Newton s Laws of Motion

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Newton s Laws of Motion"

Transcription

1 Newton s Laws of Motion The Earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit. The moon orbits the Earth in the same way. But what keeps the Earth and the moon in orbit? Why don t they just fly off into space? Or crash into each other? The first person to answer these questions was the scientist Isaac Newton. Newton realized that there must be a force acting between Earth and the moon that kept the moon in orbit. What is a force? [A force is a push or a pull]. When one object pushes or pulls on another, you say that the first object exerts a force on the second object. In science, we represent forces by arrows. The direction of a force is represented by the direction of the arrow. The length of the arrow tells you the strength of the force the longer the arrow, the greater the force. Demonstration: Pull a chair across the floor of the room, then try to pull a chair across the room with a student sitting in it. What s the difference? [the more mass the object has, the more it resists the change/force]. What is the scientific name for that resistance to change? [inertia] Did the chair move on its own? [No] Someone had to push or pull it in other words, exert a force on it. If the two forces are balanced, would the chair move? [No] If the forces were unbalanced, in other words, if I pushed harder on the chair than the inertia of the chair, would it move? [Yes] When the object is at rest, does it have a speed? [yes but it s zero] When the object is moving, does it have a speed? [yes] What do we call that change from a speed of zero to a speed of something? [acceleration] So, let s bring it back to the initial question: what keeps the Earth and the moon in orbit, preventing them from crashing or flying off away from each other? If the sun and Earth are constantly pulling on one another because of gravity, why doesn t Earth fall into the sun? Why doesn t the moon crash into Earth? The fact that these collisions haven t happened means there must be some other factor we haven t yet taken into account. What are Newton s first two laws of motion? [First Law: Objects tend to stay at rest or move in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted upon by an outside force. Second Law: The force acting on a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, its acceleration] Newton s first law of motion is, essentially, the definition of inertia the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. The more mass an object has, the greater its inertia. An object with greater inertia is more difficult to start or stop.

2 Newton s second law tells us that the force (F) on an object is directly proportional to it s acceleration, and that is dependent on its mass. So, the second law can be summed up as F=ma. Or, acceleration depends on the objects mass and on the net force acting on the object: Force Acceleration = Mass Orbital Motion: Why do Earth and the moon remain in their orbits? Newton concluded that two factors: inertia and gravity combine to keep the Earth in orbit around the sun and the moon in orbit around the earth. What exactly, is the force of gravity? 9.8 m/s 2. Where have we seen that unit of measurement before, and what does it describe? [it s the acceleration] The Earth s gravity keeps pulling the moon toward it, preventing the moon from moving in a straight line. At the same time, the moon keeps moving forward because of inertia. If not for Earth s gravity, the moon would shoot off into space in a straight line, and if not for the moon s inertia, the moon would collide with Earth due to the pull of Earth s gravity Earth Gravitational Force of Earth Moon Actual Orbit Moon s motion without Gravity (due to inertia) Image created by the author. License: Public Domain

3 Newton s Laws of Motion (cont d) Newton proposed that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force back on the first. The force exerted by the second object is equal in strength and opposite in force to the first force. If we think of one force as the action and the other force as the reaction, then Newton s third law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Can anyone think of an example of an action-reaction pair? [jumping, rowing...] In those examples, there was always a motion as a result of the forces acting against each other, right? But, can we always detect a motion when paired forces are in action? The answer is no. For example, if I drop my pen, we see gravity pull the pen towards the ground. At the same time, we know from Newton s third law, that the pen must be pulling Earth upward with an equal and opposite reaction force. But we don t feel a giant jolt of Earth moving in that direction because Earth s inertia is so great that its acceleration is too small to notice. You may be asking yourselves whether or not action-reaction forces simply cancel each other out. Before, we talked about the fact that if two equal forces act in opposite directions on an object, the forces are balanced and no motion results. So, why don t the action-reaction forces cancel out as well? The action-reaction forces don t cancel because they re acting on different objects. For instance, in the ice skater image, Figure Skater 1 exerts a right-ward force onto Figure Skater 2 and Figure Skater 2 exerts a left-ward force onto Figure Skater 1. The action-reaction forces act on different objects, namely the two different skaters. Force on Skater 2 Force on Skater 1 Original Image by Benjamin Crowell. Source: License: Public Domain. Arrows and text added by Meredith Beaton.

