9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J

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1 1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9 and 10 on the diagram below which shows a 20-newton force pulling an object up a hill at a constant rate of 2 meters per second. 2. If the kinetic energy of a 10-kilogram object is 2,000 joules, its velocity is (1) 10 meters/sec. (3) 100 meters/sec. (2) 20 meters/sec. (4) 400 meters/sec. Base your answers to questions 3 through 5 on the diagram below which represents a 3.0-kilogram mass being moved at a constant speed by a force of 6.0 Newtons. 3. What is the change in the kinetic energy of the mass as it moves from point M to point N? (1) 24 J (3) 6 J (2) 18 J (4) 0 J 9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J 10. The work done against gravity in moving the object from point A to point B is approximately (1) 100 J (3) 500 J (2) 200 J (4) 600 J 11. Which cart shown below has the greatest kinetic energy? 4. If the 3.0-kilogram mass were raised 4 meters from the surface, its gravitational potential energy would increase by approximately (1) 120 J (3) 30 J (2) 40 J (4) 12 J 5. If energy is supplied at the rate of 10 watts, how much work is done during 2 seconds? (1) 20 J (3) 10 J (2) 15 J (4) 5 J (1) (3) 6. If the velocity of a moving object is doubled, the object's kinetic energy is (1) unchanged (3) doubled (2) halved (4) quadrupled 7. When the speed of an object is halved, its kinetic energy is (1) quartered (3) the same (2) halved (4) doubled 8. The kinetic energy of a 980-kilogram race car traveling at 90. meters per second is approximately (1) J (2) J (3) J (4) J (2) 12. A 1.0-kilogram rubber ball traveling east at 4.0 meters per second hits a wall and bounces back toward the west at 2.0 meters per second. Compared to the kinetic energy of the ball before it hits the wall, the kinetic energy of the ball after it bounces off the wall is (1) one-fourth as great (3) the same (2) one-half as great (4) four times as great 13. As a bullet shot vertically upward rises, the kinetic energy of the bullet 14. As a ball falls freely toward the earth, its kinetic energy (4)

2 15. Which graph best represents the relationship between the kinetic energy, KE, and the velocity of an object accelerating in a straight line? 20. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which represents a flat racetrack as viewed from above, with the radii of its two curves indicated. A car with a mass of 1,000 kilograms moves counterclockwise around the track at a constant speed of 20 meters per second. (1) (3) (2) Base your answers to questions 16 and 17 on the diagram below that shows an object at A that moves over a frictionless surface from A to E. The object has a mass of M. (4) Compared to the kinetic energy of the car while moving from A to D, the kinetic energy of the car while moving from D to C is (1) less (3) the same (2) greater 21. The diagram below shows block A, having mass 2m and speed v, and block B having mass m and speed 2v. 16. The object's kinetic energy at point C is less than its kinetic energy at point (1) A (3) D (2) B (4) E Compared to the kinetic energy of block A, the kinetic energy of block B is (1) the same (3) one-half as great (2) twice as great (4) four times as great 22. In the accompanying diagram, a 1.0-kilogram sphere at point A has a potential energy of 5.0 joules. 17. As the object moves from point A to point D, the sum of its gravitational potential and kinetic energies (1) decreases, only (2) decreases and then increases (3) increases and then decreases (4) remains the same 18. As an object moves upward at a constant speed, its kinetic energy 19. If the direction of a moving car changes and its speed remains constant, which quantity must remain the same? (1) velocity (3) displacement (2) momentum (4) kinetic energy What is the potential energy of the sphere at point B, halfway down the incline? (1) 0.0 J (3) 3.0 J (2) 2.5 J (4) 5.0 J 23. A 20.-newton block falls freely from rest from a point 3.0 meters above the surface of the Earth. With respect to the surface of the Earth, what is the gravitational potential energy of the block-earth system after the block has fallen 1.5 meters? (1) 20. J (3) 60. J (2) 30. J (4) 120 J

