Weight The weight of an object is defined as the gravitational force acting on the object. Unit: Newton (N)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Weight The weight of an object is defined as the gravitational force acting on the object. Unit: Newton (N)"

Transcription

1 Gravitational Field A gravitational field as a region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attraction Gravitational Field Strength The gravitational field strength at a point in the gravitational field is the gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at that point. Unit: N/kg Symbol: g Gravitational Field Strength Formula Gravitational Acceleration The gravitational acceleration is the acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force. Unit: ms-2 Symbol: g Important notes: Gravitational acceleration does not depend on the mass of the moving object. The magnitude of gravitational acceleration is taken to be 10ms-2. Gravitational Field Strength vs. Gravitational Acceleration Both the gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration have the symbol, g and the same value (10ms-2) on the surface of the earth. When considering a body falling freely, the g is the gravitational acceleration. When considering objects at rest, g is the Earth s gravitational field strength acting on it. Weight The weight of an object is defined as the gravitational force acting on the object. Unit: Newton (N)

2 Differences between Weight and Mass Weight Depends on the gravitational field strength Vector quantity Unit Newton (N) Mass Independent from the gravitational field strength Scalar Quantity Unit: Kilogram (kg) Free Falling Free falling is a motion under force of gravity as the only force acting on the moving object. Practically, free falling can only take place in vacuum. Falling from high place

3 Acceleration = 10ms-2 Initial velocity = 0 Displacement = high of the location Launching object upward Acceleration = -10ms-2 Velocity at maximum height = 0 Vector and Scalar Quantity A scalar quantity is a quantity which can be fully described by magnitude only. A vector quantity is a quantity which is fully described by both magnitude and direction. Vector Diagram

4 The arrow shows the direction of the vector. The length representing the magnitude of the vector. Equal Vector Two vectors A and B may be defined to be equal if they have the same magnitude and point in the same direction. Vector Addition - Triangle Method Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the head of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow. Vector Addition - Parallelogram Method Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the tail of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow. Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors

5 If 2 vectors (a & b) are perpendicular to each others, the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation. Example 1 Two forces, P and Q of magnitude 10N and 12N are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resultant force if P and Q are acting on an object? 10 N F 12 N Use Theorem Pythagoras F 2 = F = F = 15.6 N Example 2

6 Diagram above shows that four forces of magnitude 2N, 4N, 5N and 8N are acting on point O. All the forces are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resulatant force that acts on point O? The resultant force of the horizntal component = 5-2 = 3N to the right The resultant force of the vertical component = 8-4 = 4N acting downward. Therefore, the magtitude of these 2 force components, Vector Resolution A vector can be resolve into 2 components which is perpendicular to each others. Example 3

7 Diagram above shows a lorry pulling a log with an iron cable. If the tension of the cable is 3000N and the friction between the log and the ground is 500N, find the horizontal force that acting on the log. Horizontal component of the tension = 3000 cos30o =2598N Friction = 500N Resultant horizontal force = 2598N - 500N =2098N Example 4 Diagram above shows two forces of magnitude 25N are acting on an object of mass 2kg. Find the acceleration of object P, in ms-2. Horizontal component of the forces = 25cos45o + 25cos45o = 35.36N Vertical component of the forces = 25sin45o - 25sin45o = 0N The acceleration of the object can be determined by the equation F = ma (35.36) = (2)a a = ms-2 Inclined Plane

8 Weight component along the plane = Wsinθ. Weight component perpendicular to the plane = Wcosθ. Example 5 A block of mass 2 kg is pulling along a plane by a 20N force as shown in diagram above. Given that the fiction between block and the plane is 2N, find the magnitude of the resultant force parallel to the plane. First of all, let's examine all the forces or component of forces acting along the plane. The force pulling the block, F = 20N The frictional force Ffric = 2N The weight component along the plane = 20sin30o = 10N The resultant force along the plane = = 8N Vectors in Equilibrium

9 When 3 vectors are in equilibrium, the resultant vector = 0. After joining all the vectors tail to head, the head of the last vector will join to the tail of the first vector. Forces in equilibrium Forces are in equilibrium means the resultant force in all directions are zero. Example 6 Diagram above shows a load of mass 500g is hung on a string C, which is tied to 2 other strings A and B. Find the tension of string A.