4 So, what does Newton s Third Law have to do with Astronomy and space exploration? Well, actually, a lot. Remember when we talked about our first solid proof of Earth being a sphere coming from our images taken on the Apollo 17 mission? Those images, the satellites we send into space, the telescopes that we send into space, the unmanned space missions to outer planets, and our manned exploration of the Moon all relied heavily on our knowledge of action-reaction forces. Modern rockets were first developed in the early 1900 s. They owe much of their development to a few scientists. In the early 1990s, the Russian physicist Tsiolkovky described how rockets work and proposed designs for their construction. Robert Goddard, an American Physicist, also designed rockets, and in 1915 Goddard began to build rockets and test his designs. Rocket engines are reaction engines. The basic principle driving a rocket engine is Newton s 3 rd Law, which is what? ("for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.") A rocket engine pushes its mass in one direction and moves via the reaction that occurs in the other direction. [Demonstration: When you blow up a balloon and let it go so that it flies all over the room before running out of air, you have created a rocket engine. In this case, what is being thrown is the air molecules inside the balloon. When you throw them out the nozzle of a balloon, the rest of the balloon reacts in the opposite direction.] Rockets are controlled by two of Newton s laws: F = ma and for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction The Second Law The mass of an object is what again? So, when considering a space shuttle or rocket, we need to consider the mass of the rocket. If you have ever seen the Space Shuttle launch, you know that there are three parts: * The Orbiter * The big external tank * The two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) The whole vehicle shuttle, external tank, solid rocket booster casings and all the fuel has a total weight of 4.4 million pounds at launch that s equivalent to about 45 humpback whales! 4.4 million pounds to get 165,000 pounds in orbit is a pretty big difference! The fuel weighs almost 20 times more than the Orbiter. Just how fast does the rocket need to go? In order to lift off the ground, a rocket must have more upward thrust than downward force of gravity. Once a rocket is off the ground, it must reach a certain velocity to go into orbit. This velocity is known as orbital velocity. If the rocket has an even greater velocity, it flies off into outer space. Escape velocity is the velocity a rocket must reach to fly beyond a planet s gravitational pull. The escape velocity a rocket needs to leave Earth is about 40,200 kilometers per hour.

5 We need enough force to get something that s 4.4 million pounds to travel at 40,200 kilometers per hour! How can we do that considering the laws? As fuel burns during a rocket s ascent into space, what happens to the mass? [It is reduced] And, with increased distance from Earth, what happens to the pull of gravity? [It s not as great] So, the mass decreases, and the pull of gravity decreases. But how do we increase the acceleration? The Third Law The force that lifts the launcher comes from burning the fuel and converting it to energy. The gases produced by the conversion of gas to fuel escape through the nozzle at the base of the rocket. The gases exert an upward force that is equal and opposite to the force of the escaping exhaust. So, by the reactive force of the gases combusting and escaping from the rocket, we increase the acceleration and decrease the mass of the rocket and the pull of gravity as we continue to move up that we are able to continue to accelerate into space even with the burning/use of fuel as we go.

Rocket Principles. Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology EG-108 February Outside Air Pressure

Rocket Principles. Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology EG-108 February Outside Air Pressure Rocket Principles Outside ir Pressure Inside ir Pressure ir Moves Balloon Moves rocket in its simplest form is a chamber enclosing a gas under pressure. small opening at one end of the chamber allows the

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws

STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws TEK 8.6C: Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction

More information

Section Review Answers. Chapter 12

Section Review Answers. Chapter 12 Section Review Answers Chapter 12 Section 1 1. Answers may vary. Students should say in their own words that an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion maintains its velocity unless it experiences

More information

Newton s Third Law of Motion

Newton s Third Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Summary of Newton s Laws So Far Newton s 1 st Law of Motion explains the Law of Inertia This law predicts the behavior of objects when all forces acting on them are balanced

More information

Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky?

Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky? October 19, 2015 Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky? Key Words Newton s Laws of motion, and Newton s law of universal gravitation:

More information

Rocketry for Kids. Science Level 4. Newton s Laws

Rocketry for Kids. Science Level 4. Newton s Laws Rocketry for Kids Science Level 4 Newton s Laws Victorian Space Science Education Centre 400 Pascoe Vale Road Strathmore, Vic 3041 www.vssec.vic.edu.au Some material for this program has been derived from

More information

How Rockets Work Newton s Laws of Motion

How Rockets Work Newton s Laws of Motion How Rockets Work Whether flying a small model rocket or launching a giant cargo rocket to Mars, the principles of how rockets work are exactly the same. Understanding and applying these principles means

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion. I. Law of Inertia II. F=ma III. Action-Reaction

Newton s Laws of Motion. I. Law of Inertia II. F=ma III. Action-Reaction Newton s Laws of Motion I. Law of Inertia II. F=ma III. Action-Reaction While most people know what Newton's laws say, many people do not know what they mean (or simply do not believe what they mean).

