# ch 15 practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

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1 ch 15 practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Work is a transfer of a. energy. c. mass. b. force. d. motion. 2. What is transferred by a force moving an object through a distance? a. force c. motion b. mass d. energy 3. The energy of motion is called a. kinetic energy. c. thermal energy. b. potential energy. d. work. 4. A small 30-kilogram canoe is floating downriver at a speed of 2 m/s. What is the canoe s kinetic energy? a. 32 J c. 120 J b. 60 J d. 900 J 5. A 12-kg sled is moving at a speed of 3.0 m/s. At which of the following speeds will the sled have twice as much kinetic energy? a. 1.5 m/s c. 6.0 m/s b. 4.2 m/s d. 9.0 m/s 6. An object s gravitational potential energy is directly related to all of the following EXCEPT a. its height relative to a reference level. c. its speed. b. its mass. d. the acceleration due to gravity. 7. Which of the following is an example of an object with elastic potential energy? a. a wind-up toy that has been wound up c. a stretched rubber band b. a compressed basketball d. all of the above 8. Why is the gravitational potential energy of an object 1 meter above the moon s surface less than its potential energy 1 meter above Earth s surface? a. The object s mass is less on the moon. b. The object s weight is more on the moon. c. The moon s acceleration due to gravity is less. d. both a and c 9. A 4-kilogram cat is resting on top of a bookshelf that is 2 meters high. What is the cat s gravitational potential energy relative to the floor if the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s 2? a. 6 J c. 20 J b. 8 J d. 78 J 10. The gravitational potential energy of an object is always measured relative to the a. location where the object s kinetic energy is zero. b. position of maximum mechanical energy. c. reference level from which the height is measured. d. surface of Earth. 11. Which of the following increases when an object becomes warmer? a. chemical energy c. nuclear energy b. elastic potential energy d. thermal energy 12. The energy stored in gasoline is a. chemical energy. c. mechanical energy. b. electromagnetic energy. d. nuclear energy.

2 13. The total potential and kinetic energy of all the microscopic particles in an object make up its a. chemical energy. c. nuclear energy. b. electric energy. d. thermal energy. 14. Walking converts what type of energy into mechanical energy? a. chemical c. nuclear b. electromagnetic d. thermal 15. Nuclear power plants are designed to convert nuclear energy into what type of energy? a. chemical c. geothermal b. electrical d. mechanical 16. Solar cells convert what type of energy into electrical energy? a. chemical c. nuclear b. electromagnetic d. thermal 17. Which of the following statements is true according to the law of conservation of energy? a. Energy cannot be created. b. Energy cannot be destroyed. c. Energy can be converted from one form to another. d. all of the above 18. If no friction acts on a diver during a dive, then which of the following statements is true? a. The total mechanical energy of the system increases. b. Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy but not vice versa. c. (KE+ PE) beginning = (KE + PE) end d. all of the above 19. The mechanical energy of an object equals its a. chemical energy plus its nuclear energy. c. nuclear energy. b. kinetic energy plus its potential energy. d. thermal energy. Figure The kinetic energy of the pendulum bob in Figure 15-1 increases the most between locations a. A and B. c. B and D. b. A and C. d. C and D. 21. The equation E = mc 2 relates energy and a. force. c. mass. b. gravity. d. work. 22. In which of the following does Einstein s famous equation apply?

3 a. chemical reactions c. electromagnetic energy conversions b. collisions between objects d. nuclear fission and fusion reactions 23. Which of the following statements is a consequence of the equation E = mc 2? a. Energy is released when matter is destroyed. b. Mass and energy are equivalent. c. The law of conservation of energy must be modified to state that mass and energy are conserved in any process. d. all of the above 24. What is biomass energy? a. the chemical energy stored in living things b. the electromagnetic energy stored in living things c. the nuclear energy stored in living things d. the thermal energy stored in living things 25. Nonrenewable energy resources include all of the following EXCEPT a. coal. c. oil. b. hydrogen fuel cells. d. uranium. 26. Fossil fuels currently account for the majority of the world s energy use because they are a. distributed evenly throughout the world. b. nonpolluting. c. relatively inexpensive and readily available. d. renewable energy resources. 27. A drawback of solar energy is that it a. cannot be converted directly into electrical energy. b. depends on the climate. c. produces water pollution. d. is not a renewable resource. 28. A benefit of a hydrogen fuel cell is that its byproduct is a. carbon dioxide. c. water. b. oxygen. d. uranium. 29. Which of the following types of transportation is NOT mass transportation? a. bus c. streetcar b. car d. train 30. Based on your knowledge of energy conservation, which of the following statements is true? a. Manufacturers can increase a light bulb s energy efficiency by using technology that increases the amount of electromagnetic energy the bulb converts from a given amount of electrical energy. b. Energy can be conserved by turning off lights when they are not in use. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 31. Energy of an object increases when is done on the object. 32. Energy and work are measured in the SI unit called the. 33. If the of an object doubles, its kinetic energy doubles. 34. The kinetic energy of an object is proportional to the square of its.

