# Work-Energy Bar Charts

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1 Name: Work-Energy Bar Charts Read from Lesson 2 of the Work, Energy and Power chapter at The Physics Classroom: MOP Connection: Work and Energy: sublevel 6 The work-energy relationship is the most important relationship of the unit. The work done by external forces (Wext) is related to the total mechanical energy of the initial (TMEi) and of the total energy of the final state (TMEf) of a system as follows: TMEi + Wext = TMEf Your goal should be to combine your understanding of kinetic energy, potential energy, and work with the above equation in order to analyze physical situations involving energy changes and transformations and to solve computational problems involving work and energy. One tool that will assist in the analysis of physical situations is a work-energy bar chart. A work-energy bar chart represents the amount of energy present in a system by means of a vertical bar. The length of a bar is representative of the amount of energy present; a longer bar representing a greater amount of energy. According to the work-energy theorem, the initial mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) plus the work done on the system by external forces equals the final mechanical energy (kinetic and potential). Consequently, the sum of the bar heights for any initial condition must equal the sum of the bar heights for the final condition. Complete the following work-energy bar charts based on the given statement. Then cross out or cancel any terms in the work-energy equation that are either zero or the same on each side. 1. A ball falls from the top of a pillar to the ground below. The initial state is the ball at rest at the top of the pillar and the final state is the ball just prior to striking the ground. Ignore Fair. 2. A car skids from a high speed to a stop with its brakes applied. The initial state is the car traveling at a high speed and the final state is the car at rest. The force of friction does work on the car, thus changing the total mechanical energy. The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 11

2 3. A skier starts from rest on top of hill A and skis into the valley and back up onto hill B. The skier utilizes her poles to propel herself across the snow, thus doing work to change her total mechanical energy. The initial state is on top of hill A and the final state is on top of hill B. Ignore frictional forces. 4. A Hot Wheels car starts from rest on top of an inclined plane and rolls down the incline through a loop and along a horizontal surface. The initial state is the car at rest on top of the hill and the final state is the car in motion at the bottom of the hill. Friction and air resistance have a significant effect on the car. 5. A moving cross-country skier skis from the top of a hill down into a valley and up a second smaller hill. The initial state is the skier in motion on top of the first hill and the final state is the skier in motion on top the second hill. He uses his poles to propel himself. Ignore the effect of friction and air resistance. 6. Ben Laborin applies a force to push a crate from the bottom of an inclined plane to the top at a constant speed. The initial state is the crate in motion at the bottom of the hill and the final state is the crate in motion at the top of the hill. Ignore frictional effects. The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 12

3 Name: Energy Concepts Read from Lesson 2 of the Work, Energy and Power chapter at The Physics Classroom: MOP Connection: Work and Energy: sublevel 7, 8, 9 and Consider the falling motion of the ball in the following two frictionless situations. For each situation, indicate the forces doing work upon the ball. Indicate whether the energy of the ball is conserved and explain why. Finally, simplify the work-energy equation and use it to find the kinetic energy and the velocity of the 2-kg ball just prior to striking the ground. Forces doing work? Forces doing work? TME Conserved: Yes or No? Explanation: TME Conserved: Yes or No? Explanation: 2. Use the work-energy relationship to fill in the blanks for the following system (m=2 kg). Neglect frictional forces. Finally, darken in the bars of the bar chart in order to demonstrate the amount of kinetic energy (KE), potential energy (PE) and total mechanical energy (TME). The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 13

4 3. A dart is launched from a dart gun and subsequently follows a parabolic path typical of any projectile. Five positions in the trajectory of the dart are marked and labeled in the diagram at the right. For each of the five positions and for position Z, fill in the workenergy bar chart in the space below. Z: position of dart when springs are compressed. A: position of dart after release from springs. 4. A 2-kg ball moving at 2 m/s is rolling towards an inclined plane. It eventually rolls up the hill to a position near the top where it momentarily stops prior to rolling back down he incline. Assume negligible friction and air resistance. Construct a energy bar chart for the ball. Simplify the equation below by canceling terms that are either zero or constant. Then use the equation to determine the height to which the ball rises along the incline before stopping. 1 2 m v i 2 + m g hi + F d cos Θ = 1 2 m v f 2 + m g hf 5. Three identical balls approach three different "frictionless" hills with a speed of 2 m/s. In which case - A, B, or C, (or a tie) - will the ball roll the highest? Explain your answer. The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 14

5 Name: 6. Fill in the blanks in the following sentence: An object starts from rest with a potential energy of 600 J and free-falls towards the ground. After it has fallen to a height of one-fourth of its original height, its total mechanical energy is J, its potential energy is J, and its kinetic energy is J. Consider the diagram at the right in answering the next three questions. Five locations along a roller coaster track are shown. Assume that there are negligible friction and air resistance forces acting upon the coaster car. 7. Rank the five locations in order of increasing TME (smallest to largest TME). Use < and or = signs between the blanks. 8. Rank the five locations in order of increasing PE (smallest to largest PE). Use < and or = signs between the blanks. 9. Rank the five locations in order of increasing KE (smallest to largest KE). Use < and or = signs between the blanks. 10. Use the law of conservation of energy (assume no friction nor air resistance) to determine the kinetic and potential energy at the various marked positions along the roller coaster track below. Finally, fill in the bars of the bar charts for positions A, B, C, D, and E. The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 15