10 Tension of string C, TC = weight of the load = 5N All forces in the system are in equilibrium, hence Vertical component of tension A (TA) = TC TAcos60o = TC TA = TC/cos60o TA = 5/cos60o = 10N Work Work done by a constant force is given by the product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of the force. Unit: Nm or Joule (J) Work is a scalar quantity. Formula of work Example 1

11 A force of 50 N acts on the block at the angle shown in the diagram. The block moves a horizontal distance of 3.0 m. Calculate the work being done by the force. Work done, W = F s cos θ W = cos30o = 129.9J Formula of work 2 When the direction of force and motion are same, θ = 0o, therefore cosθ = 1 Work done, W = F s Example 2 Diagram above shows a 10N force is pulling a metal. The friction between the block and the floor is 5N. If the distance travelled by the metal block is 2m, find a. the work done by the pulling force b. the work done by the frictional force Asnwer (a) The force is in the same direction of the motion. Work done by the pulling force, W = F s = (10)(2) = 20J (b) The force is not in the same direction of motion, work done by the frictional force W = F s cos180o= (5)(2)(-1) = -10J Work Done Against the Force of Gravity

12 Example 3 Ranjit runs up a staircase of 35 steps. Each steps is 15cm in height. Given that Ranjit's mass is 45kg, find the work done by Ranjit to reach the top of the staircase. In this case, Ranjit does work to overcome the gravity. Ranjit's mass = 45kg Vertical height of the motion, h = Gravitational field strength, g = 10 ms-2 Work done, W =? W = mgh = (45)(10)( ) = J Force - Displacement Graph In a Force-Displacement graph, work done is equal to the area in between the graph and the horizontal axis. Example 4

13 The graph above shows the force acting on a trolley of 5 kg mass over a distance of 10 m. Find the work done by the force to move the trolley. In a Force-Displacement graph, work done is equal to the area below the graph. Therefore, work done Energy Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. Work is done when energy is converted from one form to another. Unit: Nm or Joule(J) Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Example 5 Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000-kg bus that is moving with a speed of 35.0 m/s. : Kinetic Energy, E k = ½ mv 2

14 Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy is the energy stored in an object as the result of its vertical position (i.e., height). Formula: Example 6 A ball of 1kg mass is droppped from a height of 4m. What is the maximum kinetic energy possessed by the ball before it reached the ground? According to the principle of conservation of energy, the amount of potential energy losses is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gain. Maximum kinetic energy = Maximum potentila energy losses = mgh = (1)(10)(4) = 40J Elastic Potential Energy Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in elastic materials as the result of their stretching or compressing. Formula:

15 Example 7 Diagram above shows a spring with a load of mass 0.5kg. The extention of the spring is 6cm, find the energy stored in the spring. The energy stored in the spring is the elastics potential energy. Conservation of Energy and Work Done During a conversion of energy, Amount of Work Done = Amount of Energy Converted Example 8 A trolley of 5 kg mass moving against friction of 5 N. Its velocity at A is 4ms-1 and it stops at B after 4 seconds. What is the work done to overcome the friction? In this case, kinetic energy is converted into heat energy due to the friction. The work done to overcome the friction is equal to the amount of kinetic energy converted into heat energy, hence Power Power is the rate at which work is done, which means how fast a work is done. Formula:

16 Example 1 An electric motor takes 20 s to lift a box of mass 20kg to a height of 1.5 m. Find the amount of work done by the machine and hence find the power of the electric motor. Work done, W = mgh = (20)(10)(1.5) = 300J Power, P = Efficiency The efficiency of a device is defined as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy. In the example above, the input power is 100J/s, the desire output power (useful energy) is only 75J/s, the remaining power is lost as undisire output. Therefore, the efficiency of this machine is 75/100 x 100% = 75%

17 Elasticity Elasticity is the ability of a sub-stance to recover its original shape and size after distortion. Forces Between Atoms The intermolecular forces consist of an attractive force and a repulsive force. At the equilibrium distance d, the attractive force equal to the repulsive force. If the 2 atoms are brought closer, the repulsive force will dominate, produces a net repulsive force between the atoms. If the 2 atoms are brought furhter, the attractive force will dominate, produces a net attractive force between the atoms. Graph of Forces Between 2 atoms X 0 = Equilibrium Distance When the particles are compressed, x < x0, the repulsive force between the particles increases. When the particles are stressed, x > x0, the attractive force between the particles increases. If the distance x exceeds the elastic limit, the attractive force will decreases.

18 Hooke's Law Hooke's Law states that if a spring is not stretched beyond its elastic limit, the force that acts on it is directly proportional to the extension of the spring. Elastic Limit The elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to be restored to its original length when the force is removed. Equation derived from Hooke's Law From Hook's Law, we can derived that Spring Constant Spring constant is defined as the ratio of the force applied on a spring to the extension of the spring. It is a measure of the stiffness of a spring or elastic object.