3 Base your answers to questions 24 and 25 on the diagram below which shows a cart held motionless by an external force F on a frictionless incline. Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the diagram below which represents a simple pendulum with a 2.0-kilogram bob and a length of 10. meters. The pendulum is released from rest at position 1 and swings without friction through position 4. At position 3, its lowest point, the speed of the bob is 6.0 meters per second. 24. If the gravitational potential energy of the cart at point A is zero, the gravitational potential energy of the cart at point C is (1) 4.9 J (3) 49 J (2) 10 J (4) 98 J 25. If the cart were allowed to move from point C to point A, the gravitational potential energy of the cart would (1) decrease (3) remain the same (2) increase 26. Which mass has the greatest potential energy with respect to the floor? (1) 50-kg mass resting on the floor (2) 2-kg mass 10 meters above the floor (3) 10-kg mass 2 meters above the floor (4) 6-kg mass 5 meters above the floor 27. Which graph best represents the relationship between potential energy (PE) and height above ground (h) for a freely falling object released from rest? 29. What is the potential energy of the bob at position 1 in relation to position 3? (1) 18 J (3) 72 J (2) 36 J (4) 180 J 30. At which position does the bob have its maximum kinetic energy? (1) 1 (3) 3 (2) 2 (4) The diagram below represents a cart traveling from left to right along a frictionless surface with an initial speed of v. At which point is the gravitational potential energy of the cart least? (1) (3) (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D (2) (4) 28. The work done in raising an object must result in an increase in the object's (1) internal energy (2) kinetic energy (3) gravitational potential energy (4) heat energy 32. A cart weighing 10 Newtons is pushed 10 meters on a level surface by a force of 5 Newtons. What is the increase in its potential energy? (1) 1 joule (3) 100 joules (2) 50 joules (4) 0 joules 33. As a spring is stretched, its elastic potential energy

4 34. As the pendulum swings freely from A to B as shown in the diagram to the right, the gravitational potential energy of the ball 35. Three people of equal mass climb a mountain using paths A, B, and C shown in the diagram below. 38. A girl rides an escalator that moves her upward at constant speed. As the girl rises, how do her gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy change? (1) Gravitational potential energy decreases and kinetic energy decreases. (2) Gravitational potential energy decreases and kinetic energy remains the same. (3) Gravitational potential energy increases and kinetic energy decreases. (4) Gravitational potential energy increases and kinetic energy remains the same. 39. A 1.0-kilogram book resting on the ground is moved 1.0 meter at various angles relative to the horizontal. In which direction does the 1.0-meter displacement produce the greatest increase in the book s gravitational potential energy? (1) (2) Along which path(s) does a person gain the greatest amount of gravitational potential energy from start to finish? (1) A, only (2) B, only (3) C, only (4) The gain is the same along all paths. 36. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows a 1-kilogram mass and a 2-kilogram mass being dropped from a building 100 meters high. (3) (4) The potential energy at the top of the building is (1) greater for the 1-kilogram mass (2) greater for the 2-kilogram mass (3) the same for both masses 37. What is the spring constant of a spring of negligible mass which gained 8 joules of potential energy as a result of being compressed 0.4 meter? (1) 100 N/m (3) 0.3 N/m (2) 50 N/m (4) 40 N/m 40. Two students of equal weight go from the first floor to the second floor. The first student uses an elevator and the second student walks up a flight of stairs. Compared to the gravitational potential energy gained by the first student, the gravitational potential energy gained by the second student is (1) less (3) the same (2) greater 41. A force of 0.2 Newton is needed to compress a spring a distance of 0.02 meter. The potential energy stored in this compressed spring is (1) J (2) J (3) J (4) J

