Curso Física Básica Experimental I Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía.


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1 1. A body of mass m slides a distance d along a horizontal surface. How much work is done by gravity? A) mgd B) zero C) mgd D) One cannot tell from the given information. E) None of these is correct. 2. A body moves with decreasing speed. Which of the following statements is true? A) The net work done on the body is positive, and the kinetic energy is increasing. B) The net work done on the body is positive, and the kinetic energy is decreasing. C) The net work done on the body is zero, and the kinetic energy is decreasing. D) The net work done on the body is negative, and the kinetic energy is increasing. E) The net work done on the body is negative, and the kinetic energy is decreasing. 4. Initially a body moves in one direction and has kinetic energy K. Then it moves in the opposite direction with three times its initial speed. What is the kinetic energy now? A) K B) 3K C) 3K D) 9K E) 9K Section: 61 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Factual 5. The SI unit of energy can be expressed as A) kg m/s D) kg m s 2 B) kg m/s 2 E) None of these is correct. C) m/(kg s) Section: 61 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy 7. A 6.0kg block slides from point A down a frictionless curve to point B. After the block passes point B, a friction force opposes the motion of the block so that it comes to a stop 2.5 m from B. Calculate the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the surface after position B. A) 2.5 B) 0.40 C) >0.40 D) 0.40 N E) 2.5 N
2 Section: 61 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy 9. The kinetic energy of a car is J. If the car's speed is increased by 20 percent, the kinetic energy of the car becomes A) J B) J C) J D) J E) unknown; the answer depends on the mass of the car, which is not given. Section: 61 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy 10. A bullet with a mass of 12 g moving horizontally strikes a fixed block of wood and penetrates a distance of 5.2 cm. The speed of the bullet just before the collision is 640 m/s. The average force that the wood exerted on the bullet was A) N B) 74 N C) N D) unknown; the mass of the wood is required. E) None of these is correct. 14. The weight of an object on the moon is onesixth its weight on the earth. A body moving with a given speed on the moon has kinetic energy equal to it would have if it were moving at the same speed on the earth. A) the kinetic energy D) 6 times the kinetic energy B) 1/36 the kinetic energy E) 36 times the kinetic energy C) 1/6 the kinetic energy 15. A force F pushes a block along a horizontal surface against a force of friction F f. If the block undergoes a displacement s at constant velocity, the work done by the resultant force on the block A) is equal to the work done by the force of friction F f. B) is given by W = F s. C) increases the kinetic energy of the block. D) increases the potential energy of the block. E) is zero. 17. A particle moves halfway around a circle of radius R. It is acted on by a radial force of magnitude F. The work done by the radial force is A) zero B) FR C) F R D) 2FR E) 2 R 19. A variable force is represented on an Fversusx graph. Which of the following is the work done by this force? A) the slope of the curve B) the area bounded by the curve and the x axis C) the area bounded by the curve and the F axis
3 D) the F value multiplied by the x value E) the F value divided by the x value Section: 61 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy 21. A particle that is subjected to a variable force travels a distance of 20 m in a straight line in the same direction as the force. The force varies as follows: First, 5.0 m and F = 0. Next, 5.0 m and F = 3.0 N. Next, 5.0 m and F = 6.0 N. Last, 5.0 m and F decreases uniformly from 6.0 N to zero. 25. What was the total work done by this force during the full 20m trip? A) 15 J B) 30 J C) 45 J D) 60 J E) 75 J Section: 61 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy 29. In pushing a load, a woman exerts a force as given by the graph. What was the the total work done by the woman? A) 400 J B) 200 J C) 2000 J D) 1000 J E) 500 J Section: 61 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Two parents when moving into a new house attempt to pull a large crate down the large hallway, as shown in the figure above. One