Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 EVALUAT ING ACADEMIC READINESS FOR APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING for ACCESS TO APPRENTICESHIP SCIENCE SKILLS SIMPLE MACHINES & MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE AN ACADEMIC SKILLS MANUAL for The Construction Trades: Mechanical Systems This trade group includes the following trades: Electrician (Construction, Maintenance & Industrial), Network Cabling Specialist, Plumber, Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Mechanic, Sprinkler & Fire Protection, and Steamfitter Workplace Support Services Branch Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities 2011

2 In preparing these Academic Skills Manuals we have used passages, diagrams and questions similar to those an apprentice might find in a text, guide or trade manual. This trade related material is not intended to instruct you in your trade. It is used only to demonstrate how understanding an academic skill will help you find and use the information you need.

4 WORK AND POWER We all have a pretty good idea of what doing work means in our everyday life. Work also has a scientific definition. At the mechanical level, work is done when a force acts on an object and causes it to be moved. For example, work is done when you pry off a broken bumper because the bumper has been moved from one position to another. To find the work done in moving an object, the force applied is multiplied by the distance the object is moved. Work = Force x distance The metric unit of work is the joule. A joule (j) is the work done when a force of 1 newton acts on an object over a distance of 1 meter. You do 1 joule of work when you push, pull, carry or lift a stationary mass of 1 kg over a distance of 1 meter. The imperial unit of work is the foot-pound. A foot-pound is the amount of work done by moving a one pound object over a distance of 1 foot. Power is the rate of doing work. It indicates how long it takes to do the job. In order to judge the effectiveness of a machine, the rate at which it works is an important consideration. Power is the work done divided by the amount of time taken to do it. Power = work / time The metric unit of power is the watt (w) and the imperial unit is the horsepower (hp). DIFFERENT WAYS MACHINES INCREASE FORCE Machines do not create energy, so they will not work all by themselves. They need an initial force such as the pull of gravity, the push of our muscles or the turning of a switch. Then the machines can change or redirect the force so that we have the amount of force we need in the right place. Here are some ways that machines can change a force 1. Machines can transform energy from one form to another. An electrical generator at a dam can transform the mechanical energy in flowing water to electrical energy. A power drill converts electrical energy into mechanical energy used to drive a screw. 2. Machines can transfer energy from one place to another. Hot air from a furnace can move heat energy through ducts to heat the inside of a building. 3. Machines can multiply force. A machine such as a hydraulic lift uses the pressure of a fluid to increase the force available to lift a weight. For example, a heavy truck can be lifted by a hydraulic press, making it easier to work on the under parts. 4. Machines can multiply speed. We can move faster on a bicycle than walking. We can move even faster on a complex machine with an outside source of energy, such as a car or truck. Simple Machines, &Mechanical Advantage Page 2

7 When work is done, those lengths are proportional to the distance each end of the lever arcs through as the effort force is applied. Example: The length of lever like the one in the diagram is 60 inches on one side of the fulcrum and 12 inches on the other. If the long end of the lever moves 20 inches, how far does the shorter end move? Since the lengths on each side are proportional, we can write them as ratios or fractions on different sides of an equal sign. We will write the unknown length of the shorter end of the lever as D. D = D = 20 x = 4 The length that the shorter end of the lever moves is 4 inches. As the end of the lever under the stone is moved 4 inches, it in turn moves the stone. Our job is successful as the stone is moved out of the way. Example: A load of 20 newtons (n) on one end of a lever that is 10 meters from the fulcrum will balance a second load of 40 newtons placed 5 meters from the fulcrum. 20 kg 40 kg 10 m 5 m 20 n x 10 m = 40 n x 5 m 200 n m = 200 n m The lever is in equilibrium with both sides balancing each other. Next we will look at an example of how to find the effort force needed to move a load: Question: You need to move a 400 pound block with a 6 foot lever. The 400 pound load force is positioned at the end of the lever 1 foot away from the fulcrum. You will apply the effort force at the other end of the lever, 5 feet from the fulcrum. What effort force will you need? Simple Machines, &Mechanical Advantage Page 5