6 11. Use the law of conservation of energy (assume no friction) to fill in the blanks at the various marked positions for a 1000-kg roller coaster car. 12. In a physics lab, a 3.0-kg cart was pulled at a constant speed along an inclined plane (with a force parallel to the plane) to a height of m. The angle of incline was altered in each consecutive trial. It was found that each angle required the same amount of work to elevate the cart to the same height. Use your understanding of work, energy and dynamics to fill in the following table. (HINT: F app = F parallel = m*g*sin Θ.) Θ ( ) h (m) ΔPE (J) Fparallel (N) d (m) Work (J) a m b m c m d m e m Show sample calculations below: The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 16

7 Name: 13. A wrecking ball is raised above its highest point (State A), possessing 6000 J of PE relative to its lowest location (State B). The wrecking ball strikes a building and comes to a resting position (State C). Determine the kinetic energy of the wrecking ball at state B. Determine the work done on the wrecking ball in going from State B to State C. State A State B State C 14. Pete Zaria applies a 4.0-N force to a 1.0- kg mug of root beer to accelerate it over a distance of 1.0-meter along the counter top. Determine the work done by Pete on the mug and the mug's final kinetic energy and final velocity. PSYW 15. A 600-kg roller coaster car (includes passenger mass) is moving at 20.0 m/s. The hydraulic braking system in the track applies an external force to slow the car to a speed of 5.0 m/s over a distance of 20.0 meters. Determine the force that acts upon the car. PSYW 16. Construct work-energy bar charts for problems #14 and #15. Problem #14 Problem #15 The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 17

8 17. Vera is driving her 1000-kg car at a speed of 8.0 m/s. When Vera slams on the brakes, the ground exerts a 8000-N frictional force to bring the car to a stop. Determine the initial kinetic energy of the car, the work done by friction on the car, and the stopping distance of the car. PSYW 18. If Vera's speed (in question #17) were increased to 24.0 m/s, then what would be the new stopping distance? In other words, how many times greater is the stopping distance if the speed is tripled? Explain. 19. A kg peach can is at rest in a shopping cart at the edge of a hill. A strong wind sets it into motion, sending down a meter high hill. The cart hits a tree stump. But the peach can, being in motion, continues in motion until it finally collides with a car. Upon impact, the peach can exerts an average force of 721 N upon the car body. Fill in the blanks and determine the depth of the dent. 20. A 56.9 kg sledder descends an 8.21-meter high hill, encountering a friction force of 11.7 N. Fill in the blanks and determine the speed of the sledder after traveling the 31.7 meters to the bottom of the hill. The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 18

9 Name: Work-Energy Calculations Study Lesson 2 of the Work, Energy and Power chapter at The Physics Classroom: For the following questions, begin with the work-energy equation, cancel terms, substitute and solve. 1. A glider is gliding through the air at a height of 416 meters with a speed of 45.2 m/s. The glider dives to a height of 278 meters. Determine the glider's new speed. 2. A box with mass m is sliding along on a frictionfree surface at 9.87 m/s at a height of 1.81 m. It travels down the hill and then up another hill. a. Find the speed at the bottom of the hill. b. Find the maximum vertical height to which the box will rise on the opposite hill. 3. A 1423-kg car is moving along a level highway with a speed of 26.4 m/s. The driver takes the foot off the accelerator and the car experiences a retarding force of 901-N over a distance of 106 m. Determine the speed of the car after traveling this distance. 4. A sledder starts from rest atop a 5.0-m high hill (A). She sleds to the bottom and up to the top of the adjacent 3.0-m high hill. How fast is the sledder going at point B? Ignore friction. The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 19

10 5. A 4768-kg roller coaster train full of riders approaches the loading dock at a speed of 17.1 m/s. It is abruptly decelerated to a speed of 2.2 m/s over a distance of 13.6 m. Determine the retarding force that acts upon the roller coaster cars. 6. A catcher's mitt recoils a distance of 12.9 cm in bringing a 142-gram baseball to a stop. If the applied force is 588 N, then what was the speed of the baseball at the moment of contact with the catcher's mitt? 7. An unknown force is applied to a 12 kg mass. The force acts at an angle of 30 degrees above the horizontal. Determine the force acting if the force acts for a horizontal displacement of 22 meters and increases the 12 kg mass's speed from 11 m/s to 26 m/s. 8. A physics teacher exerts a force upon a 3.29-kg pile of snow to both lift it and set it into motion. The snow leaves the shovel with a speed of 2.94 m/s at a height of m. Determine the work done upon the pile of snow. 9. A 250.-gram cart starts from rest and rolls down an inclined plane from a height of m. Determine its speed at a height of m above the bottom of the incline. 10. A 4357-kg roller coaster car starts from rest at the top of a 36.5-m high track. Determine the speed of the car at the top of a loop that is 10.8 m high. KEi + PEi + Wnc = KEf + PEf The Physics Classroom, 2009 Page 20

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