# UNIT 2 GCSE PHYSICS Forces and Energy 2011 FXA WORK DONE (J) = ENERGY TRANSFERRED (J) WORK

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1 29 When a force causes an object to move through a distance, work is done. Work done, force and distance are related by the equation : W = F x d WORK When a force is applied to an object and cause it to move in the force direction, work is done on the object. W is the work done in joule (J). F is the force applied in newton (N). d is the distance moved in the direction of the force in metre (m). Energy is then transferred to the object being moved. Energy is transferred when work is done. Candidates should be able to discuss the transfer of kinetic energy in particular situations (e.g. shuttle re-entry or meteorites burning up in the atmosphere). For the purpose of calculations involving work done and energy transferred it is assumed that : Work done against frictional forces. WORK DONE (J) = ENERGY TRANSFERRED (J) Power is the work done or energy transferred in a given time. P is the power in watt (W). E is the energy transferred in joule (J). t is the time taken in second (s). P = E/t It should be noted however, that some of the work done is converted into into non-useful energy forms (e.g. heat, sound..), so in practice the useful energy transferred to an object is always less than the work done on it. Gravitational potential energy is the energy that an object has by virtue of its position in a gravitational field. When an object is raised vertically, work is done against gravitational force and the object gains gravitational potential energy. The relationship between work done, force applied and distance moved is expressed in the following equation : E p = m x g x h Ep is the change in gravitational potential energy in joule (J). m is the mass in kilogram (kg). g is the gravitational field strength in newton per kilogram (N/kg). h is the change in height in metre (m). WORK DONE = FORCE x DISTANCE MOVED IN THE FORCE DIRECTION The kinetic energy of an object depends on its mass and speed. E k = ½ m x v 2 W = F x d (J) (N) (m) F d F Ek is the kinetic energy in joule (J). m is the mass in kilogram (kg). v is the speed in metre per second (m/s).

2 30 The Space Shuttle Re-entering Earth s Atmosphere 1 JOULE (J) is the work done when a force of 1 NEWTON (N) moves its point of application a distance of 1 METRE (m) in the force direction. 1 N 1 N 1 m 1 joule = 1 newton x 1 metre 1 J = 1 N x 1 m 1 J = 1 Nm When a space shuttle returns to Earth it has a great deal of kinetic energy, since it has a large mass and speed. On re-entry into the atmosphere the shuttle encounters enormous frictional forces which cause it to decelerate. Some of the initial kinetic energy is converted into heat and this means that the shuttle is subjected to extremely high temperature with the subsequent risk of fire and explosion. NASA scientists have developed special heat shields which protect the body of the shuttle, as well as the astronauts inside, from the intense heat generated on re-entry. Meteorites Entering Earth s Atmosphere Work Done and Energy Transferred In the solution of many problems we make the assumption that all the work done on an object is transferred as kinetic or potential energy of the object (i.e. that none of the work done is wasted as heat or sound). In practice, some of the work done is always transferred as unwanted heat and sound energy. Even if they are not massive, meteorites have enormous kinetic energy because of the very high speed ( 40 km/s) at which they are travelling when they enter the atmosphere. 1. A Crate Pulled Along the Ground If a crate is pulled along the ground as shown opposite, some of the work done will be used to overcome the frictional force which opposes the motion. The crate and the ground will heat up and some sound will also be produced. So, although in simple calculations we may assume that the work done on the crate is totally transferred to kinetic energy, the reality is that : work done = kinetic energy gained + (heat energy + sound energy) on crate by crate As it travels into the atmosphere a meteorite encounters tremendous air resistance and This causes it to decelerate, lose kinetic energy and heat up. As its outer layers get hotter and hotter, the meteorite loses energy to the surrounding air in the form of heat and light (this makes it visible on Earth, especially at night). As the meteorite continues its journey through the atmosphere, its surface layers become so hot that vaporization begins. Continued heating causes more and more of the surface mass to be lost and in most cases the meteorite is completely vaporized before reaching the planet s surface.

3 31 Work Done Against Frictional Forces As we have seen in the cases discussed on page 30, work done against frictional forces is mainly transformed into heat energy. In the film Castaway, Tom Hanks continuously rubs a dry stick against a split branch as he attempts to make fire. The work done in moving the stick back and forth is transformed into heat energy and eventually enough heat is generated to ignite some coconut hairs he has placed in the branch. The split in the branch allowed air to flow through the hairs and so ensure ignition. Power Power is the work done or energy transferred in a given time. The POWER of any energy transfer process depends on how quickly a given amount of energy can be transferred. All timed athletic events are a power struggle between the competitors. In all such events, the athlete is required to do the work needed to carry their body over a measured distance and the winner is the person who can perform the task in the shortest time. Of course, since their weight is different the amount of work done by each person will differ, so it is not strictly the most powerful athlete that will emerge the winner. The gold medal belongs to the athlete with the greatest power to weight ratio. If energy (E) is transferred in time (t), the power (P) is given by : (W) P = E (J) From which : t (s) E = P x t If the energy is transferred by a force doing work (W) in time (t), the power (P) is given by : When the brakes on a bike are applied, work is done against the frictional force between the rubber pads and the wheel rims. (W) P = W (J) From which : t (s) The unit of power is the WATT (W). W = P x t This opposes the motion of the wheels and both the pads and the rims heat up. The kinetic energy of the moving bike is transformed into heat energy (plus some sound energy if the brakes squeal ). 1 watt (W) is a rate of working or energy transfer of 1 joule per second (J/s). 1 W = 1 J/s Note that W is used for both the WATT and WORK DONE. Take care not to confuse them!