11 When you turn a wrench that pivots on a bolt, you apply a torque to the bolt that causes it to be loosened or tightened as it moves up or down. Torque is calculated by multiplying force times the length of the wrench. Using a Wrench to Produce Torque When you want to loosen or tighten a bolt, the force of your muscles at one end of a wrench rotates the head of the wrench connected to the bolt at the pivot end. The shaft turns, causing the bolt to rotate. The length of the wrench is measured from the center of the bolt to the end where the force is applied. The torque applied by the wrench to turn the bolt depends on the force applied and the length of the wrench. To get enough torque to loosen a bolt with a wrench of a given length, you need to apply a certain amount of force. If you use a longer wrench, you can apply less force. If you use a shorter wrench, you will need to apply more force. See Figure 3. Shorter wrench requires more force Longer wrench requires less force More torque is produced by longer wrench for the same amount of force FIGURE 3: Amount of Torque Increases with Size of Wrench If you tried to loosen a bolt with a 15 cm wrench but found the bolt was on too tightly, what size wrench should you try next, 10 cm or 25 cm? If you picked the 25 cm one, you have a good chance of being successful. This is because less force is required to produce the same amount of torque as the distance from the center increases. A longer wrench turned with the same amount of force (exerted by the pulling with your muscles) will give you more torque or ability to make the bolt turn. A wrench gives you a mechanical advantage over using your fingers to loosen a bolt because it acts as a lever. Remember that a lever increases the distance over which the force acts compared to your fingers. Since the force is multiplied by the distance it is applied over, the longer the distance, the more torque there is for the same amount of applied force. Simple Machines, &Mechanical Advantage Page 9

12 THE PULLEY A pulley changes the direction of movement. Pulling down to move something is easier for us than lifting up. A pulley is made by running a rope over a supported wheel. If a load is attached to the rope, it can be lifted up by pulling down on the other end of the rope. Several pulleys can be connected to form lifting systems that not only change the direction of the force but also amplify the force. An example is a block and tackle. THE INCLINED PLANE If you want to raise an object to a certain height, you must do a certain amount of work. You cannot reduce the amount of work, but you can change the way the work is done. Work has two aspects: the effort put into it and the distance the effort is maintained. When raising an object, you can move it up on a slant rather than lifting it directly up. This increases the distance you need to apply your force over while reducing the amount of force needed. When you raise an object by pushing or pulling it up an inclined plane or a ramp, less force is needed than if you were lifting straight up, because the force is applied over a longer distance. See Figure 4. Using an inclined plane to raise a load requires less force but the load must be moved a longer distance FIGURE 4; The Inclined Plane Imagine you need to raise a heavy crate, one you cannot lift, 4 feet from the floor to the bench. Four feet is the distance the resistance force moves. You push it up a 10 foot long ramp. Ten feet is the distance the effort force moves. By using the ramp to move the crate which is too heavy to lift, you have gained a mechanical advantage. When we use an inclined plane, we use less force to lift an object, but we have to apply the force over a longer distance. We use loading ramps to load trucks so we can prevent injury to workers and equipment. Simple Machines, &Mechanical Advantage Page 10

13 THE SCREW A screw is an inclined plane rolled into a cone. If you take a piece of paper cut into a right triangle (an inclined plane) and roll it up, it looks like a screw. The distance between two adjacent edges of the rolled up paper or between the threads of a screw is called the pitch. See Figure 5. A screw is a rolled up inclined plane A screw can have a very large mechanical advantage, but it is an inefficient machine because of the large amount of friction that occurs between the wood and the turning screw. However, this friction helps hold the screw tightly in the wood. The screwdriver used to turn the screw is a third class lever where your wrist is the fulcrum, your hand supplies the effort force and the head of the screw is the resistance. Some of the effort force applied to the screw by the screwdriver parts the wood as the screw turns. THE WEDGE FIGURE 5: The Screw The wedge is a double-sided inclined plane. A wedge acts as a moving inclined plane. Most cutting machines like axes and saws make use of a wedge. When a saw cuts a board, some of the forward movement of the saw is converted into sideways movement in the wood. The sideways movement splits open the board. ACTUAL AND IDEAL MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE Machines give us a mechanical advantage: an advantage gained in the amount of work done by the use of a mechanism in transmitting force. Work is a force applied over a certain distance. It is the combination of both force and distance that determines the work done when an object is moved. A machine can increase the amount of force applied or it can increase the distance over which the force is applied. Most simple machines increase the distance over which the force is transmitted. For example, when you use a crowbar to pry a large unit into its exact position, the crowbar, with its long arm, provides you with a longer distance over which to apply the Simple Machines, &Mechanical Advantage Page 11

