. 1 Low Pass Filter Magnitude Portion of Frequency Response 0 c In fig. 1, c is defined as the (3 db) frequency, that is the frequency at which the amplitude is (1/2) 1/2 = times the imum amplitude. It is traditional to consider the 3 db frequency as the cutoff frequency. That is, a low pass filter is said to pass frequencies lower than c and reject those that are higher than c. In other words, the pass(ing) band is < c High Pass Filter A high pass filter is a circuit whose amplitude response increases with as shown in fig The subject is treated in detail beginning with section 15.4 of the text.

4 PEEIIIV4/15 (2) 1/2 Fig. 2 High Pass Filter Magnitude Portion of Frequency Response 0 c This filter passes frequencies that are higher than the cutoff frequency c and rejects those that are lower than c. That is, the pass band is > c Band Pass Filter A band pass filter is a circuit which passes the band of frequencies centered around 0 as shown in fig. 3. (2) 1/2 Fig. 3 Band Pass Filter Magnitude Portion of Frequency Response 0 c1 c2 0

5 PEEIIIV5/15 0 is the frequency at which the imum amplitude occurs, and is called the center frequency. The band of frequencies that passes, or the pass band, is defined to be c1 c2, where c1 and c2 are the cutoff (3 db) frequencies. The width of the pass band, given by B = c2 c1 is called the bandwidth All Pass Filter The all pass filter is one whose amplitude is constant, thus, it passes all frequencies equally well as shown in fig. 4. It is usually put in a cascade when it is desired to keep the amplitude part of the frequency response unaltered but shift the phase as desired. Fig. 4 All Pass Filter Magnitude Portion of Frequency Response Band Reject Filter The band reject filter is one that passes all frequencies except a single band. A typical amplitude response of a band reject filter is shown in fig. 5. (2) 1/2 Fig. 5 Band Reject Filter Magnitude Portion of Frequency Response 0 c1 c2

6 PEEIIIV6/15 As shown in fig. 5, the band reject filter passes all frequencies that are greater than c2 and smaller than c1. Its stop band is c1 < < c Review of Op Amps 3 Filters realized with RLC circuits have limited performance. Filters incorporating such passive elements in addition to active elements such as op amps exhibit better characteristics and are called active filters 4. Inverting Input V n V R i V V p Vi Av= NonInverting Input V 0 R 0 Fig. 1 Operational Amplifier Characteristics of an Ideal Op Amp 1. Input Resistance R i = ": An infinite input resistance means that no current flows into or out of either of the input terminals. 2. Output Resistance R o = 0: In this case the output voltage V o is independent of the output current 3. Open Loop Voltage Gain µ =A V = ±" 5 : In order to predict the behavior of an operational amplifier when circuit elements are externally connected to its terminals, one must understand the constraints imposed on the terminal voltages and currents by the amplifier itself. Those imposed on the terminal voltages are as follows : and V 0 = A V (V p V n ) (1) 3 A somewhat more detailed description can be found in part 2 of Principles of EE I lab IV and a full description in sections of the text. 4 The subject is treated in detail in chapter 15 of the text. 5 The sign of A v (whether positive or negative) depends on the definition of V i i.e. which of the two input terminals is defined as the reference. If V i is defined as (V n V p ) then A v is <0; if defined as (V p V n ) then it is >0.