19 Graph of Streching Force - Extension Gradient = Spring constant Area below the graph = Work done F-x graph and spring constant The higher the gradient, the greater the spring constant and the harder (stiffer) spring. For example, the stiffness of spring A is greater than spring B. System of Spring

20 Arrangement in series: Extension = x number of spring Stiffness decreases Spring constant = k/number of spring Arrangement in parallel: Extension = x number of spring Stiffness increases Spring constant = k number of spring Factors Affecting the Stiffness of Spring Stiffer Less stiff Material type of spring Diameter of wire of spring Diameter of the spring Length of the string

Chapter 6 Work and Energy

Chapter 6 Work and Energy Chapter 6 WORK AND ENERGY PREVIEW Work is the scalar product of the force acting on an object and the displacement through which it acts. When work is done on or by a system, the energy of that system

More information

Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued

Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion continued 4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces When an object is in contact with a surface forces can act on the objects. The component of this force acting

More information

9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J

9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J 1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9

More information

WORK DONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE

WORK DONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE WORK DONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE The definition of work, W, when a constant force (F) is in the direction of displacement (d) is W = Fd SI unit is the Newton-meter (Nm) = Joule, J If you exert a force of

More information

Ch 7 Kinetic Energy and Work. Question: 7 Problems: 3, 7, 11, 17, 23, 27, 35, 37, 41, 43

Ch 7 Kinetic Energy and Work. Question: 7 Problems: 3, 7, 11, 17, 23, 27, 35, 37, 41, 43 Ch 7 Kinetic Energy and Work Question: 7 Problems: 3, 7, 11, 17, 23, 27, 35, 37, 41, 43 Technical definition of energy a scalar quantity that is associated with that state of one or more objects The state

More information

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER 1 P a g e Work Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER When a force acts on an object and the object actually moves in the direction of force, then the work is said to be done by the force.

More information

Mechanics 1. Revision Notes

Mechanics 1. Revision Notes Mechanics 1 Revision Notes July 2012 MECHANICS 1... 2 1. Mathematical Models in Mechanics... 2 Assumptions and approximations often used to simplify the mathematics involved:... 2 2. Vectors in Mechanics....

More information

Concept Review. Physics 1

Concept Review. Physics 1 Concept Review Physics 1 Speed and Velocity Speed is a measure of how much distance is covered divided by the time it takes. Sometimes it is referred to as the rate of motion. Common units for speed or

More information

CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY

CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS. REASONING AND SOLUTION The work done by F in moving the box through a displacement s is W = ( F cos 0 ) s= Fs. The work done by F is W = ( F cos θ). s From

More information

www.mathsbox.org.uk Displacement (x) Velocity (v) Acceleration (a) x = f(t) differentiate v = dx Acceleration Velocity (v) Displacement x

www.mathsbox.org.uk Displacement (x) Velocity (v) Acceleration (a) x = f(t) differentiate v = dx Acceleration Velocity (v) Displacement x Mechanics 2 : Revision Notes 1. Kinematics and variable acceleration Displacement (x) Velocity (v) Acceleration (a) x = f(t) differentiate v = dx differentiate a = dv = d2 x dt dt dt 2 Acceleration Velocity

More information

Summary Notes. to avoid confusion it is better to write this formula in words. time

Summary Notes. to avoid confusion it is better to write this formula in words. time National 4/5 Physics Dynamics and Space Summary Notes The coloured boxes contain National 5 material. Section 1 Mechanics Average Speed Average speed is the distance travelled per unit time. distance (m)

More information

Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion Newton's laws of motion Forces Forces as vectors Resolving vectors Explaining motion - Aristotle vs Newton Newton s first law Newton s second law Weight Calculating acceleration Newton s third law Moving

More information

7. Kinetic Energy and Work

7. Kinetic Energy and Work Kinetic Energy: 7. Kinetic Energy and Work The kinetic energy of a moving object: k = 1 2 mv 2 Kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the velocity. If the velocity of an object doubles, the kinetic

More information

3 Work, Power and Energy

3 Work, Power and Energy 3 Work, Power and Energy At the end of this section you should be able to: a. describe potential energy as energy due to position and derive potential energy as mgh b. describe kinetic energy as energy

More information

Conservation of Energy Workshop. Academic Resource Center

Conservation of Energy Workshop. Academic Resource Center Conservation of Energy Workshop Academic Resource Center Presentation Outline Understanding Concepts Kinetic Energy Gravitational Potential Energy Elastic Potential Energy Example Conceptual Situations

More information

Explaining Motion:Forces

Explaining Motion:Forces Explaining Motion:Forces Chapter Overview (Fall 2002) A. Newton s Laws of Motion B. Free Body Diagrams C. Analyzing the Forces and Resulting Motion D. Fundamental Forces E. Macroscopic Forces F. Application

More information

Work Energy & Power. September 2000 Number 05. 1. Work If a force acts on a body and causes it to move, then the force is doing work.