4 35. Energy that is stored due to position or shape is called energy. 36. When a pole-vaulter flexes the pole, the pole-vaulter increases the pole s potential energy. 37. You can calculate an object s gravitational potential energy by using the equation. 38. Mechanical energy does not include kinetic energy or energy. 39. The sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of an object is called its energy. 40. All energy can be considered as kinetic energy, energy, or the energy in fields. 41. Wind turbines convert energy into electrical energy. 42. The process of changing energy from one form to another is called energy. 43. Energy cannot be created or destroyed is a statement of the law of. 44. When an apple falls from a tree to the ground, the apple s beginning kinetic energy and ending gravitational potential energy are both equal to. Figure In Figure 15-1, the kinetic energy of the pendulum bob decreases between locations B and. 46. In the equation E = mc 2, c is the speed of. 47. Energy resources that exist in limited amounts and, once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of millions of years are called energy resources. 48. Flat collector plates through which water flows are found in solar energy systems. 49. Geothermal energy, in addition to being renewable, offers the benefit of being. 50. Turning off unused lights or appliances is an example of energy. Short Answer

5 51. What evidence is there that energy is transferred as a golf club does work on a golf ball? 52. Show that the unit kg m 2 /s 2, calculated from the kinetic energy equation, is equivalent to a joule. 53. What are the two general types of energy that can be used to classify many forms of energy? 54. Sled A (with its riders) has twice the mass of Sled B (with its riders). If both sleds have the same kinetic energy, which sled is moving faster? Explain your answer. 55. In what two ways can you increase the elastic potential energy of a spring? 56. What is the most familiar form of electromagnetic energy? 57. Why can you model the thermal energy of an object as the mechanical energy of the particles that make it up? 58. Describe one energy conversion that takes place in a hydroelectric power plant. 59. What energy conversion takes place as an arrow is shot from a bow? 60. Identify two types of nuclear reactions in which the equation E = mc 2 applies. 61. What are two examples of nonrenewable energy resources? 62. What are two examples of renewable energy resources? 63. What is a characteristic of a renewable energy resource? 64. Explain how biomass energy depends on the sun. 65. Why might a consumer buy a more energy-efficient refrigerator even though it may cost more than a conventional refrigerator? Problem 66. What is the kinetic energy of a 74.0-kg sky diver falling at a terminal velocity of 52.0 m/s? Show your work. 67. A 0.49-kg squirrel jumps from a tree branch that is 3.6 m high to the top of a bird feeder that is 1.5 m high. What is the change in gravitational potential energy of the squirrel? (The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s 2.) Show your work. 68. A small dog is trained to jump straight up a distance of 1.1 m. How much kinetic energy does the 7.7-kg dog need to jump this high? (The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s 2.) Show your work. 69. In a nuclear reaction, an amount of matter having a mass of kg is converted into energy, which is released. How much energy is released? (The speed of light is m/s.) Show your work. Essay 70. Compare and contrast biomass energy with the energy from fossil fuels. Other USING SCIENCE SKILLS

6 Figure Applying Concepts In Figure 15-2, the block in C has 5 J of kinetic energy. How much work did the compressed spring do on the block? Explain your answer. 72. Classifying What form of energy does the compressed spring have in Figure 15-2? 73. Inferring In Figure 15-2, what has happened to the stored energy of the spring between A and B? 74. Applying Concepts In Figure 15-2, how would the kinetic energy of the block in C be different if the tabletop was not frictionless? Explain your answer. 75. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 15-2, how has the kinetic energy of the block changed between A and B? Figure 15-3

7 76. Interpreting Graphics At what location in Figure 15-3 does the ball have the least gravitational potential energy? 77. Comparing and Contrasting Compare the gravitational potential energy of the ball at locations B and E shown in Figure Explain your answer. 78. Applying Concepts In Figure 15-3, does the total mechanical energy of the ball between locations A and F ever equal zero? Explain your answer. 79. Inferring In Figure 15-3, is the total mechanical energy of the ball conserved as the ball bounces? Explain your answer. 80. Applying Concepts Compare the kinetic energy of the ball in Figure 15-3 as it strikes the floor just before the second bounce with the first bounce (location C).