7 PEEIIIV7/15 V =V CC V 0 V CC = V (2) Eq. 1 states that the output voltage is proportional to the difference between V p and V n. If the output voltage V o is to be finite 6 it follows from the definition of voltage gain, that V i = V o / A v will go to zero when A v is infinite. This, however, assumes that there is some way for the input to be affected by the output. Indeed this will only happen if there is negative feedback in the form of a connection between the output and the inverting terminal (closed loop operation). For closed loop operation, it is said that a virtual short exists between the inverting and noninverting input terminals. This means that if an Op Amp is operating in its linear region (if it is unsaturated) then V i = 0, or equivalently V n = V p. Eq. 2 states that the output voltage is bounded. In particular, V 0 must lie between ±V CC, the power supply voltages. Else V 0 will be at either limiting value, and the OpAmp is then saturated. The amplifier is operating in its linear range so long as V 0 < V CC. 15V V Fig OPAMP Top View The chip layout is shown in Fig. 2. The standard procedure on a DIP is to identify pin 1 with the notch in the end of the chip package. The notch always separates pin 1 from the last pin on the chip. In the case of 741, the notch is between pins 1 and 8. Pins 2, 3, and 6 are the inverting input V n, the noninverting input V p, and the amplifier output V o respectively. These three pins are the three terminals that normally appear in an opamp circuit schematic diagram. The null offset pins (1 and 5) provide a way to eliminate any offset in the output voltage of the amplifier. The offset voltage is an artifact of the integrated circuit. The offset voltage is additive with pin V o (pin 6 in this case), can be either positive or negative and is normally less than 10 mv. Because of its small magnitude, in most cases, one can ignore the contribution of the offset voltage to V o and leave the null offset pins open. 6 or rather unsaturated since when V o tries to become larger than V or smaller than V it gets clamped to V or V respectively (or to a constant voltage somewhat less).

8 PEEIIIV8/15 3 Prelab Exercises 3.1 Show why the cutoff frequency (or the frequency at which the output amplitude is (1/2) 1/2 times the imum output amplitude) is called the 3 db frequency. 3.2 (a) Determine the amplitude response and the phase response functions for the low pass filter shown in fig. 7. (b) Determine the imum amplitude of the output. (c) Determine the 3 db frequency and its corresponding amplitude. 3.3 Repeat 3.2 for the high pass filter shown in fig Repeat 3.2 for the band pass filter shown in fig. 9.

9 PEEIIIV9/15 4 Experiments Suggested Equipment: Tektronix FG 501A 2MHz Function Generator 7 Tektronix PS 503 Power Supply Tektronix DC 504A CounterTimer HP 54600A or Agilent 54622A Oscilloscope 2: 620 Ω, 2: 1 KΩ, 2: 2KΩ, 2: 2.2KΩ, 20 KΩ Resistors 0.05 µf, 3: 0.1 µf, 0.01 µf Capacitors 741 OpAmp Protoboard 4.1 Low Pass Filter Build the low pass filter circuit shown in fig. 7. Apply a sinusoidal input of amplitude 1V rms and display both input and output on the scope. 0.1µF V s 2.2KΩ 2.2KΩ 0.05 µf V 0 Fig. 7 A Second Order Low Pass Filter Vary the frequency of the input voltage from 100 Hz to 3000 Hz, and measure the rms output voltage and the phase angle 8. Take as many readings as are necessary to develop a welldefined plot. Make sure to set V s = 1 V rms before each reading. Find the exact cutoff (3 db) frequency and the exact corresponding output voltage V 0. 7 NOTE: The oscillator is designed to work for a very wide range of frequencies but may not be stable at very low frequencies, say in the order of 100 Hz or 200Hz. To start with it is a good idea to have the circuit working at some midrange frequency, say in the order of 1K Hz or 2K Hz, and then change the frequency slowly as needed. 8 The phase angle between two sinusoidal signals of the same frequency can be determined as follows: Trace both signals on two different channels with the same horizontal sensitivities (the same horizontal scale). To calibrate the horizontal scale in terms of degrees, one can use the fact that the angular difference between the two successive zero crossing points of a sinusoidal signal is 180 degrees. Thus, by measuring the distance between the successive zero crossing points of either sinusoidal signal, one can calibrate the horizontal scale in terms of degrees. To determine the phase difference between the two sinusoidal signals, determine the distance between the zero crossing point of one signal to a similar zero crossing point of another signal and convert it into degrees.