Work Energy & Power. September 2000 Number 05. 1. Work If a force acts on a body and causes it to move, then the force is doing work. PhysicsFactsheet September 2000 Number 05 Work Energy & Power 1. Work If a force acts on a body and causes it to move, then the force is doing work. W = Fs W = work done (J) F = force applied (N) s = distance

More information

1) 0.33 m/s 2. 2) 2 m/s 2. 3) 6 m/s 2. 4) 18 m/s 2 1) 120 J 2) 40 J 3) 30 J 4) 12 J. 1) unchanged. 2) halved. 3) doubled.

1) 0.33 m/s 2. 2) 2 m/s 2. 3) 6 m/s 2. 4) 18 m/s 2 1) 120 J 2) 40 J 3) 30 J 4) 12 J. 1) unchanged. 2) halved. 3) doubled. Base your answers to questions 1 through 5 on the diagram below which represents a 3.0-kilogram mass being moved at a constant speed by a force of 6.0 Newtons. 4. If the surface were frictionless, the

More information

Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy Consider a ball falling from a height of y 0 =h to the floor at height y=0. A net force of gravity has been acting on the ball as it drops. So the total work done on the

More information

PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK#6 SOLUTION. February 22, 2013

PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK#6 SOLUTION. February 22, 2013 PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK#6 SOLUTION February 22, 2013 0.1 A block of mass m = 3.20 kg is pushed a distance d = 4.60 m along a frictionless, horizontal table by a constant applied force of magnitude F = 16.0

More information

Work, Energy and Power Practice Test 1

Work, Energy and Power Practice Test 1 Name: ate: 1. How much work is required to lift a 2-kilogram mass to a height of 10 meters?. 5 joules. 20 joules. 100 joules. 200 joules 5. ar and car of equal mass travel up a hill. ar moves up the hill

More information

Monday 20 May 2013 Afternoon

Monday 20 May 2013 Afternoon Monday 20 May 2013 Afternoon AS GCE PHYSICS A G481/01 Mechanics *G411700613* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied materials: Data, Formulae and Relationships Booklet (sent with general

More information

Chapter 6. Work and Energy

Chapter 6. Work and Energy Chapter 6 Work and Energy The concept of forces acting on a mass (one object) is intimately related to the concept of ENERGY production or storage. A mass accelerated to a non-zero speed carries energy

More information

Objective: Work Done by a Variable Force Work Done by a Spring. Homework: Assignment (1-25) Do PROBS # (64, 65) Ch. 6, + Do AP 1986 # 2 (handout)

Objective: Work Done by a Variable Force Work Done by a Spring. Homework: Assignment (1-25) Do PROBS # (64, 65) Ch. 6, + Do AP 1986 # 2 (handout) Double Date: Objective: Work Done by a Variable Force Work Done by a Spring Homework: Assignment (1-25) Do PROBS # (64, 65) Ch. 6, + Do AP 1986 # 2 (handout) AP Physics B Mr. Mirro Work Done by a Variable

More information

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE velocity Velocity v is a vector, with units of meters per second ( m s ). Velocity indicates the rate of change of the object s position ( r ); i.e., velocity tells you how

More information

C B A T 3 T 2 T 1. 1. What is the magnitude of the force T 1? A) 37.5 N B) 75.0 N C) 113 N D) 157 N E) 192 N

C B A T 3 T 2 T 1. 1. What is the magnitude of the force T 1? A) 37.5 N B) 75.0 N C) 113 N D) 157 N E) 192 N Three boxes are connected by massless strings and are resting on a frictionless table. Each box has a mass of 15 kg, and the tension T 1 in the right string is accelerating the boxes to the right at a

More information

Q1. (a) State the difference between vector and scalar quantities (1)

Q1. (a) State the difference between vector and scalar quantities (1) Q1. (a) State the difference between vector and scalar quantities....... (1) (b) State one example of a vector quantity (other than force) and one example of a scalar quantity. vector quantity... scalar

More information

Assignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE

Assignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Assignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE State law of parallelogram of vector addition and derive expression for resultant of two vectors

More information

Reavis High School Physics Honors Curriculum Snapshot

Reavis High School Physics Honors Curriculum Snapshot Reavis High School Physics Honors Curriculum Snapshot Unit 1: Mathematical Toolkit Students will be able to: state definition for physics; measure length using a meter stick; measure the time with a stopwatch

More information

A Review of Vector Addition

A Review of Vector Addition Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Sec. 7.1 Forces in Two Dimensions 1. A Review of Vector Addition. Forces on an Inclined Plane 3. How to find an Equilibrant Vector 4. Projectile Motion Objectives Determine

More information

Chapter 8: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy. Work and kinetic energy are energies of motion.