4 32 PRACTICAL WORK : Estimation of Personal Power Gravitational Potential Energy (E p ) A weight-training exercise such as the BENCH PRESS is performed 10 times using the maximum weight which the individual can comfortably manage. h Gravitational Potential Energy (E p ) is the energy possessed by an object by virtue of its position in a gravitational field. When an object is raised vertically, work is done against gravitational force and the object gains gravitational potential energy. The gain or change in an object s gravitational potential energy may be calculated using the equation shown below : The time (t) taken to do all 10 repetitions is measured using a stopwatch. 10 reps in time (t) E p = m x g x h A steel tape measure is used to measure the height (h) through which the known weight (W) is moved for each repetition. E p is the change in gravitational potential energy in joule (J). m is the mass in kilogram (kg). g is the gravitational field strength in newton per kilogram (N/kg). h is the change in height in metre (m). power = work done time taken Kinetic Energy (E k ) = 10 x m x g x h t = 10 x x x Kinetic Energy (E p ) is the energy possessed by an object by virtue of its motion and it depends on both the mass and speed of the object. = W The kinetic energy of a moving object may be calculated using the equation shown below : It should be noted that this is only a rough estimate. In order to simplify the determination, no account has been taken of : kinetic energy = ½ x mass x speed 2 E k = ½ m v 2 speed (v) The work done against friction. The work done in the second half of each repetition as the weight is lowered to the starting position under gravity. (J) (kg) (m/s) mass (m)

5 UNIT 2 GCSE PHYSICS Forces and Energy PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1 Work is said to be done when a force moves an object in the direction of the force. In each of the following examples, state and explain whether or not any work is done by the force mentioned. (a) Pulling a child in a pushchair along the sand on a beach. (b) Pushing a very heavy off-road vehicle, but being unable to get it to move. (c) A boulder falls off a cliff under the force of gravity. (d) A weight-lifter lifts a heavily laden barbell from the ground to a point above his head. (e) The same weight-lifter holds the weights at the same height above the ground. 2 (a) Write down a word equation relating force applied, work done and distance moved. (b) State two equivalent SI units for work done. (c) Calculate the work done when a force of 25 N moves an object over a distance of 6.5 m in the direction of the force. 4 The Burj Khalifa in Dubai is the world s tallest building. It rises to an amazing 828 m above the ground and if you were get to the top using the stairs, you would climb a total of 3234 steps! (a) If each of these steps has a depth of 20 cm, calculate the total work done by a man of weight 800 N who climbs to the top using the stairs. (b) How much gravitational potential energy does the man have when he gets to the top of the building? (c) If the man achieves his rather foolhardy mission in a total time of 1 hour and 50 mins, calculate his average power. 5 A boulder of mass 1450 kg is dislodged and falls from the top of a 120 m high cliff. (a) Calculate the work done by the force of gravity in bringing the boulder to the base of the cliff (Take g = 10 N/kg). (b) How much kinetic energy is theoretically transferred to the boulder by its fall? Why is the kinetic energy transferred to the boulder less than this in practice? (c) Given that the boulder has the amount of kinetic energy you have calculated in (b) when it hits the ground, calculate the impact speed of the boulder. 33 (d) When an object is moved over a distance of 12 m over a frictionless surface, 960 J of work is done. What is the size of the applied force? 6 Calculate the increase in kinetic energy of a vehicle of mass 1200 kg when it accelerates from 10 m/s to 25 m/s. 3 In the solution of many problems we make the assumption that all the work done on an object is transferred as kinetic or potential energy of the object. Explain why this is not true in practice and describe an example which illustrates this fact. 7 A bullet of mass 8.0 g is given 160 J of kinetic energy when it is fired from a gun. Calculate the speed of the bullet as it exits the gun barrel.

6 UNIT 2 GCSE PHYSICS Forces and Energy HOMEWORK QUESTIONS 1 (a) A catapult is used to fire an object into the air. Describe the energy transformations when the catapult is : (i) Stretched (ii) Released (b) An object of weight 2.0 N fired vertically upwards from a catapult reaches a maximum height of 5.0 m. Calculate : 4 A car moving at a constant speed has J of kinetic energy. When the driver applies the brakes, the car is brought to rest in a distance of 95 m. (a) Calculate the average decelerating force that stops the car in this distance. (b) What happens to the car s kinetic energy? (c) The speed of the car was 30 m/s when its kinetic energy was J. Calculate its mass. 34 (i) The gain in gravitational potential energy. (ii) The kinetic energy of the object when it left the catapult. 5 A steel ball bearing of mass 0.06 kg at a height of 1.5 m above a steel table is released from rest and it is found to rebound to a height of 1.3 m. Calculate : (a) The gravitational potential energy lost during the fall. 2 A man uses a bow to fire an arrow up into the air. He draws back the bowstring and releases the arrow, which then flies into the air, reaches a maximum height, and then falls back to the ground. Complete the following passage which describes the main energy changes involved : When the bowstring is drawn back, it stores.. energy. This is transferred to. energy as the arrow is released and flies into the air. As the arrow rises, it gains. energy and loses. energy. As the arrow falls, it gains energy and loses. energy. When the arrow hits the ground, this energy is transferred to.. energy and energy. (b) The kinetic energy of the ball bearing just before impact. (c) The speed of the ball bearing just before impact. (d) The gravitational potential energy gained by the ball bearing when it rebounds to a height of 1.3 m. Assume that the gravitational field strength, g = 10 N/kg. 3 (a) A man having a mass of 95 kg steps onto a box of height 24 cm. Assuming that the gravitational field strength, g = 10 N/kg, calculate : (i) The gain of gravitational potential energy of the man when he does this. (ii) The total work done by the man if he repeats the exercise 40 times. (b) The same man climbs to the top of a ladder and gains 1710 J of gravitational potential energy. How far off the ground is his centre of gravity when he is at the top of the ladder?

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