16 The complex machinery you use is made of simple machines linked together in various ways and driven by an outside source of power. The operation of motors, hoists and lifts are all based on the principles of simple machines. Understanding how a simple machine gives a mechanical advantage can help you interpret how more complex machines work for you. Simple Machines, &Mechanical Advantage Page 14

17 Answer the following questions by filling in the blank spaces with one of these words. The answers are on the last page. lever force longer less hammer mechanical advantage fulcrum distance 1. Mechanical advantage is an advantage we gain by using a mechanism to transmit. 2. To find the actual of a lever, the resistance force (the weight of the object to be moved) is divided by the effort force applied. 3. The ideal mechanical advantage is the ratio of the the effort force moves compared to the distance the resistance force moves. 4. A is a rigid bar that is free to turn about a pivot point called a fulcrum. 5. When a lever is balanced, the resistance force multiplied by its distance to the is equal to the effort force multiplied by its distance to the fulcrum. 6. When we need to move a heavy object using a lever, we can increase the effectiveness of our applied force by making the length of the lever on the effort side of the fulcrum. 7. When we use an inclined plane to raise an object, the force we need to apply is than when we lift it straight up, but the distance we apply it over is longer. 8. A is an example of a third class lever. Answer the following questions by writing true or false in the blanks. 9. Torque refers to a force that produces a turning motion. 10. The torque on a bolt depends on the force applied and the length of the wrench. 11. If the resistance force is 48 newtons and the effort force is 12 newtons, the mechanical advantage of the lever is A screw is a rolled up lever. Simple Machines, &Mechanical Advantage Page 15

18 Answer page 1. force 2. mechanical advantage 3. distance 4. lever 5. fulcrum 6. longer 7. less 8. hammer (fishing rod, tweezers) 9. true 10. true 11. false, (it is 4) 12. false (it is a rolled up inclined plane) Simple Machines, &Mechanical Advantage Page 16

### Simple Machines. What are simple machines?

Definitions to know: Simple Machines Work done when an applied force causes an object to move in the direction of the force Energy ability to cause change; can change the speed, direction, shape, or temperature

### Mechanical Reasoning Review

Mechanical Reasoning Review Work can be made easier or faster through practical applications of simple and/or compound machines. This is called mechanical advantage - in other words, using the principal

### Name Class Date. Pulley. Wedge

CHAPTER 13 2 Simple Machines SECTION Work and Energy KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are simple machines? What simple machines are in the lever family? What simple

### Directed Reading A. Section: Types of Machines LEVERS

Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: Types of Machines 1. A knife is actually a very sharp. 2. What are the six simple machines that all other machines are made from? LEVERS 3. A simple machine

### The Lever. The law of conservation of energy applies to all machines!

Simple Machines A machine is a device for multiplying forces or simply changing the direction of forces. Many machines can increase the speed with which work is done. The Lever The law of conservation

### ANSWER KEY. Work and Machines

Chapter Project Worksheet 1 1. inclined plane, wedge, screw, lever, wheel and axle, pulley 2. pulley 3. lever 4. inclined plane 5. Answers will vary: top, side, or bottom 6. Answers will vary; only one

### Compound Machine: Two or more simple machines working together to make work easier. Examples: Wheelbarrow, Can Opener, Bicycle

Name SOL 4.2 Simple and Compound Machines NOTE - Simple machines are NOT included in the 5 th REVISED Science Standards Simple Machine: A machine with few or no moving parts. Simple machines make work

### F output. F input. F = Force in Newtons ( N ) d output. d = distance ( m )

Mechanical Advantage, Speed Ratio, Work and Efficiency Machines Make Work Easier Machines help people do things that they normally couldn t do on their own. Mechanical Advantage A machine makes work easier

### What are simple machines? primary

What are simple machines? primary Here you will discover all sorts of interesting things about simple machines and how they work. There are some great diagrams as well! A machine is something that makes