Chapter 8: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy. Work and kinetic energy are energies of motion. Chapter 8: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Work and kinetic energy are energies of motion. Consider a vertical spring oscillating with mass m attached to one end. At the extreme ends of travel

More information

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION 1 P a g e Inertia Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION The property of an object by virtue of which it cannot change its state of rest or of uniform motion along a straight line its own, is

More information

Physics 101 Prof. Ekey. Chapter 5 Force and motion (Newton, vectors and causing commotion)

Physics 101 Prof. Ekey. Chapter 5 Force and motion (Newton, vectors and causing commotion) Physics 101 Prof. Ekey Chapter 5 Force and motion (Newton, vectors and causing commotion) Goal of chapter 5 is to establish a connection between force and motion This should feel like chapter 1 Questions

More information

Physics 201 Homework 5

Physics 201 Homework 5 Physics 201 Homework 5 Feb 6, 2013 1. The (non-conservative) force propelling a 1500-kilogram car up a mountain -1.21 10 6 joules road does 4.70 10 6 joules of work on the car. The car starts from rest

More information

Work. Work = Force x parallel distance (parallel component of displacement) F v

Work. Work = Force x parallel distance (parallel component of displacement) F v Work Work = orce x parallel distance (parallel component of displacement) W k = d parallel d parallel Units: N m= J = " joules" = ( kg m2/ s2) = average force computed over the distance r r When is not

More information

Physics 2AB Notes - 2012. Heating and Cooling. The kinetic energy of a substance defines its temperature.

Physics 2AB Notes - 2012. Heating and Cooling. The kinetic energy of a substance defines its temperature. Physics 2AB Notes - 2012 Heating and Cooling Kinetic Theory All matter is made up of tiny, minute particles. These particles are in constant motion. The kinetic energy of a substance defines its temperature.

More information

At the skate park on the ramp

At the skate park on the ramp At the skate park on the ramp 1 On the ramp When a cart rolls down a ramp, it begins at rest, but starts moving downward upon release covers more distance each second When a cart rolls up a ramp, it rises

More information

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Units of Chapter 4 Force Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal

More information

Work, Energy and Power

Work, Energy and Power Work, Energy and Power In this section of the Transport unit, we will look at the energy changes that take place when a force acts upon an object. Energy can t be created or destroyed, it can only be changed

More information

First Semester Learning Targets

First Semester Learning Targets First Semester Learning Targets 1.1.Can define major components of the scientific method 1.2.Can accurately carry out conversions using dimensional analysis 1.3.Can utilize and convert metric prefixes

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1 NON-CONCURRENT COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEMS 1. Be able to determine the effects

More information

B) 40.8 m C) 19.6 m D) None of the other choices is correct. Answer: B

B) 40.8 m C) 19.6 m D) None of the other choices is correct. Answer: B Practice Test 1 1) Abby throws a ball straight up and times it. She sees that the ball goes by the top of a flagpole after 0.60 s and reaches the level of the top of the pole after a total elapsed time

More information

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was

More information

Curso2012-2013 Física Básica Experimental I Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía.

Curso2012-2013 Física Básica Experimental I Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. 1. A body of mass m slides a distance d along a horizontal surface. How much work is done by gravity? A) mgd B) zero C) mgd D) One cannot tell from the given information. E) None of these is correct. 2.

More information

8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Potential Energy: When an object has potential to have work done on it, it is said to have potential

8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Potential Energy: When an object has potential to have work done on it, it is said to have potential 8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Potential Energy: When an object has potential to have work done on it, it is said to have potential energy, e.g. a ball in your hand has more potential energy

More information

PHYS 1111L LAB 2. The Force Table

PHYS 1111L LAB 2. The Force Table In this laboratory we will investigate the vector nature of forces. Specifically, we need to answer this question: What happens when two or more forces are exerted on the same object? For instance, in

More information

Work, Power, Energy Multiple Choice. PSI Physics. Multiple Choice Questions

Work, Power, Energy Multiple Choice. PSI Physics. Multiple Choice Questions Work, Power, Energy Multiple Choice PSI Physics Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. A block of mass m is pulled over a distance d by an applied force F which is directed in parallel to the displacement.