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information

Isaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included

Isaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included 80 Newton s Laws of Motion R EA D I N G Isaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included important discoveries about light, motion, and gravity. You may have heard the legend about how

More information

Warm up. Forces. Sir Issac Newton. Questions to think about

Warm up. Forces. Sir Issac Newton. Questions to think about Warm up Have you ever tried to pull something that just wouldn t budge? Describe a situation in which you pulled or tried to pull something. What made the job easier? Forces Sir Issac Newton Newton said

More information

LAWS OF FORCE AND MOTION

LAWS OF FORCE AND MOTION reflect Does anything happen without a cause? Many people would say yes, because that often seems to be our experience. A cup near the edge of a table suddenly crashes to the fl oor. An apple falls from

More information

Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws

Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws What happens when you kick a soccer ball? The kick is the external force that Newton was talking about in his first law of motion. What happens to the ball after you kick it?

More information

Review Vocabulary force: a push or a pull. Vocabulary Newton s third law of motion

Review Vocabulary force: a push or a pull. Vocabulary Newton s third law of motion Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

More information

Physics 101. Chapter 5: Newton s Third Law

Physics 101. Chapter 5: Newton s Third Law Physics 101 Today Chapter 5: Newton s Third Law First, let s clarify notion of a force: Previously defined force as a push or pull. Better to think of force as an interaction between two objects. You can

More information

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? A: Everything in the universe has gravity.

More information

Chapter 3: Force and Motion

Chapter 3: Force and Motion Force and Motion Cause and Effect Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Force and Motion Homework: All questions on the Multiple- Choice and the odd-numbered questions on Exercises sections at the end of the chapter. In

More information

Newton's First Law. Newton s Laws. Page 1 of 6

Newton's First Law. Newton s Laws. Page 1 of 6 Newton's First Law Newton s Laws In previous units, the variety of ways by which motion can be described (words, graphs, diagrams, numbers, etc.) was discussed. In this unit (Newton's Laws of Motion),

More information

Chapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion Chapter 4 Newton s s Laws: Explaining Motion Newton s Laws of Motion The concepts of force, mass, and weight play critical roles. A Brief History! Where do our ideas and theories about motion come from?!

More information

Described by Isaac Newton

Described by Isaac Newton Described by Isaac Newton States observed relationships between motion and forces 3 statements cover aspects of motion for single objects and for objects interacting with another object An object at rest

More information

Unit 1: Lesson 1 (Forces) Net Force

Unit 1: Lesson 1 (Forces) Net Force Net Force It is not very common for only one force to be acting on an object at one given time. In fact, at almost all times, there are 2 forces acting on you! We know that Gravity is always acting on

More information

Educational Innovations

Educational Innovations Educational Innovations NA-100/95S Newton s Apple grav i ty (gravitē) noun 1. The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass. For most purposes

More information

Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion

Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion Key Concept Newton s laws of motion describe the relationship between forces and the motion of an object. What You Will Learn Newton s first law of motion states that

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Physics Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion 4.1 Objectives Explain Newton s first law of motion. Explain Newton s second law of motion. Explain Newton s third law of motion. Solve problems

More information

4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction CHAPTER 1 SECTION Matter in Motion 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is gravity? How are weight and mass different?

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion (Ch 5)

Newton s Laws of Motion (Ch 5) Newton s Laws of Motion (Ch 5) Force Isaac Newton 1642-1727 English physicist & mathematician By the age of 31, discovered: laws of motion universal gravitation calculus Eccentric read Coming of Age in

More information

Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1

Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1 Name: Select the term that best completes the statement. A. force B. net force C. unbalanced force D. Newton's first law E. motion F. inertia 1. is the change of position over time. Date: 2. The overall

More information

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Background: Aristotle believed that the natural state of motion for objects on the earth was one of rest. In other words, objects needed a force to be kept in motion. Galileo studied

More information

b. Velocity tells you both speed and direction of an object s movement. Velocity is the change in position divided by the change in time.

b. Velocity tells you both speed and direction of an object s movement. Velocity is the change in position divided by the change in time. I. What is Motion? a. Motion - is when an object changes place or position. To properly describe motion, you need to use the following: 1. Start and end position? 2. Movement relative to what? 3. How far

More information

Chapter 12 - Forces and Motion

Chapter 12 - Forces and Motion Chapter 12 - Forces and Motion A. What is a force? 1. It is a push or pull. 2. Force can cause resting objects to move. 3. Force can cause acceleration by changing the object s speed or direction. 4. Newtons

More information

Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram.

Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram. Name Period Chapter 2 The Laws of Motion Review Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram. Assess the information about gravity, mass, and weight. Read

More information

tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change?

tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change? tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change? A. It would be one-fourth as strong. B. It would be one-half as strong. C. It would

More information

Name Date Class. The Nature of Force and Motion (pages ) 2. When one object pushes or pulls another object, the first object is

Name Date Class. The Nature of Force and Motion (pages ) 2. When one object pushes or pulls another object, the first object is CHAPTER 4 MOTION AND FORCES SECTION 4 1 The Nature of Force and Motion (pages 116-121) This section explains how balanced and unbalanced forces are related to the motion of an object. It also explains

More information

Newton's third law relates action and reaction forces.

Newton's third law relates action and reaction forces. Forces and Motion Ch. 2.3 Newton's third law relates action and reaction forces. Newton made an important observation that explains the motion of the jellyfish. He noticed that forces always act in pairs.

More information

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was

More information

Note: Thrust from the rocket s engines acts downward producing an upward reaction on the rocket

Note: Thrust from the rocket s engines acts downward producing an upward reaction on the rocket Water Rocket Physics Principles Forces and Motion Newton s First Law An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on

More information

2.5 Newton s Third Law of Motion. SUMMARY Newton s Second Law of Motion. Section 2.4 Questions

2.5 Newton s Third Law of Motion. SUMMARY Newton s Second Law of Motion. Section 2.4 Questions SUMMARY Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s second law of motion relates the acceleration of an object to the mass of the object and the net force acting on it. The equation is a = F net or F m net

More information

7 Newton s Third Law of Motion Action and Reaction. For every force, there is an equal and opposite force.

7 Newton s Third Law of Motion Action and Reaction. For every force, there is an equal and opposite force. For every force, there is an equal and opposite force. 7.1 Forces and Interactions A force is always part of a mutual action that involves another force. 7.1 Forces and Interactions In the simplest sense,

More information

Today. Laws of Motion. Conservation Laws. Gravity

Today. Laws of Motion. Conservation Laws. Gravity Today Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity Laws of Motion Motion notions: slow fast Speed: Rate at which object moves fast change in direction slow example: speed of 10 m/s Velocity: Speed and direction

More information

356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich

356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

More information

Name Period Chapter 10 Study Guide

Name Period Chapter 10 Study Guide Name _ Period Chapter 10 Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Unbalanced forces do not change an object s motion. 2. Friction depends on the types of surfaces

More information

Newton s Third Law. Newton s Third Law of Motion. Action-Reaction Pairs

Newton s Third Law. Newton s Third Law of Motion. Action-Reaction Pairs Section 4 Newton s Third Law Reading Preview Key Concepts What is Newton s third law of motion? How can you determine the momentum of an object? What is the law of conservation of momentum? Key Terms momentum

More information

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: Speed: Rate at which object moves sp e e d = d ista

More information

General Physics (PHY 2130)

General Physics (PHY 2130) General Physics (PHY 2130) Lecture 8 Forces Newton s Laws of Motion http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/phy2130/ Classical Mechanics Describes the relationship between the motion of objects in our everyday

More information

M OTION. Chapter2 OUTLINE GOALS

M OTION. Chapter2 OUTLINE GOALS Chapter2 M OTION OUTLINE Describing Motion 2.1 Speed 2.2 Vectors 2.3 Acceleration 2.4 Distance, Time, and Acceleration Acceleration of Gravity 2.5 Free Fall 2.6 Air Resistence Force and Motion 2.7 First

More information

April 07, 2015. Force motion examples.notebook MOTION AND FORCES. GRAVITY: a force that makes any object pull toward another object.