5 42. A pendulum is pulled to the side and released from rest. Which graph best represents the relationship between the gravitational potential energy of the pendulum and its displacement from its point of release? 46. Below is a graph representing the elongation of a spring as different forces are added to it. (1) (3) What is the value of the spring constant? (1) 0.1 m/n (3) 10 m/n (2) 0.1 N/m (4) 10 N/m 47. Which graph best represents the relationship between the elongation of a spring whose elastic limit has not been reached and the force applied to it? (2) (4) 43. The graph below represents the relationship between the force applied to a spring and the elongation of the spring. (1) (3) (2) (4) 48. Graphs A and B below represent the results of applying an increasing force to stretch a spring which did not exceed its elastic limit. What is the spring constant? (1) 20 N/m (3) 0.80 N-m (2) 9.8 N/kg (4) m/n 44. Spring A has a spring constant of 140 Newtons per meter, and spring B has a spring constant of 280 Newtons per meter. Both springs are stretched the same distance. Compared to the potential energy stored in spring A, the potential energy stored in spring B is (1) the same (3) half as great (2) twice as great (4) four times as great 45. A 5-newton force causes a spring to stretch 0.2 meter. What is the potential energy stored in the stretched spring? (1) 1 J (3) 0.2 J (2) 0.5 J (4) 0.1 J The spring constant can be represented by the (1) slope of graph A (2) slope of graph B (3) reciprocal of the slope of graph A (4) reciprocal of the slope of graph B 49. How much work is needed to lift a 15-newton block 3.0 meters vertically? (1) 5.0 J (3) 45 J (2) 12 J (4) 150 J

6 50. A 20.-newton weight is attached to a spring, causing it to stretch, as shown in the diagram below. 54. The graph below represents the relationship between the force applied to a spring and the compression (displacement) of the spring. What is the spring constant of this spring? (1) N/m (3) 20. N/m (2) 0.25 N/m (4) 40. N/m 51. The unstretched spring in the diagram below has a length of 0.40 meter and spring constant k. A weight is hung from the spring, causing it to stretch to a length of 0.60 meter. What is the spring constant for this spring? (1) 1.0 N/m (3) 0.20 N/m (2) 2.5 N/m (4) 0.40 N/m 55. In the diagram below, a student compresses the spring in a pop-up toy meter. How many joules of elastic potential energy are stored in this stretched spring? (1) k (3) 0.18 k (2) k (4) 2.0 k 52. A spring has a spring constant of 25 Newtons per meter. The minimum force required to stretch the spring 0.25 meter from its equilibrium position is approximately (1) N (2) 0.78 N (3) 6.3 N (4) N 53. When a mass is placed on a spring with a spring constant of 15 newtons per meter, the spring is compressed 0.25 meter. How much elastic potential energy is stored in the spring? (1) 0.47 J (3) 1.9 J (2) 0.94 J (4) 3.8 J If the spring has a spring constant of 340 newtons per meter, how much energy is being stored in the spring? (1) J (3) 3.4 J (2) 0.14 J (4) 6.8 J 56. The work done on a slingshot is 40.0 joules to pull back a 0.10-kilogram stone. If the slingshot projects the stone straight up in the air, what is the maximum height to which the stone will rise? [Neglect friction.] (1) 0.41 m (3) 410 m (2) 41 m (4) 4.1 m

7 57. The graph below represents the elongation of a spring as a function of the applied force. 61. The graph below represents the relationship between the force applied to a spring and spring elongation for four different springs. How much work must be done to stretch the spring 0.40 meter? (1) 4.8 J (3) 9.8 J (2) 6.0 J (4) 24 J 58. Base your answer to the following question on the information and graph below. The graph represents the relationship between the force applied to each of two springs, A and B, and their elongations. Which spring has the greatest spring constant? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 62. Work is being done when a force (1) acts vertically on a cart that can only move horizontally (2) is exerted by one team in a tug of war when there is no movement (3) is exerted while pulling a wagon up a hill (4) of gravitational attraction acts on a person standing on the surface of the Earth 63. The graph below shows the force exerted on a block as a function of the block's displacement in the direction of the force. What physical quantity is represented by the slope of each line? 59. As the time required to lift a 60-kg. object 6 meters increases, the work required to lift the body 60. How much work is done by a force of 8 Newtons acting through a distance or 6 meters? (1) 0 J (3) 48 J (2) 12 J (4) 192 J How much work did the force do in displacing the block 5.0 meters? (1) 0 J (3) 0.80 J (2) 20. J (4) 4.0 J 64. A constant force of 2.0 Newtons is used to push a 3.0- kilogram mass 4.0 meters across the floor. How much work is done on the mass? (1) 6.0 J (3) 12 J (2) 8.0 J (4) 24 J