More information

Forces: Equilibrium Examples

Forces: Equilibrium Examples Physics 101: Lecture 02 Forces: Equilibrium Examples oday s lecture will cover extbook Sections 2.1-2.7 Phys 101 URL: http://courses.physics.illinois.edu/phys101/ Read the course web page! Physics 101:

More information

Lecture 6. Weight. Tension. Normal Force. Static Friction. Cutnell+Johnson: 4.8-4.12, second half of section 4.7

Lecture 6. Weight. Tension. Normal Force. Static Friction. Cutnell+Johnson: 4.8-4.12, second half of section 4.7 Lecture 6 Weight Tension Normal Force Static Friction Cutnell+Johnson: 4.8-4.12, second half of section 4.7 In this lecture, I m going to discuss four different kinds of forces: weight, tension, the normal

More information

physics 111N work & energy

physics 111N work & energy physics 111N work & energy conservation of energy entirely gravitational potential energy kinetic energy turning into gravitational potential energy gravitational potential energy turning into kinetic

More information

A2 Physics - Electric Fields Q&A Revision Sheet

A2 Physics - Electric Fields Q&A Revision Sheet Give the equation relating to the force between point charges in a vacuum If 'F' (the force) is negative what does that mean? If 'F' (the force) is positive what does that mean? State Coulomb's Law F is

More information

Example (1): Motion of a block on a frictionless incline plane

Example (1): Motion of a block on a frictionless incline plane Firm knowledge of vector analysis and kinematics is essential to describe the dynamics of physical systems chosen for analysis through ewton s second law. Following problem solving strategy will allow

More information

Vectors and the Inclined Plane

Vectors and the Inclined Plane Vectors and the Inclined Plane Introduction: This experiment is designed to familiarize you with the concept of force as a vector quantity. The inclined plane will be used to demonstrate how one force

More information

PHY121 #8 Midterm I 3.06.2013

PHY121 #8 Midterm I 3.06.2013 PHY11 #8 Midterm I 3.06.013 AP Physics- Newton s Laws AP Exam Multiple Choice Questions #1 #4 1. When the frictionless system shown above is accelerated by an applied force of magnitude F, the tension

More information

UNIT 2D. Laws of Motion

UNIT 2D. Laws of Motion Name: Regents Physics Date: Mr. Morgante UNIT 2D Laws of Motion Laws of Motion Science of Describing Motion is Kinematics. Dynamics- the study of forces that act on bodies in motion. First Law of Motion

More information

Physics 2101, First Exam, Fall 2007

Physics 2101, First Exam, Fall 2007 Physics 2101, First Exam, Fall 2007 September 4, 2007 Please turn OFF your cell phone and MP3 player! Write down your name and section number in the scantron form. Make sure to mark your answers in the

More information

Mechanics 2. Revision Notes

Mechanics 2. Revision Notes Mechanics 2 Revision Notes November 2012 Contents 1 Kinematics 3 Constant acceleration in a vertical plane... 3 Variable acceleration... 5 Using vectors... 6 2 Centres of mass 8 Centre of mass of n particles...

More information

Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel

Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel Name: Lab Day: 1. A concrete block is pulled 7.0 m across a frictionless surface by means of a rope. The tension in the rope is 40 N; and the

More information

Physics 201 Fall 2009 Exam 2 October 27, 2009

Physics 201 Fall 2009 Exam 2 October 27, 2009 Physics 201 Fall 2009 Exam 2 October 27, 2009 Section #: TA: 1. A mass m is traveling at an initial speed v 0 = 25.0 m/s. It is brought to rest in a distance of 62.5 m by a force of 15.0 N. The mass is

More information

Physics-1 Recitation-3

Physics-1 Recitation-3 Physics-1 Recitation-3 The Laws of Motion 1) The displacement of a 2 kg particle is given by x = At 3/2. In here, A is 6.0 m/s 3/2. Find the net force acting on the particle. (Note that the force is time

More information

THE NOT SO SIMPLE PENDULUM

THE NOT SO SIMPLE PENDULUM INTRODUCTION: THE NOT SO SIMPLE PENDULUM This laboratory experiment is used to study a wide range of topics in mechanics like velocity, acceleration, forces and their components, the gravitational force,

More information

Springs. Spring can be used to apply forces. Springs can store energy. These can be done by either compression, stretching, or torsion.

Springs. Spring can be used to apply forces. Springs can store energy. These can be done by either compression, stretching, or torsion. Work-Energy Part 2 Springs Spring can be used to apply forces Springs can store energy These can be done by either compression, stretching, or torsion. Springs Ideal, or linear springs follow a rule called:

More information

Ground Rules. PC1221 Fundamentals of Physics I. Force. Zero Net Force. Lectures 9 and 10 The Laws of Motion. Dr Tay Seng Chuan

Ground Rules. PC1221 Fundamentals of Physics I. Force. Zero Net Force. Lectures 9 and 10 The Laws of Motion. Dr Tay Seng Chuan PC1221 Fundamentals of Physics I Lectures 9 and 10 he Laws of Motion Dr ay Seng Chuan 1 Ground Rules Switch off your handphone and pager Switch off your laptop computer and keep it No talking while lecture

More information

Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy. Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014

Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy. Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014 Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014 Announcements Schedule next few weeks: 9/08 Unit 3 9/10 Unit 4 9/15 Unit 5 (guest lecturer) 9/17 Unit 6 (guest lecturer) 9/22 Unit 7,