10 PEEIIIV10/15 Frequency (Hz) V o (rms) V Phase Angle º

11 PEEIIIV11/ High Pass Filter Build the high pass filter circuit shown in fig. 8, and repeat the same procedure followed in Section KΩ V s 0.1µF 0.1µF 1KΩ V 0 Fig. 8 A Second Order High Pass Filter Take readings with the frequency varied from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz. Take also a few readings between f = 5 KHz and f = 20 KHz. Make sure to take as many readings as are necessary to develop a well defined plot. Also, make sure to set V s = 1 V rms before each reading. Find the exact 3 db frequency and the exact corresponding output voltage. Frequency (Hz) V o (rms) V Phase Angle º

12 PEEIIIV12/ Band Pass Filter Build the band pass filter circuit shown in fig. 9, and repeat the same procedure followed in Section µF V s 620 Ω 620 Ω 0.01µF 20 KΩ V 0 Fig. 9 A Second Order Band Pass Filter Take readings for the output voltage and the phase angle with the frequency varied from 1100 Hz to 3000 Hz. Take also a few readings between f = 100 Hz and f = 800 Hz, and

13 PEEIIIV13/15 between f = 4000 Hz, and f = 15 KHz. Make sure to take as many readings as are necessary to develop a welldefined plot. Also, make sure to set V s = 1 V rms before each reading. Find the center frequency, the 3 db frequencies, and the corresponding output voltages. Frequency (Hz) V o (rms) V Phase Angle º

14 PEEIIIV14/ Band Reject Filter (Optional) 1 KΩ 0.1 µf 0.1 µf V s 1 KΩ 2 KΩ 0.1µF V 0 Fig. 11 A Third Order Band Reject Filter Build the band reject filter circuit shown in fig. 11. (a) Show that the circuit is indeed a band reject filter. (b) Determine the imum amplitude of the output. (c) Determine the minimum amplitude of the output and its corresponding frequency. (d) Determine the 3 db frequencies and their corresponding output amplitudes. (e) Determine the stopband. (f) Read some phase angles at some particular frequencies. 4.5 All Pass Filter (optional) Build the all pass filter circuit shown in fig. 10. Take readings of the output voltage and the phase with the frequency varied from 100 Hz to 10 KHz. 0.1 µf 1KΩ 0.1 µf 2KΩ V s 2 KΩ 1KΩ V 0 Fig. 10 A Second Order All Pass Filter

15 PEEIIIV15/15 5 Report 5.1 For the lowpass filter, using the functions determined in prelab exercise 3.2 (a), determine the theoretical values of the amplitude and the phase at the frequencies that were used to take readings during the experiment. Tabulate the theoretical and the experimental values of both amplitude and phase. On graph paper with rectangular coordinates, plot the theoretical and the experimental data. Compare the theoretical plot with the experimental one. 5.2 For the highpass filter, repeat 5.1 using the functions determined in prelab exercise 3.3 (a). 5.3 For the bandpass filter, repeat 5.1 using the functions determined in prelab exercise 3.4 (a). 5.4 Simulate, in PSpice, the low pass filter circuit in fig. 7, and plot the amplitude and the phase response in the interval Hz f 2000 Hz. 5.5 Simulate in PSpice, the highpass and band pass filter circuits of figures 8 and 9 in appropriate frequency ranges. 5.6 Prepare a summary.

### School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:223 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Laboratory Experiment #4 Title: Operational Amplifiers 1 Introduction Objectives

### Fourier Series Analysis

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II aboratory Experiment 6 Fourier Series Analysis 1 Introduction Objectives The aim

### The R-C series circuit

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 4 The C series circuit 1 Introduction Objectives To study the

### EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter)

EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter) Objective The purpose of this experiment is to design a set of second-order Sallen-Key active filters and to investigate

### UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

### Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op amp circuits,

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND PASSIVE FILTERS LABORATORY. We start with examples of a few filter circuits to illustrate the concept.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND PASSIVE FILTERS LABORATORY In this experiment we will analytically determine and measure the frequency response of networks containing resistors, AC source/sources, and energy storage

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification

EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification 1. Introduction and Goal: s increase the power (amplitude) of an electrical signal. They are used in audio and video systems and appliances. s are designed to

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### Lab 4 Band Pass and Band Reject Filters

Lab 4 Band Pass and Band Reject Filters Introduction During this lab you will design and build three filters. First you will build a broad-band band-pass filter by cascading the high-pass and low-pass

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

### Step response of an RLC series circuit

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 5 Step response of an RLC series circuit 1 Introduction Objectives

### Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

### ε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied

Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and

### DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel

DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel Op Amps: Introduction Op Amp is short form of operational amplifier. An op amp is an electronic unit that behaves like a voltage controlled voltage source.