8 65. Which graph best represents the elastic potential energy stored in a spring (PE s ) as a function of its elongation, x? (1) (2) (3) (4) 66. The graph below shows elongation as a function of the applied force for two springs, A and B. Compared to the spring constant for spring A, the spring constant for spring B is (1) smaller (2) larger (3) the same 67. Which action would require no work to be done on an object? (1) lifting the object from the floor to the ceiling (2) pushing the object along a horizontal floor against a frictional force (3) decreasing the speed of the object until it comes to rest (4) holding the object stationary above the ground 68. A force of 10. Newtons is used to pull a chest weighing 50. Newtons at uniform speed a distance of 5.0 meters. The work done is (1) 10. joules (3) 250 joules (2) 50. joules (4) 2,500 joules 69. Power can be measured in (1) kilocalories (3) joules (2) watts (4) Newton-meters 70. The amount of work done against friction to slide a box in a straight line across a uniform, horizontal floor depends most on the (1) time taken to move the box (2) distance the box is moved (3) speed of the box (4) direction of the box s motion 71. A student does 60. joules of work pushing a 3.0-kilogram box up the full length of a ramp that is 5.0 meters long. What is the magnitude of the force applied to the box to do this work? (1) 20. N (3) 12 N (2) 15 N (4) 4.0 N 72. The rate at which work is done is measured in (1) Newtons (3) calories (2) joules (4) watts

9 73. As shown in the diagram below, a 0.50-meter-long spring is stretched from its equilibrium position to a length of 1.00 meter by a weight. If 15 joules of energy are stored in the stretched spring, what is the value of the spring constant? (1) 30. N/m (2) 60. N/m (3) 120 N/m (4) 240 N/m 74. Two weightlifters, one 1.5 meters tall and one 2.0 meters tall, raise identical 50.-kilogram masses above their heads. Compared to the work done by the weightlifter who is 1.5 meters tall, the work done by the weightlifter who is 2.0 meters tall is (1) less (3) the same (2) greater 75. Through what vertical distance is a 50.-newton object moved if 250 joules of work is done against the gravitational field of Earth? (1) 2.5 m (3) 9.8 m (2) 5.0 m (4) 25 m 76. As shown in the diagram below, a child applies a constant 20.-newton force along the handle of a wagon which makes a 25 angle with the horizontal. 77. A student applies a 20.-newton force to move a crate at a constant speed of 4.0 meters per second across a rough floor. How much work is done by the student on the crate in 6.0 seconds? (1) 80. J (3) 240 J (2) 120 J (4) 480 J 78. A box is dragged up an incline a distance of 8 meters with a force of 50 Newtons. If the increase in potential energy of the box is 300 joules, the work done against friction is (1) 100 J (3) 300 J (2) 200 J (4) 400 J 79. A student pulls a block 3.0 meters along a horizontal surface at constant velocity. The diagram below shows the components of the force exerted on the block by the student. How much work does the child do in moving the wagon a horizontal distance of 4.0 meters? (1) 5.0 J (3) 73 J (2) 34 J (4) 80. J How much work is done against friction? (1) 18 J (3) 30. J (2) 24 J (4) 42 J