April 07, 2015. Force motion examples.notebook MOTION AND FORCES. GRAVITY: a force that makes any object pull toward another object. Force motion examples.notebook April 07, 2015 MOTION AND FORCES GRAVITY: a force that makes any object pull toward another object Feb 15 12:00 PM 1 FRICTION: a force that acts to slow down moving objects

More information

STUDY GUIDE UNIT 10-Newton s Third Law

STUDY GUIDE UNIT 10-Newton s Third Law Name ANSWERS STUDY GUIDE UNIT 10-Newton s Third Law Date Agenda HW Tues, Jan 5 Wed., Jan 6 Review Video Read Section 6.1-6.3 Fill in Reading Notes (p. 2) Worksheet - Action-Reaction Pairs (p. 3) Go over

More information

5. Universal Laws of Motion

5. Universal Laws of Motion 5. Universal Laws of Motion If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 1727) Physicist 5.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily

More information

Force. A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another.

Force. A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another. Force A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another. Force Weight is the force of the earth's gravity exerted

More information

Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion Newton's laws of motion Forces Forces as vectors Resolving vectors Explaining motion - Aristotle vs Newton Newton s first law Newton s second law Weight Calculating acceleration Newton s third law Moving

More information

4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion Our goals for learning:! How do we describe motion?! How is mass different from weight? How do we

More information

Newton s Laws Force and Motion

Newton s Laws Force and Motion CLIL Project Physics in English Anno scolastico 2013-2014 Newton s Laws Force and Motion Lecture 2 Classe 3 a A Linguistico Istituto Superiore Marini-Gioia - AMALFI Content of the unit: Newton s Laws DYNAMIC

More information

Lecture 5: Newton s Laws. Astronomy 111

Lecture 5: Newton s Laws. Astronomy 111 Lecture 5: Newton s Laws Astronomy 111 Isaac Newton (1643-1727): English Discovered: three laws of motion, one law of universal gravitation. Newton s great book: Newton s laws are universal in scope,

More information

Measurements of Speed. Speed. v = d t. PowerPoint Lectures to accompany Physical Science, 6e

Measurements of Speed. Speed. v = d t. PowerPoint Lectures to accompany Physical Science, 6e PowerPoint Lectures to accompany Physical Science, 6e Chapter 2 Motion Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Motion is.. A change

More information

Forces. When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it.

Forces. When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it. Forces When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it. Forces can Cause an object to start moving Change the speed of a moving object Cause a moving object to stop moving Change

More information

Gravity: The Law of Attraction

Gravity: The Law of Attraction Gravity: The Law of Attraction 2009, Copyright@2008 Lecture 1, Oct. 1 2009 Oct. 1, 2009 #1 Questions of the day: How are Force, acceleration, and mass related? Why is gravity the most important force for

More information

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Force Units of Chapter 4 Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal

More information

Chapter 06 Multi-format Test

Chapter 06 Multi-format Test Name: Class: Date: Chapter 06 Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. The inertia

More information

Dynamics- Why do objects move as they do? What makes an object at rest, begin to move? What makes a body accelerate or decelerate?

Dynamics- Why do objects move as they do? What makes an object at rest, begin to move? What makes a body accelerate or decelerate? Dynamics- Why do objects move as they do? What makes an object at rest, begin to move? What makes a body accelerate or decelerate? What makes an object move in a circle? Force A Force is simply a push

More information

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Name Period Date NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION If I am anything, which I highly doubt, I have made myself so by hard work. Isaac Newton Goals: 1. Students will use conceptual and mathematical models to predict

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Chapter 4 Lecture

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Chapter 4 Lecture Chapter 4 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

More information

Lesson 2: YOU RE PLANNING TO LAUNCH A ROCKET!

Lesson 2: YOU RE PLANNING TO LAUNCH A ROCKET! Key to Curriculum Formatting: Volunteer Directions Volunteer Notes Volunteer-led Classroom Experiments Lesson 2: YOU RE PLANNING TO LAUNCH A ROCKET! Begin the presentation by telling the class that this

More information

Here is a list of concepts that you will need to include in your observations and explanations:

Here is a list of concepts that you will need to include in your observations and explanations: NEWTON S LAWS Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) is probably one of the most remarkable men in the history of science. He graduated from Cambridge University in England at the age of 23. Records indicate that

More information

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 4: NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Newton s Laws of Motion I was only a scalar until you came along and gave me direction. Barbara Wolfe This lecture will help you understand:

More information

Gravitation. Gravitation

Gravitation. Gravitation 1 Gravitation Newton s observations A constant center seeking force is required to keep an object moving along a circular path. You know that the moon orbits the earth and hence there should be a force

More information

Physical Science Chapter 2. Forces

Physical Science Chapter 2. Forces Physical Science Chapter 2 Forces The Nature of Force By definition, a Force is a push or a pull. A Push Or A Pull Just like Velocity & Acceleration Forces have both magnitude and direction components

More information

Soda Straw Rockets. Prep. Before Class. Objectives. Concepts. Workshop #367 PHY. 1 Copyright 2003, A Schmahl Science Workshop All Rights Reserved

Soda Straw Rockets. Prep. Before Class. Objectives. Concepts. Workshop #367 PHY. 1 Copyright 2003, A Schmahl Science Workshop All Rights Reserved Workshop #187 PHY Workshop #367 PHY Prep. Before Class Get # of Straw Rocket kits needed for class, teacher demo box, and teacher prep box. Set up teacher table with activity materials, and extras. Set

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion Isaac Newton is famous for three laws. They are about the way things move. He didn t write the laws. Other people called them Newton s Laws of Motion. Newton s First Law The first

More information

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 1. Newton s Laws 2. Conservation Laws Energy Angular momentum 3. Gravity Review from last time Ancient Greeks: Ptolemy; the geocentric

More information

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition. Forces and Interactions. Newton s Third Law of Motion. This lecture will help you understand:

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition. Forces and Interactions. Newton s Third Law of Motion. This lecture will help you understand: This lecture will help you understand: Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 5: NEWTON S THIRD LAW OF MOTION Forces and Interactions Summary of Newton s Laws Vectors Forces and Interactions Interaction

More information

PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object.

PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object. PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object. It is essential for students to Understand Distance and Displacement: Distance is a measure of how far an

More information

Notes: Mechanics. The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy

Notes: Mechanics. The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy Notes: Mechanics The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy I. Force A push or pull. a) A force is needed to change an object s state of motion. b) Net force- The sum (addition) of all the forces acting on an

More information

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION 1 P a g e Inertia Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION The property of an object by virtue of which it cannot change its state of rest or of uniform motion along a straight line its own, is

More information

2. (P2.1 A) a) A car travels 150 km in 3 hours, what is the cars average speed?

2. (P2.1 A) a) A car travels 150 km in 3 hours, what is the cars average speed? Physics: Review for Final Exam 1 st Semester Name Hour P2.1A Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time 1. (P2.1 A) What is your average speed if you run 140

More information

Friction and Gravity. Friction. Section 2. The Causes of Friction

Friction and Gravity. Friction. Section 2. The Causes of Friction Section 2 Friction and Gravity What happens when you jump on a sled on the side of a snow-covered hill? Without actually doing this, you can predict that the sled will slide down the hill. Now think about

More information

Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued

Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion continued Clicker Question 4.3 A mass at rest on a ramp. How does the friction between the mass and the table know how much force will EXACTLY balance the gravity

More information

Force and Motion Test

Force and Motion Test Force and Motion Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (1 point each) 1. Your best guess of how an experiment might turn out

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws and the Mousetrap Racecar Simple version of Newton s three laws of motion 1 st Law: objects at rest stay at rest, objects in motion stay in motion 2 nd Law: force

More information

Newton's Laws of Motion in Motion

Newton's Laws of Motion in Motion Newton's Laws of Motion in Motion Objectives: Students will use simple techniques to demonstrate Newton's 1 st and 3 rd Laws of Motion. Students will demonstrate their understanding of thrust, drag, lift,

More information

Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion 1. All except one of the following require the application of a net force. Which one is the exception? A. to change an object from a state of rest to a state

More information

2.2 NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

2.2 NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION 2.2 NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) made a systematic study of motion and extended the ideas of Galileo (1564-1642). He summed up Galileo s observation in his three laws of motion

More information

PHYS 117- Exam I. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

PHYS 117- Exam I. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. PHYS 117- Exam I Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Car A travels from milepost 343 to milepost 349 in 5 minutes. Car B travels

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 4 Newton s Laws of Motion PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by Wayne Anderson Goals for Chapter 4 To understand the meaning

More information

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 5: NEWTON S THIRD LAW OF MOTION This lecture will help you understand: Forces and Interactions Newton s Third Law of Motion Summary of Newton s Laws Vectors Forces