parent applies a force of magnitude 150 N directed 45 degrees to the direction of motion, while the other parent applies a force of 120 N on the other side of the direction of motion. If they move the crate 15 m and perform work 2.6 kj, at what angle to the direction of motion did the second parent pull on the crate? A) 54 degrees D) 34 degrees B) 30 degrees E) 56 degrees C) 60 degrees Section: 61 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual 33. A vertical light spring stretches a distance h meters when a mass m is hung from it. The spring/mass system is now placed on a horizontal frictionless table and set into oscillation with amplitude h and maximum velocity v. What is the total energy involved in the spring/mass oscillating system. A) ½ kh 2 + ½ mv 2 D) mgh + ½ kh 2 + ½ mv 2
4 B) ½ kh 2 + mgh E) ½ mv 2 C) ½ mv 2 + ½ mgh 2 Section: 62 Topic: Work and Energy in Three Dimensions If vector A = 2 î + 3 ĵ and a vector B = 4 î 5 ĵ, the inner product A B is A) 23 B) 7 C) 7 D) 23 E) 17 Section: 62 Topic: Work and Energy in Three Dimensions The angle between the vector A = î + 2 ĵ + 3 ˆk and the z axis is approximately A) 17º B) 37º C) 75º D) 58º E) 26º Section: 62 Topic: Work and Energy in Three Dimensions A 10kg object undergoes a displacement s = 6 î 4 ĵ + 2 ˆk. During the displacement, a constant force F = 3 î + 6 ĵ 9 ˆk acts on the object. All values are given in SI units. The work done by the force F on this object is A) 42 J B) 36 J C) 30 J D) 53 J E) 60 J Section: 63 Topic: Power Type: Conceptual 50. Consider two engines. The larger is rated at 2 W and the smaller at 1 W. The smaller one can do a certain quantity of work in 2 h. The larger can do twice as much work in a time of A) 30 min B) 1 h C) 2 h D) 4 h E) 1.4 h Section: 63 Topic: Power 51. A motor is lifting a mass of 35.0 kg at a constant speed of 6.00 m/s. If friction is neglected, the power developed by the motor to do this lifting is A) 740 W B) W C) W D) 59 W E) 43 W Section: 63 Topic: Power 56. A body is acted upon by a force of 10 N and undergoes a displacement in the direction of the force in accordance with the relation s = 3t2 + 2t, where s is the displacement in meters and t is in seconds. The rate at which the force is doing work at the instant t = 2 s is A) 14 W B) 12 W C) 120 W D) 140 W E) 160 W
5 Section: 63 Topic: Power 58. A motor develops power as shown in the graph. The energy expended by the motor in the time interval between t = 10 s and t = 30 s is A) 1.0 J B) 1.3 J C) 0.20 kj D) 0.60 kj E) 0.70 kj Section: 63 Topic: Power Type: Conceptual 63. A force F acts on a body and produces an acceleration a. The body undergoes a displacement s and attains a velocity v in time t. The instantaneous power being developed at time t is given by A) F v B) F ½ at2 C) F a D) ( F 2 s ) /t2 E) F s Section: 63 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Power 67. If the average power output of a car engine is the same as a 100W light bulb, how long would it take a 1200kg car to go from zero to 96 km/h (60 mph)? A) s B) s C) 65 s D) 160 s E) s Section: 64 Topic: Potential Energy Type: Conceptual 73. A woman runs up a flight of stairs. The gain in her gravitational potential energy is U. If she runs up the same stairs with twice the speed, what is her gain in potential energy? A) U B) 2U C) ½U D) 4U E) ¼U Section: 64 Topic: Potential Energy 78. A 5200kg cable car in Hong Kong is pulled a distance of 360 m up a hill inclined at 12º from the horizontal. The change in the potential energy of the car is A) J D) J B) J E) J C) J Section: 63 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Power 72. The human heart is essentially a pump for moving blood around the body. If its average power output (over many beats) is about 2.0 W and it pumps blood at an overall average speed of 0.3 m/s into the output aorta channel, calculate the average force with which the heart moves the blood into the aorta. A) 0.60 N B) 6.7 N C) 22 N D) 66 N E) 0.18 N Section: 64 Topic: Potential Energy Type: Conceptual 82. When the potential energy U(r) is given as in Figure A, then the force is given in Figure B by curve