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### EXPERIMENT 6 - ACTIVE FILTERS

1.THEORY HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING ELE-313 ELECTRONICS LABORATORY II EXPERIMENT 6 - ACTIVE FILTERS A filter is a circuit that has designed to pass a specified

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS

EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES To understand the theory of operation of the clipping and clamping diode circuits. To design wave shapes that meet different circuits needs.

### Chapter 5. Basic Filters

Chapter 5 Basic Filters 39 CHAPTER 5. BASIC FILTERS 5.1 Pre-Lab The answers to the following questions are due at the beginning of the lab. If they are not done at the beginning of the lab, no points will

### Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE-100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator - Theory

EE-100 Lab: - Theory 1. Objective The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce nonlinear circuit measurement and analysis. Your measurements will focus mainly on limiters and clamping amplifiers. During

### Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )

Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include

### Operational Amplifiers

1. Introduction Operational Amplifiers The student will be introduced to the application and analysis of operational amplifiers in this laboratory experiment. The student will apply circuit analysis techniques

### In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different

Introduction In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different frequency regions. In analog electronics, four classes of filters exist to process an input signal: low-pass,

### ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequency-dependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Aims: To know: Basic Op Amp properties eal & Ideal Basic ideas of feedback. inv input noninv input output gnd To be able to do basic circuit analysis of op amps: using KCL, KL with

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers By: Gary A. Ybarra Christopher E. Cramer Duke University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Durham, NC. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to examine the properties

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### Op-Amps Experiment Theory

EE 4/00 Operational mplifiers Op-mps Experiment Theory. Objective The purpose of these experiments is to introduce the most important of all analog building blocks, the operational amplifier ( op-amp for

### Lab 4 Op Amp Filters

Lab 4 Op Amp Filters Figure 4.0. Frequency Characteristics of a BandPass Filter Adding a few capacitors and resistors to the basic operational amplifier (op amp) circuit can yield many interesting analog

### EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

### Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass

Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass Names: 1.) 2.) 3.) Beginning Challenge: Build the following circuit. Charge the capacitor by itself, and then discharge it through the inductor. Measure the

### EELE445 - Lab 2 Pulse Signals

EELE445 - Lab 2 Pulse Signals PURPOSE The purpose of the lab is to examine the characteristics of some common pulsed waveforms in the time and frequency domain. The repetitive pulsed waveforms used are

### Op Amp Circuits. Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator

M.B. Patil, IIT Bombay 1 Op Amp ircuits Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator Introduction An Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block used in a variety

### Filters and Waveform Shaping

Physics 333 Experiment #3 Fall 211 Filters and Waveform Shaping Purpose The aim of this experiment is to study the frequency filtering properties of passive (R, C, and L) circuits for sine waves, and the

### Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF and BPF.

Laboratory of the circuits and signals Laboratory work No. 4 ACTIVE FILTERS Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF

### Building the AMP Amplifier

Building the AMP Amplifier Introduction For about 80 years it has been possible to amplify voltage differences and to increase the associated power, first with vacuum tubes using electrons from a hot filament;

### First and Second Order Filters

First and Second Order Filters These functions are useful for the design of simple filters or they can be cascaded to form high-order filter functions First Order Filters General first order bilinear transfer

### University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Communication Engineering Lab.

OBJECT: To establish the pass-band characteristic. APPARTUS: 1- Signal function generator 2- Oscilloscope 3- Resisters,capacitors 4- A.V.O. meter. THEORY: Any combination of passive (R, L, and C) and/or

### Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007 Lab 4: Audio Playback System Introduction In this lab, you will construct,

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design

EEE 194 RF Laboratory Exercise 5 1 Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design I. OBJECTIVES A. Design a third order low-pass Chebyshev filter with a cutoff frequency of 330 MHz and 3 db ripple with equal terminations

### Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH005/105)

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PHYSICS MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY DIVISION Sophomore Physics Laboratory (PH5/15) Analog Electronics Active Filters Copyright c Virgínio de Oliveira Sannibale, 23 (Revision

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

MODULE3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. Operational Amplifier Block Diagram... 3 3. Operational Amplifier Characteristics... 3 4. Operational Amplifier Package... 4 4.1 Op Amp Pins

### Chapter 21 Band-Pass Filters and Resonance

Chapter 21 Band-Pass Filters and Resonance In Chapter 20, we discussed low-pass and high-pass filters. The simplest such filters use RC components resistors and capacitors. It is also possible to use resistors

### AC 2012-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY

AC 212-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY Dr. Tooran Emami, U.S. Coast Guard Academy Tooran Emami received her M.S. and Ph.D.

### Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

### Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Contents Opamps fundamentals Opamp Circuits Inverting & Non-inverting Amplifiers Summing & Difference Amplifiers Integrators & Differentiators Opamp

### Bharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 Active Filters

Bharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 mbharat@cory.eecs.berkeley.edu 1. Introduction Active Filters In this chapter, we will deal with active filter circuits. Why even bother with active filters? Answer: Audio.

### EAC215 Homework 4. Page 1 of 6

EAC215 Homework 4 Name: 1. An integrated circuit (IC) op-amp has (a) two inputs and two outputs (b) one input and one output (c) two inputs and one output 2. Which of the following characteristics does

### Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

### Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

### Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003

Op-Amp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Part 1 Op-Amp Basics Why op-amps Op-amp block diagram Input modes of Op-Amps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth

ECE 2C Laboratory Manual 5 Infrared PWM Receiver Overview In this lab you will construct the receiver circuit to complement the PWM transmitter board you assembled last week. This receiver detects, amplifies,

### Operational amplifiers

Operational amplifiers Types of operational amplifiers (bioelectric amplifiers have different gain values) Low-gain amplifiers (x1 to x10) Used for buffering and impedance transformation between signal

### Step Response of RC Circuits

Step Response of RC Circuits 1. OBJECTIVES...2 2. REFERENCE...2 3. CIRCUITS...2 4. COMPONENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS...3 QUANTITY...3 DESCRIPTION...3 COMMENTS...3 5. DISCUSSION...3 5.1 SOURCE RESISTANCE...3

### Fig. 1 :Block diagram symbol of the operational amplifier. Characteristics ideal op-amp real op-amp

Experiment: General Description An operational amplifier (op-amp) is defined to be a high gain differential amplifier. When using the op-amp with other mainly passive elements, op-amp circuits with various

### RC & RL Transient Response

EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 1. Introduction R & R Transient Response The student will analyze series R and R circuits. A step input will excite these respective circuits, producing a transient

### Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics What is an Op Amp An Op Amp is an integrated circuit that can be used to amplify both DC and AC signals. One of the most common Op Amps available

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

### Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

### How to Design 10 khz filter. (Using Butterworth filter design) Application notes. By Vadim Kim

How to Design 10 khz filter. (Using Butterworth filter design) Application notes. By Vadim Kim This application note describes how to build a 5 th order low pass, high pass Butterworth filter for 10 khz

### DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b

DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,

### 11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

### PHYS 2426 Engineering Physics II (Revised July 7, 2011) AC CIRCUITS: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT

PHYS 2426 Engineering Physics II (Revised July 7, 2011) AC CIRCUITS: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment is to study the behavior of an RLC series circuit subject to an AC

### The Electronic Scale

The Electronic Scale Learning Objectives By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain what an operational amplifier is and how it can be used in amplifying signal

### Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

### Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

### EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #5. Clipping and Clamping Circuits. Angsuman Roy

EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #5 Clipping and Clamping Circuits By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective: The purpose

### Lock - in Amplifier and Applications

Lock - in Amplifier and Applications What is a Lock in Amplifier? In a nut shell, what a lock-in amplifier does is measure the amplitude V o of a sinusoidal voltage, V in (t) = V o cos(ω o t) where ω o