10 80. Work energy is completely converted to heat energy when all of the work done on an object is used to overcome (1) momentum (3) inertia (2) gravity (4) friction 81. The diagram below shows a 5.0-kilogram mass sliding 9.0 meters down an incline from a height of 2.0 meters in 3.0 seconds. The object gains 90. joules of kinetic energy while sliding. 87. One elevator lifts a mass a given height in 10 seconds and a second elevator does the same work in 5 seconds. Compared to the power developed by the first elevator, the power developed by the second elevator is (1) one-half as great (3) the same (2) twice as great (4) four times as great 88. A motor has an output of 1,000 watts. When the motor is working at full capacity, how much time will it require to lift a 50-newton weight 100 meters? (1) 5 s (3) 50 s (2) 10 s (4) 100 s 89. If 20. joules of work is done in 4.0 seconds, the power developed is (1) 0.20 watt (3) 16 watts (2) 5.0 watts (4) 80. watts How much work is done against friction as the mass slides the 9.0 meters? (1) 0 J (3) 45 J (2) 8 J (4) 90. J 82. A block weighing 15 Newtons is pulled to the top of an incline that is 0.20 meter above the ground, as shown below. 90. If the time required for a student to swim 500 meters is doubled, the power developed by the student will be (1) halved (3) quartered (2) doubled (4) quadrupled 91. The graph below represents the relationship between the work done by a student running up a flight of stairs and the time of ascent. If 4.0 joules of work are needed to pull the block the full length of the incline, how much work is done against friction? (1) 1.0 J (3) 3.0 J (2) 0.0 J (4) 7.0 J 83. Which is unit of power? (1) kilogram-meter/second (2) Newton-meter 2 /second (3) joule/second (4) joule 84. As the power of a machine is increased, the time required to move an object a fixed distance 85. As the time required to do a given quantity of work decreases, the power developed 86. As an object falls freely, the kinetic energy of the object What does the slope of this graph represent? (1) impulse (3) speed (2) momentum (4) power 92. Student A lifts a 50.-newton box from the floor to a height of 0.40 meter in 2.0 seconds. Student B lifts a 40.-newton box from the floor to a height of 0.50 meter in 1.0 second. Compared to student A, student B does (1) the same work but develops more power (2) the same work but develops less power (3) more work but develops less power (4) less work but develops more power

11 93. A force of 10 Newtons is required to move an object at a constant speed of 5 meters per second. The power used is (1) 0.5 W (3) 5 W (2) 2 W (4) 50 W 94. A force of 70 Newtons must be exerted to keep a car moving with a constant speed of 10 meters per second. What is the rate at which energy must be supplied? (1) 1/7 W (3) 700 W (2) 7.0 W (4) 7,000 W 95. Car A and car B of equal mass travel up a hill. Car A moves up the hill at a constant speed that is twice the constant speed of car B. Compared to the power developed by car B, the power developed by car A is (1) the same (3) half as much (2) twice as much (4) four times as much 96. A motor having a maximum power rating of watts is used to operate an elevator with a weight of Newtons. What is the maximum weight this motor can lift at an average speed of 3.0 meters per second? (1) N (2) N (3) N (4) N 97. A machine does work at the rate of 600 watts. How much weight will be lifted 10 meters in 10 seconds? (1) 6 N (3) 600 N (2) 60 N (4) 6,000 N 98. A crane raises a 200-newton weight to a height of 50 meters in 5 seconds. The crane does work at the rate of (1) W (2) W (3) W (4) W 102. A 10.-newton force is required to move a 3.0- kilogram box at constant speed. How much power is required to move the box 8.0 meters in 2.0 seconds? (1) 40. W (3) 15 W (2) 20. W (4) 12 W 103. A motor used 120. watts of power to raise a 15-newton object in 5.0 seconds. Through what vertical distance was the object raised? (1) 1.6 m (3) 40. m (2) 8.0 m (4) 360 m 104. A 110-kilogram bodybuilder and his 55-kilogram friend run up identical flights of stairs. The bodybuilder reaches the top in 4.0 seconds while his friend takes 2.0 seconds. Compared to the power developed by the bodybuilder while running up the stairs, the power developed by his friend is (1) the same (3) half as much (2) twice as much (4) four times as much 105. An object is lifted at constant speed a distance h above the surface of the Earth in a time t. The total potential energy gained by the object is equal to the (1) average force applied to the object (2) total weight of the object (3) total work done on the object (4) total momentum gained by the object 106. A person does 100 joules of work in pulling back the string of a bow. What will be the initial speed of a 0.5-kilogram arrow when it is fired from the bow? (1) 20 m/s (3) 200 m/s (2) 50 m/s (4) 400 m/s 107. As shown in the diagram below, pulling a 9.8-newton cart a distance of 0.50 meter along a plane inclined at 15º requires 1.3 joules of work. 99. A 4.0 x watt motor applies a force of 8.0 x 10 2 Newtons to move a boat at constant speed. How far does the boat move in 16 seconds? (1) 3.2 m (3) 32 m (2) 5.0 m (4) 80. m 100. A weightlifter lifts a 2,000-newton weight a vertical distance of 0.5 meter in 0.1 second. What is the power output? (1) W (2) W (3) W (4) W 101. A girl weighing 500. newtons takes 50. seconds to climb a flight of stairs 18 meters high. Her power output vertically is (1) 9,000 W (3) 1,400 W (2) 4,000 W (4) 180 W If the cart were raised 0.50 meter vertically instead of being pulled along the inclined plane, the amount of work done would be (1) less (3) the same (2) greater