More information

13 Universal Gravitation. Everything pulls on everything else.

13 Universal Gravitation. Everything pulls on everything else. Everything pulls on everything else. Gravity was not discovered by Isaac Newton. What Newton discovered, prompted by a falling apple, was that gravity is a universal force that it is not unique to Earth,

More information

Astro 110-01 Lecture 10 Newton s laws

Astro 110-01 Lecture 10 Newton s laws Astro 110-01 Lecture 10 Newton s laws Twin Sungrazing comets 9/02/09 Habbal Astro110-01 Lecture 10 1 http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/comets/movies/soho_lasco_c2.mpg What have we learned? How do we describe

More information

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Gravitational Forces 13.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravity Newton discovered that gravity is universal. Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Section 3.2 Newton s Laws of Motion Objectives Analyze relationships between forces and motion Calculate the effects of forces on objects Identify force pairs between objects New Vocabulary Newton s first

More information

Force & Motion. Force & Mass. Friction

Force & Motion. Force & Mass. Friction 1 2 3 4 Next Force & Motion The motion of an object can be changed by an unbalanced force. The way that the movement changes depends on the strength of the force pushing or pulling and the mass of the

More information

Note to teachers. Newton s Laws of Motion (Science) Monday, January 25, 2010

Note to teachers. Newton s Laws of Motion (Science) Monday, January 25, 2010 Week 20(01-25 to 01-29-10) Newton s Laws of Motion (Science) Monday, January 25, 2010 Note to teachers Starting this week, the homeroom activities will address science benchmarks. On Mondays, students

More information

For every action, there is an and.

For every action, there is an and. SPH4C1 Lesson 03 Newton s Laws NEWTON S THIRD LAW LEARNING GOALS Students will: Be able to state Newton s 3 rd Law and apply it in qualitative and quantitative terms to explain the effect of forces acting

More information

Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction Key Concept Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses. What You Will Learn Gravity affects all matter, including the parts of

More information

LESSON 17: Balloon Rockets ESTIMATED TIME Setup: 5 10 minutes Procedure: 5 10 minutes

LESSON 17: Balloon Rockets ESTIMATED TIME Setup: 5 10 minutes Procedure: 5 10 minutes LESSON 17: Balloon Rockets ESTIMATED TIME Setup: 5 10 minutes Procedure: 5 10 minutes DESCRIPTION Apply the concepts of pressure and Newton s laws of motion to build simple rockets. OBJECTIVE This lesson

More information

Introduction to Gravity and Orbits. Isaac Newton. Newton s Laws of Motion

Introduction to Gravity and Orbits. Isaac Newton. Newton s Laws of Motion Introduction to Gravity and Orbits Isaac Newton Born in England in 1642 Invented calculus in early twenties Finally published work in gravity in 1687 The Principia Newton s Laws of Motion 1: An object

More information

Physics 11 Chapter 4 HW Solutions

Physics 11 Chapter 4 HW Solutions Physics 11 Chapter 4 HW Solutions Chapter 4 Conceptual Question: 5, 8, 10, 18 Problems: 3, 3, 35, 48, 50, 54, 61, 65, 66, 68 Q4.5. Reason: No. If you know all of the forces than you know the direction

More information

Big Science Idea. Forces. Name. When you ride a bike, your foot pushes against the pedal. The push makes the wheels of the bike move.

Big Science Idea. Forces. Name. When you ride a bike, your foot pushes against the pedal. The push makes the wheels of the bike move. Forces Worksheet 1 Name Forces When you ride a bike, your foot pushes against the pedal. The push makes the wheels of the bike move. When you drop something, it is pulled to the ground by gravity. A PUSH

More information

Student Exploration: Gravitational Force

Student Exploration: Gravitational Force 5. Drag STUDENT PACKET # 7 Name: Date: Student Exploration: Gravitational Force Big Idea 13: Forces and Changes in Motion Benchmark: SC.6.P.13.1 Investigate and describe types of forces including contact

More information

Concept Review. Physics 1

Concept Review. Physics 1 Concept Review Physics 1 Speed and Velocity Speed is a measure of how much distance is covered divided by the time it takes. Sometimes it is referred to as the rate of motion. Common units for speed or

More information

Sir Isaac Newton and LeBron James

Sir Isaac Newton and LeBron James Sir Isaac Newton and LeBron James Sir Isaac Newton and LeBron James The English physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton discovered three basic laws of motion. The First Law says that objects at rest

More information