### LR Phono Preamps. Pete Millett ETF.13. pmillett@hotmail.com

LR Phono Preamps Pete Millett ETF.13 pmillett@hotmail.com Agenda A bit about me Part 1: What is, and why use, RIAA? Grooves on records The RIAA standard Implementations of RIAA EQ networks and preamps

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### RC Circuits. 1 Introduction. 2 Capacitors

1 RC Circuits Equipment DataStudio with 750 interface, RLC circuit board, 2 voltage sensors (no alligator clips), 2x35 in. leads, 12 in. lead Reading Review operation of DataStudio oscilloscope. Review

### Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers

Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers: The operational amplifier is a direct-coupled high gain amplifier usable from 0 to over 1MH Z to which feedback is added to control its overall

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Infrared Transmitter/Receiver (Note to Teaching Assistant: The week before this experiment is performed, place students into groups of two and assign each group a specific frequency

### LAB 4 DIGITAL FILTERING

LAB 4 DIGITAL FILTERING 1. LAB OBJECTIVE The purpose of this lab is to design and implement digital filters. You will design and implement a first order IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filter and a second

### Chapter 16. Active Filter Design Techniques. Excerpted from Op Amps for Everyone. Literature Number SLOA088. Literature Number: SLOD006A

hapter 16 Active Filter Design Techniques Literature Number SLOA088 Excerpted from Op Amps for Everyone Literature Number: SLOD006A hapter 16 Active Filter Design Techniques Thomas Kugelstadt 16.1 Introduction

### USING THE ANALOG DEVICES ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN TOOL

USING THE ANALOG DEVICES ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN TOOL INTRODUCTION The Analog Devices Active Filter Design Tool is designed to aid the engineer in designing all-pole active filters. The filter design process

### Selected Filter Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller

ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Selected Filter Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 146235604 Tel (585) 4752035

### Experiment V: The AC Circuit, Impedance, and Applications to High and Low Pass Filters

Experiment : The AC Circuit, Impedance, and Applications to High and Low Pass Filters I. eferences Halliday, esnick and Krane, Physics, ol. 2, 4th Ed., Chapters 33 Purcell, Electricity and Magnetism, Chapter

### Homework Assignment 03

Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 03 1. A 9-V dc power supply generates 10 W in a resistor. What peak-to-peak amplitude should an ac source have to generate the same

### Op Amp Circuit Collection

Op Amp Circuit Collection Note: National Semiconductor recommends replacing 2N2920 and 2N3728 matched pairs with LM394 in all application circuits. Section 1 Basic Circuits Inverting Amplifier Difference

### Laboratory Manual. ELEN-325 Electronics

Laboratory Manual ELEN-325 Electronics Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Texas A&M University Prepared by: Dr. Jose Silva-Martinez (jsilva@ece.tamu.edu) Rida Assaad (rida@ece.tamu.edu) Raghavendra

### Module 2: Op Amps Introduction and Ideal Behavior

Module 2: Op Amps Introduction and Ideal Behavior Dr. Bonnie H. Ferri Professor and Associate Chair School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Introduce Op Amps and examine ideal behavior School of

### Chapter: Operational Amplifiers / Operationsverstärker. Michael E. Auer

Electrical Engineering Chapter: Operational Amplifiers / Operationsverstärker Michael E. Auer Source of figures: Alexander/Sadiku: Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, McGraw-Hill Chapter Content Basics

### Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier

ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Laboratory work Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier Task 1: Design a broadband amplifier using a bipolar NPN transistor in a common emitter orientation. For input signal

### Inductors in AC Circuits

Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

INTRODUCTION OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS The student will be introduced to the application and analysis of operational amplifiers in this laboratory experiment. The student will apply circuit analysis techniques

### Design of a TL431-Based Controller for a Flyback Converter

Design of a TL431-Based Controller for a Flyback Converter Dr. John Schönberger Plexim GmbH Technoparkstrasse 1 8005 Zürich 1 Introduction The TL431 is a reference voltage source that is commonly used