12 108. A 3.0-kilogram block is initially at rest on a frictionless, horizontal surface. The block is moved 8.0 meters in 2.0 seconds by the application of a 12-newton horizontal force, as shown in the diagram below. What is the average power developed while moving the block? (1) 24 W (2) 32 W (3) 48 W (4) 96 W 109. A force is applied to a block, causing it to accelerate along a horizontal, frictionless surface. The energy gained by the block is equal to the (1) work done on the block (2) power applied to the block (3) impulse applied to the block (4) momentum given to the block 110. A 10.-kilogram mass falls freely a distance of 6.0 meters near the Earth's surface. The total kinetic energy gained by the mass as it falls is approximately (1) 60. J (3) 720 J (2) 590 J (4) 1,200 J 114. The spring of a toy car is wound by pushing the car backward with an average force of 15 Newtons through a distance of 0.50 meter. How much elastic potential energy is stored in the car s spring during this process? (1) 1.9 J (3) 30. J (2) 7.5 J (4) 56 J 115. As a pendulum swings from position A to position B as shown in the diagram, its total mechanical energy (neglecting friction) 111. In the diagram below, an average force of 20. Newtons is used to pull back the string of a bow 0.60 meter. As the arrow, leaves the bow, its kinetic energy is (1) 3.4 J (3) 12 J (2) 6.0 J (4) 33 J 112. A 0.10-kilogram ball dropped vertically from a height of l.00 meter above the floor bounces back to a height of 0.80 meter. The mechanical energy lost by the ball as it bounces is (1) J (3) 0.30 J (2) 0.20 J (4) 0.78 J 113. A 2.0-newton book falls from a table 1.0 meter high. After falling 0.5 meter, the book's kinetic energy is (1) 1.0 J (3) 10 J (2) 2.0 J (4) 20 J 116. At what point in its fall does the kinetic energy of a freely falling object equal its potential energy? (1) at the start of the fall (2) halfway between the start and the end (3) at the end of the fall (4) at all points during the fall 117. The diagram below shows a moving, 5.00-kilogram cart at the foot of a hill 10.0 meters high. For the cart to reach the top of the hill, what is the minimum kinetic energy of the cart in the position shown? [Neglect energy loss due to friction.] (1) 4.91 J (3) 250. J (2) 50.0 J (4) 491 J