### Overall Indicator: The student: recognizes the effects of forces acting on structures and mechanisms

Grade 5 Performance Task: Disaster Recovery Content Connections Assessment Criterion Understanding of basic concepts Overall Indicator: The student: recognizes the effects of forces acting on structures

### The origin of the wedge is unknown, because it has been in use as early as the stone age.

Simple Machines Compiled and edited from Wikipedia Inclined Plane An inclined plane is a plane surface set at an angle, other than a right angle, against a horizontal surface. The inclined plane permits

### Using mechanical energy for daily

unit 3 Using mechanical energy for daily activities Physics Chapter 3 Using mechanical energy for daily activities Competency Uses mechanical energy for day-to-day activities Competency level 3.1 Investigates

### Unit 8A: Systems in Action (Pg. 2 85) Chapter 2: Getting to Work (pg. 28 55)

Unit 8A: Systems in Action (Pg. 2 85) Chapter 2: Getting to Work (pg. 28 55) Name: Date: 2.1: Physical Systems: Simple Machines (Pg. 30 35): Read Pages 30-35. Answer the following questions on pg. 35:

### Simple Machines. Figure 2: Basic design for a mousetrap vehicle

Mousetrap Vehicles Figure 1: This sample mousetrap-powered vehicle has a large drive wheel and a small axle. The vehicle will move slowly and travel a long distance for each turn of the wheel. 1 People

### 2.) In general, what do most simple machines do? Simple machines make work easier by reducing the force needed.

Name: Simple Machines Study Guide Force and Work- 1.) To be considered work, you have to have a force and a distance through which the force acts. 2.) What is the formula for work? work = force x distance_

### Levers for Lifting BROWARD COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCIENCE BENCHMARK PLAN ACTIVITY ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES. Grade 3 Quarter 3 Activity 23

activity Levers for Lifting BROWARD COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCIENCE BENCHMARK PLAN Grade Quarter Activity SC.C... The student understands that the motion of an object can be described and measured. SC.H... The

### Fulcrum Effort or Applied Force. Fulcrum Load or Resistance. Effort or Applied Force. Load or Resistance. Other First Class Lever Examples.

First Class Lever Second Class Lever Load or Resistance Fulcrum Effort or Applied Force Fulcrum Load or Resistance Effort or Applied Force Other First Class Lever Examples Action Spring Force Load Applied

### When you have completed this lesson you will be able to: identify some common simple machines explain how simple machines make work easier

Simple machines OBJECTIVES When you have completed this lesson you will be able to: identify some common simple machines explain how simple machines make work easier A machine is an invention that makes

### Simple Machines Quiz

Simple Machines Quiz Part 1. Write the name of the simple machine that is described questions 1-4 below. Word Bank: Wheel & Axle Screw Pulley Inclined Plane Lever 1. These two parts act as one simple machine.

### Mechanical & Electrical Reasoning Study Guide

Mechanical & Electrical Reasoning Study Guide About Mechanical Aptitude Tests Who is likely to take a mechanical reasoning test? Mechanical aptitude tests are commonly administered during pre-employment

### 7 TH GRADE SCIENCE REVIEW

7 TH GRADE SCIENCE REVIEW The motion of an object is always judged with respect to some other object or point. When an object changes position over time relative to a reference point, the object is in

### MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 4 MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION TUTORIAL 1 SIMPLE MACHINES

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 4 MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION TUTORIAL 1 SIMPLE MACHINES Simple machines: lifting devices e.g. lever systems, inclined plane, screw jack, pulley blocks, Weston differential

### Mechanical Systems. Grade 8 Unit 4 Test. 1. A wheelbarrow is an example of what simple machine? Class 1 lever. Class 2 lever.

Mechanical Systems Grade 8 Unit 4 Test Student Class 1. A wheelbarrow is an example of what simple machine? D Wheel and Axle 2. A hockey stick is an example of what simple machine? D Inclined plane 3.