8 ch 15 practice test Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: A DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: A DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: B DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: B DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: D DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: D DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: A DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: A DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: B DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: B DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: D DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: B DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: A DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: B DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: B DIF: L1 OBJ: , ANS: C DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: B DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L2 OBJ: COMPLETION 31. ANS: work DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: joule DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: mass

9 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: speed DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: potential DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: elastic DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: PE = mgh DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: chemical DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: mechanical DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: potential DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: kinetic mechanical DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: conversion DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: conservation of energy DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: 0 joules DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: E DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: light DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: nonrenewable DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: active DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: nonpolluting

10 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: conservation DIF: L2 OBJ: SHORT ANSWER 51. ANS: The kinetic energy of the golf ball suddenly increases as the club strikes it. DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: kg m 2 /s 2 = ( kg m/s 2 ) m = N m = J DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: kinetic energy and potential energy DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: Sled B; it has less mass. DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: Stretch it or compress it. DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: visible light DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: because the thermal energy of an object is the kinetic and potential energy of its particles DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: Accept either of the following: The potential energy of stored water is converted into kinetic energy as the water falls; as the falling water does work on the turbine, it moves the turbine s blades (KE). The KE of the rotating blades is converted into electrical energy by the generator. DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: The elastic potential energy of the bent bow and string is converted into kinetic energy of the arrow. DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: fission and fusion

11 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: Accept any two of the following: fossil fuels, such as oil, coal, and natural gas; uranium. DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: Accept any two of the following: hydroelectric, solar (passive, active), geothermal, wind, biomass, nuclear fusion (future source). DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: Accept either of the following: The resource can be replaced in a relatively short period of time. The resource originates either directly or indirectly from the sun. DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: Biomass energy is the chemical energy stored in living things. The chemical energy is produced as plants convert sunlight in the form of electromagnetic energy into chemical energy. DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: The refrigerator uses less energy due to its efficiency, so over time, the total cost may be lower. DIF: L1 OBJ: PROBLEM 66. ANS: DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: decreased by 10 J = 10 J DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: DIF: L2 OBJ:

12 ESSAY 70. ANS: Biomass energy is energy that is available immediately from the chemical energy stored in living organisms. Biomass is classified as a renewable energy resource. Fossil fuels also contain chemical energy but were formed over a long period of time from once-living organisms. Fossil fuels are classified as nonrenewable energy resources. DIF: L2 OBJ: OTHER 71. ANS: 5 J; because the block gained 5 joules of energy, the spring had to do 5 joules of work on the block. DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: elastic potential energy DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: The elastic potential energy of the spring has decreased. DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: The block s kinetic energy would be less. Some of the elastic potential energy of the compressed spring would be converted into thermal energy due to friction. As a result, less of the springs s elastic potential energy would be converted into kinetic energy of the block. DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: The block s kinetic energy has increased. DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: C DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: The gravitational potential energy of the ball is the same at both locations; the height is the same. DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: No; since the ball is always moving to the right between locations A and F, at every point between A and F, the ball has kinetic energy. Because the ball has kinetic energy at each point, it has some mechanical energy at each point. DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS:

13 No; because the ball does not reach the same height each time it bounces, its maximum gravitational potential energy is decreasing from one bounce to the next. Because its gravitational potential energy decreases and its maximum kinetic energy does not increase, the total mechanical energy must be decreasing. DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: The kinetic energy is less before the second bounce. Since its gravitational potential energy is zero each time it strikes the floor, its kinetic energy equals its total mechanical energy. Because the total mechanical energy has decreased with the first bounce, its kinetic energy has decreased as it strikes the floor just before the second bounce. DIF: L2 OBJ:

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