More information

IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN:

IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: Week 8 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution

More information

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Force Units of Chapter 4 Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal

More information

FRICTION, WORK, AND THE INCLINED PLANE

FRICTION, WORK, AND THE INCLINED PLANE FRICTION, WORK, AND THE INCLINED PLANE Objective: To measure the coefficient of static and inetic friction between a bloc and an inclined plane and to examine the relationship between the plane s angle

More information

Acceleration due to Gravity

Acceleration due to Gravity Acceleration due to Gravity 1 Object To determine the acceleration due to gravity by different methods. 2 Apparatus Balance, ball bearing, clamps, electric timers, meter stick, paper strips, precision

More information

B) 286 m C) 325 m D) 367 m Answer: B

B) 286 m C) 325 m D) 367 m Answer: B Practice Midterm 1 1) When a parachutist jumps from an airplane, he eventually reaches a constant speed, called the terminal velocity. This means that A) the acceleration is equal to g. B) the force of

More information

Chapter 6. Work and Energy

Chapter 6. Work and Energy Chapter 6 Work and Energy ENERGY IS THE ABILITY TO DO WORK = TO APPLY A FORCE OVER A DISTANCE= Example: push over a distance, pull over a distance. Mechanical energy comes into 2 forms: Kinetic energy

More information

SOLID MECHANICS DYNAMICS TUTORIAL INERTIA FORCES IN MECHANISMS

SOLID MECHANICS DYNAMICS TUTORIAL INERTIA FORCES IN MECHANISMS SOLID MECHANICS DYNAMICS TUTORIAL INERTIA FORCES IN MECHANISMS This work covers elements of the syllabus for the Engineering Council Exam D225 Dynamics of Mechanical Systems C103 Engineering Science. This

More information

ENERGY Types of Energy and Energy Transfers

ENERGY Types of Energy and Energy Transfers ENERGY Types of Energy and Energy Transfers Energy is the ability to make something useful happen. These types Light Kinetic an object has due to its motion. Chemical can be released when chemical reactions

More information

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry

More information

Chapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion Chapter 4 Newton s s Laws: Explaining Motion Newton s Laws of Motion The concepts of force, mass, and weight play critical roles. A Brief History! Where do our ideas and theories about motion come from?!

More information

Force. Net Force Mass. Acceleration = Section 1: Weight. Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Force Sensor 1 Mass and Hanger Set 1 Balance 1

Force. Net Force Mass. Acceleration = Section 1: Weight. Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Force Sensor 1 Mass and Hanger Set 1 Balance 1 Department of Physics and Geology Background orce Physical Science 1421 A force is a vector quantity capable of producing motion or a change in motion. In the SI unit system, the unit of force is the Newton

More information

Lecture Outline Chapter 5. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 5. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 5 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion Dynamics Force and Mass Units of Chapter 5 Newton s 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd Laws of Motion The Vector Nature

More information

1206EL - Concepts in Physics. Friday, September 18th

1206EL - Concepts in Physics. Friday, September 18th 1206EL - Concepts in Physics Friday, September 18th Notes There is a WebCT course for students on September 21st More information on library webpage Newton s second law Newton's first law of motion predicts

More information

Physics Honors Page 1

Physics Honors Page 1 1. An ideal standard of measurement should be. variable, but not accessible variable and accessible accessible, but not variable neither variable nor accessible 2. The approximate height of a 12-ounce

More information

Steps to Solving Newtons Laws Problems.

Steps to Solving Newtons Laws Problems. Mathematical Analysis With Newtons Laws similar to projectiles (x y) isolation Steps to Solving Newtons Laws Problems. 1) FBD 2) Axis 3) Components 4) Fnet (x) (y) 5) Subs 1 Visual Samples F 4 1) F 3 F

More information

04-1. Newton s First Law Newton s first law states: Sections Covered in the Text: Chapters 4 and 8 F = ( F 1 ) 2 + ( F 2 ) 2.

04-1. Newton s First Law Newton s first law states: Sections Covered in the Text: Chapters 4 and 8 F = ( F 1 ) 2 + ( F 2 ) 2. Force and Motion Sections Covered in the Text: Chapters 4 and 8 Thus far we have studied some attributes of motion. But the cause of the motion, namely force, we have essentially ignored. It is true that

More information

TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003. Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003

TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003. Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003 Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003 TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003 5 1. A 1.5-kilogram lab cart is accelerated uniformly from rest to a speed of 2.0 meters per second in 0.50 second. What is the magnitude

More information

This week s homework. 2 parts Quiz on Friday, Ch. 4 Today s class: Newton s third law Friction Pulleys tension. PHYS 2: Chap.