### Christa s Lost Lessons Simple Machines

Christa s Lost Lessons Simple Machines Introduction: Among the six lost lessons, the simple machines demonstration was most rudimentary. Perhaps, it is because most earth-based simple machines are crafted

### Simple Machines. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Grade Level: 3-5 Group Size: 25-30 Time: 60 Minutes Presenters: 3-4

Simple Machines Preparation Grade Level: 3-5 Group Size: 25-30 Time: 60 Minutes Presenters: 3-4 Objectives This lesson will enable students to: Describe and define simple machines. Identify simple machines

### SCIENCE STD. V (2015) More About Force Energy and Simple Machines. Name Roll No. Date Std. V

SCIENCE STD. V (2015) More About Force Energy and Simple Machines Name Roll No. Date Std. V Q1.What is Force? Force is a push or a pull that makes the things move. Q2.What effect does Force has on our

### Engineer III Simple Machines

Harford District 2014 Cub Scout Day Camp June 23-78 Knights of the Roundtable Engineer III Simple Machines Station Volunteer s Guide Thank you for being a station volunteer! The stations are the heart

### Levers and Pulleys. 5 th Grade Science Investigation. Unit

Levers and Pulleys 5 th Grade Science Investigation Unit What Do We Already Know? A lever and pulley are mechanical advantages=makes work easier, and helps lift things you couldn t t normally lift Combined

### Name: Partners: Period: Coaster Option: 1. In the space below, make a sketch of your roller coaster.

1. In the space below, make a sketch of your roller coaster. 2. On your sketch, label different areas of acceleration. Put a next to an area of negative acceleration, a + next to an area of positive acceleration,

### Pre and Post-Visit Activities

Pre and Post-Visit Activities Simple Machines Table of Contents: Important Information: 2 Vocabulary: 3 Pre-Visit Activities: 4 Post-Visit Activities: 5 Vocabulary Word Search: 6 2 Important Information

### Name. Most of the bones of the limbs (arms & legs) act as levers. These levers are powered by muscles.

Bones as Levers 1 Name Bones as Levers You may not think of your limbs as being machines, but they are. The action of a muscle pulling on a bone often works like a type of simple machine called a lever.

### Questions: Does it always take the same amount of force to lift a load? Where should you press to lift a load with the least amount of force?

Lifting A Load 1 NAME LIFTING A LOAD Questions: Does it always take the same amount of force to lift a load? Where should you press to lift a load with the least amount of force? Background Information:

### Simple Kitchen Machines

Provided by TryEngineering - Lesson Focus Lesson focuses on simple machines and how they can be found in many everyday items. Students explore the different types of simple machines, how they work, and

### GEARS AND GEAR SYSTEMS

This file aims to introducing basic concepts of gears and pulleys. Areas covered include spur gears, compound gears, chain drive, rack/pinion systems and pulley systems. GEARS AND GEAR SYSTEMS Gears can

### Playful machines A Facilitator s Guide to Simple Machines in the Playground

inspiring discovery Playful machines A Facilitator s Guide to Simple Machines in the Playground Our Vision Canadians recognize that Science 1 is intrinsic to their lives and acknowledge the fundamental

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science 8 th GRADE. Unit: Fast and Furious Forces General Task Life is Easy with Simple Machines

Subject Area: Physical Science Grade: 8 Unit: Fast and Furious Forces General Task Life is Easy with Simple Machines S8P3. Students will investigate relationship between force, mass, and the motion of

### Simple machines provide a mechanical advantage that makes our work faster and easier, and they are all around us every day.

LEARNING MODULE: SIMPLE MACHINES Pre-Visit Activities We suggest that you use these pre-visit classroom acitivites to prepare your students for a rewarding Museum visit. Before your visit, introduce your

### Pulleys. Experiment 1 The Lone Pulley

Pulleys Well, I hope you used the lever lesson to get some leverage on this work, energy and simple machines concept. This lesson we re going to pulley ourselves up by our bootstraps and play with these

### Simple Machines. Student s worksheets. Carles Egusquiza Bueno. IES Rocagrossa Lloret de Mar. CLIL Course. Norwich Institute for Language Education

Simple Machines IES Rocagrossa Lloret de Mar CLIL Course Norwich Institute for Language Education January March 2010 CONTENTS Contents...2 Unit 1: Force, work and machines...3 Lesson 1: Force...4 Lesson

### TORQUE AND FIRST-CLASS LEVERS

TORQUE AND FIRST-CLASS LEVERS LAB MECH 28.COMP From Physics, Eugene Hecht and Physical Science with Computers, Vernier Software & Technology INTRODUCTION In Figure 1, note force F acting on a wrench along

### Clipper Creations. Provided by TryEngineering - www.tryengineering.org Click here to provide feedback on this lesson.