6 A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5 Section: 64 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Potential Energy 89. The potential energy function for a conservative force acting in the x direction is shown in the figure on the right. Where would the particle experience a force directed to the right? A) between A & B, and E & F D) at points B and D B) between B & C and C & D E) at points C and E C) between B & C and D & E Type: Conceptual 2. A body falls through the atmosphere (consider air resistance) gaining 20 J of kinetic energy. How much gravitational potential energy did it lose? A) 20 J B) more than 20 J C) less than 20 J D) It is impossible to tell without knowing the mass of the body. E) It is impossible to tell without knowing how far the body falls. Type: Conceptual 3. A projectile of mass m is propelled from ground level with kinetic energy of 450 J. At the exact top of its trajectory, its kinetic energy is 250 J. To what height above the starting point does the projectile rise? 5. A) B) C) D) E) You ride a roller coaster car of mass 1500 kg down a frictionless track a distance H = 23 m above the bottom of a loop as shown. If the loop is 15 m in diameter, the downward force of the rails on your car when it is upside down at the top of the loop is A) N D) 0.98 kn B) N E) N C) N
7 10. A simple pendulum has a bob of mass M. The bob is on a light string of length. The string is fixed at C. At position A, the string is horizontal and the bob is at rest. The bob is released from A and swings to B, where the string is vertical. The tension in the string when the bob first reaches B is 12. A) B) 2Mg C) Mg D) Mg E) None of these is correct. Type: Conceptual A roller coaster starts from rest at point A. If you ignore friction and take the zero of potential energy to be at C, A) the kinetic energy of the coaster at D will be equal to its potential energy at A. B) the kinetic energy of the coaster at E will be equal to its potential energy at C. C) the kinetic energy of the coaster at C will be equal to its potential energy at A. D) the kinetic energy of the coaster at B will be equal to its potential energy at C. E) None of these is correct. Type: Conceptual 15. Assuming the incline to be frictionless and the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at the elevation of the horizontal line, A) the kinetic energy of the block just before it collides with the spring will be equal to mgh. B) the kinetic energy of the block when it has fully compressed the spring will be equal to mgh. C) the kinetic energy of the block when it has fully compressed the spring will be zero. D) the kinetic energy of the block just before it collides with the spring will be ½kx2. E) none of the above statements will be true. Section: 72 Topic: The Conservation of Energy Type: Conceptual
8 20. Consider a motion in which a particle goes from A back to A along path 2, as shown. W(AB, 1) = work in going from A B along path 1. W(BA, 2) = work in going from B A along path 2. If only conservative forces are acting, then A) W(AB, 1) > W(BA, 2) D) W(AB, 1) + W(BA, 2) < 0 B) W(AB, 1) < W(BA, 2) E) W(AB, 1) + W(BA, 2) = 0 C) W(AB, 1) + W(BA, 2) > 0 Section: 72 Topic: The Conservation of Energy 25. A system comprising two blocks is shown, one of which is on an inclined plane. The pulley is of negligible mass and is frictionless. The system starts from rest at position 1 and accelerates. Measurements taken when the blocks reach position 2 indicate that (1) the kinetic energy of block A has changed by 330 J, (2) the potential energy of block A has changed by 588 J, (3) the kinetic energy of block B has changed by 110 J, and (4) the potential energy of block B has changed by 98 J. The amount of mechanical energy that has been converted to heat because of friction is A) 12 J B) 50 J C) 258 J D) 478 J E) 710 J Section: 72 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: The Conservation of Energy 29. A 5kg blob of putty is dropped from a height of 10.0 m above the ground onto a light vertical spring the top of which is 5 m above the ground. If the spring constant k = 200 N/m and the blob compresses the spring by 1.50 m, then find the amount of energy lost in sound and thermal energy. Una bola de masilla de 5kg de masa se deja caer desde una altura de 10,0 m (respecto al suelo) sobre un ligero muelle vertical cuya parte superior está 5 m por encima del suelo. Si la constante del muelle es k = 200 N / m, y la bola comprime el resorte 1,50 m, encontrar la cantidad de energía perdida en forma de energía acústica y térmica. A) 20.0 J B) 169 J C) 266 J D) 438 J E) 94.0 J Respuestas (por orden): B D A E B C A A E A B D D E E A B E C C D D A E A C B B A B D C
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