This week s homework. 2 parts Quiz on Friday, Ch. 4 Today s class: Newton s third law Friction Pulleys tension. PHYS 2: Chap. This week s homework. 2 parts Quiz on Friday, Ch. 4 Today s class: Newton s third law Friction Pulleys tension PHYS 2: Chap. 19, Pg 2 1 New Topic Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 3 A 2.0 kg wood box slides down a vertical

More information

v v ax v a x a v a v = = = Since F = ma, it follows that a = F/m. The mass of the arrow is unchanged, and ( )

v v ax v a x a v a v = = = Since F = ma, it follows that a = F/m. The mass of the arrow is unchanged, and ( ) Week 3 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution

More information

physics 111N forces & Newton s laws of motion

physics 111N forces & Newton s laws of motion physics 111N forces & Newton s laws of motion forces (examples) a push is a force a pull is a force gravity exerts a force between all massive objects (without contact) (the force of attraction from the

More information

56 Chapter 5: FORCE AND MOTION I

56 Chapter 5: FORCE AND MOTION I Chapter 5: FORCE AND MOTION I 1 An example of an inertial reference frame is: A any reference frame that is not accelerating B a frame attached to a particle on which there are no forces C any reference

More information

Simple Harmonic Motion Concepts

Simple Harmonic Motion Concepts Simple Harmonic Motion Concepts INTRODUCTION Have you ever wondered why a grandfather clock keeps accurate time? The motion of the pendulum is a particular kind of repetitive or periodic motion called

More information

charge is detonated, causing the smaller glider with mass M, to move off to the right at 5 m/s. What is the

charge is detonated, causing the smaller glider with mass M, to move off to the right at 5 m/s. What is the This test covers momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum, elastic collisions, inelastic collisions, perfectly inelastic collisions, 2-D collisions, and center-of-mass, with some problems requiring

More information

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Conceptual Questions 1) Which of Newton's laws best explains why motorists should buckle-up? A) the first law

More information

AP Physics Newton's Laws Practice Test

AP Physics Newton's Laws Practice Test AP Physics Newton's Laws Practice Test Answers: A,D,C,D,C,E,D,B,A,B,C,C,A,A 15. (b) both are 2.8 m/s 2 (c) 22.4 N (d) 1 s, 2.8 m/s 16. (a) 12.5 N, 3.54 m/s 2 (b) 5.3 kg 1. Two blocks are pushed along a

More information

Practice Test SHM with Answers

Practice Test SHM with Answers Practice Test SHM with Answers MPC 1) If we double the frequency of a system undergoing simple harmonic motion, which of the following statements about that system are true? (There could be more than one

More information

LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES 55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction

More information

How to calculate work done by a varying force along a curved path. The meaning and calculation of power in a physical situation

How to calculate work done by a varying force along a curved path. The meaning and calculation of power in a physical situation Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy What is work done by a force What is kinetic energy work-energy theorem How to calculate work done by a varying force along a curved path The meaning and calculation

More information

Mass, energy, power and time are scalar quantities which do not have direction.

Mass, energy, power and time are scalar quantities which do not have direction. Dynamics Worksheet Answers (a) Answers: A vector quantity has direction while a scalar quantity does not have direction. Answers: (D) Velocity, weight and friction are vector quantities. Note: weight and

More information

PHY231 Section 2, Form A March 22, 2012. 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true?

PHY231 Section 2, Form A March 22, 2012. 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true? 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true? A) Kinetic energy can be measured in watts. B) Kinetic energy is always equal to the potential energy. C) Kinetic energy is always

More information

Chapter 8: Conservation of Energy

Chapter 8: Conservation of Energy Chapter 8: Conservation of Energy This chapter actually completes the argument established in the previous chapter and outlines the standing concepts of energy and conservative rules of total energy. I

More information

LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES L06-1 Name Date Partners LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES OBJECTIVES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies

More information

Unit 4: Science and Materials in Construction and the Built Environment. Chapter 14. Understand how Forces act on Structures

Unit 4: Science and Materials in Construction and the Built Environment. Chapter 14. Understand how Forces act on Structures Chapter 14 Understand how Forces act on Structures 14.1 Introduction The analysis of structures considered here will be based on a number of fundamental concepts which follow from simple Newtonian mechanics;

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws and the Mousetrap Racecar Simple version of Newton s three laws of motion 1 st Law: objects at rest stay at rest, objects in motion stay in motion 2 nd Law: force

More information

Centripetal Force. 1. Introduction

Centripetal Force. 1. Introduction 1. Introduction Centripetal Force When an object travels in a circle, even at constant speed, it is undergoing acceleration. In this case the acceleration acts not to increase or decrease the magnitude

More information