Provided by TryEngineering - Click here to provide feedback on this lesson. Lesson Focus Develop a working model of a nail clipper. Note: This lesson plan is designed for classroom use only, with supervision

### Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation Simple Machines: 4.G.1 Introduction to Simple Machines

### Unit 4 Practice Test: Rotational Motion

Unit 4 Practice Test: Rotational Motion Multiple Guess Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. How would an angle in radians be converted to an angle

### REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING

Musculoskeletal hazards and controls REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING Photocopy this profile and distribute it as widely as possible! Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), such as chronic back pain or shoulder

### Everyday Simple Machines

Everyday Simple Machines Teacher's Guide Editors: Brian A. Jerome Ph.D. Stephanie Zak Jerome Assistant Editors: Louise Marrier Hannah Fjeld Graphics: Fred Thodal Heidi Berry Lyndsey Canfield www.visuallearningco.com

### Name Class Date. You do twice as much work. b. You lift two identical books one meter above the ground.

Exercises 9.1 Work (pages 145 146) 1. Circle the letter next to the correct mathematical equation for work. work = force distance work = distance force c. work = force distance d. work = force distance

### ( ) where W is work, f(x) is force as a function of distance, and x is distance.

Work by Integration 1. Finding the work required to stretch a spring 2. Finding the work required to wind a wire around a drum 3. Finding the work required to pump liquid from a tank 4. Finding the work

### Inclined Plane: Distance vs. Force

1a Inclined Plane: Distance vs. Force Look at the inclined plane model you built for Card 2. It s a ramp, so it s easy to slide or roll things up and down it. As you noticed, it is a little more difficult

### Tips For Selecting DC Motors For Your Mobile Robot

Tips For Selecting DC Motors For Your Mobile Robot By AJ Neal When building a mobile robot, selecting the drive motors is one of the most important decisions you will make. It is a perfect example of an

### Linear Motion vs. Rotational Motion

Linear Motion vs. Rotational Motion Linear motion involves an object moving from one point to another in a straight line. Rotational motion involves an object rotating about an axis. Examples include a

### Roanoke Pinball Museum Key Concepts

Roanoke Pinball Museum Key Concepts What are Pinball Machines Made of? SOL 3.3 Many different materials are used to make a pinball machine: 1. Steel: The pinball is made of steel, so it has a lot of mass.

### Physics 201 Homework 8

Physics 201 Homework 8 Feb 27, 2013 1. A ceiling fan is turned on and a net torque of 1.8 N-m is applied to the blades. 8.2 rad/s 2 The blades have a total moment of inertia of 0.22 kg-m 2. What is the

### 5. Forces and Motion-I. Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity.

5. Forces and Motion-I 1 Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity. Newton's First Law: Consider a body on which no net force acts. If the body is at rest, it will

### Unit 4 Mechanical Systems Learning Pack (Science In Action 8)

1 2 Focus in Action UNIT LEARNING PACKS These booklets are designed to provide Grade 8 students with all the resources needed to review or reinforce concepts, covered in the Alberta Science Curriculum,

### 30 minutes in class, 2 hours to make the first time

Asking questions and defining problems Developing and using models Planning and carrying out investigations 30 minutes in class, 2 hours to make the first time 3 12 x 24 x ¾ inch plywood boards 1 x 12

### Ponce de Leon Middle School Physical Science 2016 Summer Instructional Packet

Ponce de Leon Middle School Physical Science 2016 Summer Instructional Packet DIRECTIONS: 1. You are required to complete the Summer Instructional Packet. 2. Turn in your completed package to your teacher,

### Simple machines. Law of Simple Machines. Resistance Force x resistance distance = effort force x effort distance

Simple machines A simple machine is a evice that requires only the force of a human to perform work. One of the properties of a simple machine is that it can be use to increase the force that can be applie

### Chapter 8: Rotational Motion of Solid Objects

Chapter 8: Rotational Motion of Solid Objects 1. An isolated object is initially spinning at a constant speed. Then, although no external forces act upon it, its rotational speed increases. This must be

### Electric Motors and Drives

EML 2322L MAE Design and Manufacturing Laboratory Electric Motors and Drives To calculate the peak power and torque produced by an electric motor, you will need to know the following: Motor supply voltage,

### 3 Work, Power and Energy

3 Work, Power and Energy At the end of this section you should be able to: a. describe potential energy as energy due to position and derive potential energy as mgh b. describe kinetic energy as energy

### Name Period WORKSHEET: KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY PROBLEMS. 1. Stored energy or energy due to position is known as energy.