13 Base your answers to questions 118 through 120 on the diagram below. Which represents a 2.0-kilogram mass placed on a frictionless track at point A and released from rest. Assume the gravitational potential energy of the system to be zero at point E The diagram below shows a cart at four positions as it moves along a frictionless track. At which positions is the sum of the potential energy and kinetic energy of the cart the same? 118. As the mass travels along the track, the maximum height it will reach above point E will be closest to (1) 10. m (3) 30. m (2) 20. m (4) 40. m 119. Compared to the kinetic energy of the mass at point B, the kinetic energy of the mass at point E is (1) as great (3) the same (2) twice as great (4) 4 times greater (1) A and B, only (2) B and C, only (3) C and D, only (4) all positions, A through D 124. The diagram below shows three positions, A, B, and C, in the swing of a pendulum, released from rest at point A. [Neglect friction.] 120. If the mass were released from rest at point B, its speed at point C would be (1) 0. m/s (3) 10. m/s (2) 0.50 m/s (4) 14 m/s 121. As the pendulum swings from position A to position B as shown in the diagram above, what is the relationship of kinetic energy to potential energy? [Neglect friction.] (1) The kinetic energy decrease is more than the potential energy increase. (2) The kinetic energy increase is more than the potential energy decrease. (3) The kinetic energy decrease is equal to the potential energy increase. (4) The kinetic energy increase is equal to the potential energy decrease A 2.0-kilogram mass falls freely for 10. meters near the surface of the Earth. The total kinetic energy gained by the object during its free fall is approximately (1) 400 J (3) 100 J (2) 200 J (4) 50 J Which statement is true about this swinging pendulum? (1) The potential energy at A equals the kinetic energy at C. (2) The speed of the pendulum at A equals the speed of the pendulum at B. (3) The potential energy at B equals the potential energy at C. (4) The potential energy at A equals the kinetic energy at B An object 10 meters above the ground has Z joules of potential energy. If the object falls freely, how many joules of kinetic energy will it have gained when it is 5 meters above the ground? (1) Z (3) Z/2 (2) 2Z (4) As an object falls freely near the Earth's surface, the loss in gravitational potential energy of the object is equal to its (1) loss of height (3) gain in velocity (2) loss of mass (4) gain in kinetic energy 127. A ball is thrown vertically upward. As the ball rises, its total energy (neglecting friction)

14 128. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which represents an object M suspended by a string from point P. When object M is swung to a height of h and released, it passes through the rest position at a speed of 10 meters per second Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below. The diagram represents a 1.00 kilogram object being held at rest on a frictionless incline. The height h from which the object was released is approximately (1) 8 m (3) 5.0 m (2) 7 m (4) 2.5 m 129. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which represents a block with initial velocity v 1 sliding along a frictionless track from point A through point E. The object is released and slides the length of the incline. When it reaches the bottom of the incline, the object's kinetic energy will be closest to (1) 19.6 J (3) 9.81 J (2) 2.00 J (4) 4.00 J 132. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows a 1-kilogram stone being dropped from a bridge 100 meters above a gorge. The kinetic energy of the block will be greatest when it reaches point (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 130. The diagram below which represents a swinging pendulum. As the stone falls, the gravitational potential energy of the stone 133. The work done in accelerating an object along a frictionless horizontal surface is equal to the object's change in (1) momentum (3) potential energy (2) velocity (4) kinetic energy The potential energy that an ideal pendulum has at point x equals the value of its kinetic energy at point (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 134. Energy is measured in the same units as (1) force (3) work (2) momentum (4) power

15 135. The wrecking crane shown below is moving toward a brick wall which is to be torn down As an object falls freely in a vacuum, its total energy 137. A block weighing 40. newtons is released from rest on an incline 8.0 meters above the horizontal, as shown in the diagram below. At what point in the swing of the wrecking ball should the ball make contact with the wall to make a collision with the greatest kinetic energy? (1) 1 (3) 3 (2) 2 (4) 4 If 50. joules of heat is generated as the block slides down the incline, the maximum kinetic energy of the block at the bottom of the incline is (1) 50. J (3) 320 J (2) 270 J (4) 3100 J

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