Name Period Date WORKSHEET: KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY PROBLEMS 1. Stored energy or energy due to position is known as energy. 2. The formula for calculating potential energy is. 3. The three factors

### 9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J

1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9

### You ll have leverage as you guide

Teacher s Guide Simple Machines Dear Educator, You ll have leverage as you guide students in the exploration of simple machines. In KIDS DISCOVER Simple Machines, your young scientists will learn about

### Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Conceptual Questions 1) Which of Newton's laws best explains why motorists should buckle-up? A) the first law

### PUSH AND PULL: SIMPLE MACHINES AT WORK

PUSH AND PULL: SIMPLE MACHINES AT WORK 1 videocassette... 23 minutes Copyright MCMXC Rainbow Educational Media 4540 Preslyn Drive Raleigh, NC 27616-3177 Distributed by: United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave.,

### Solution Derivations for Capa #11

Solution Derivations for Capa #11 1) A horizontal circular platform (M = 128.1 kg, r = 3.11 m) rotates about a frictionless vertical axle. A student (m = 68.3 kg) walks slowly from the rim of the platform

### Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion 1. All except one of the following require the application of a net force. Which one is the exception? A. to change an object from a state of rest to a state

### 10.1 Quantitative. Answer: A Var: 50+

Chapter 10 Energy and Work 10.1 Quantitative 1) A child does 350 J of work while pulling a box from the ground up to his tree house with a rope. The tree house is 4.8 m above the ground. What is the mass

### INCLINED PLANE LEVER SCREW WHEEL & AXLE WEDGE PULLEY

HANDBOOK Machines are tools that help people do work more easily. In physics, you do work anytime you use force to move an object. Skateboards, cars, bikes, shovels, boats, doors, light switches, and stairs

### HYDRAULIC TABLE CART 500-LB.

HYDRAULIC TABLE CART 500-LB. OWNER S MANUAL WARNING: Read carefully and understand all MACHINE ADJUSTMENT AND OPERATION INSTRUCTIONS before operating. Failure to follow the safety rules and other basic

### PART2Machines. Measuring Work on a Cart on an. Inclined Plane 102. Inclined Plane 104. Inquiry 12.1 Using Pulleys To Do Work 112

TERRY G. MCCREA/SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PART2Machines LESSON 11 The Inclined Plane 100 Inquiry 11.1 Inquiry 11.2 Measuring Forces on a Cart on an Inclined Plane 102 Measuring Work on a Cart on an Inclined

### Machines. Simple. What is a machine?

Simple Machines Worksheet 2 A worksheet produced by the Native Access to Engineering Programme Concordia University, Montreal What is a machine? Webster s Dictionary defines a machine as 1. a structure

### 6. Block and Tackle* Block and tackle

6. Block and Tackle* A block and tackle is a combination of pulleys and ropes often used for lifting. Pulleys grouped together in a single frame make up what is called a pulley block. The tackle refers

### Tips for Eliminating and Controlling MSD Hazards

Tips for Eliminating and Controlling MSD Hazards Force Gripping tools/equipment Provide tools that allow workers to grip the tool using a power grip Eliminate the use of pinch or key grips as much as possible

### Torque and Rotation. Physics

Torque and Rotation Physics Torque Force is the action that creates changes in linear motion. For rotational motion, the same force can cause very different results. A torque is an action that causes objects

### Work Energy & Power. September 2000 Number 05. 1. Work If a force acts on a body and causes it to move, then the force is doing work.

PhysicsFactsheet September 2000 Number 05 Work Energy & Power 1. Work If a force acts on a body and causes it to move, then the force is doing work. W = Fs W = work done (J) F = force applied (N) s = distance

### BOARD OF SUPERVISORS. Lisa M. Garrett, Director of Personnel. To Enrich Lives Through Effective and Caring Service

COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES Department of Human Resources Workforce Planning, Test Research, and Appeals Division 3333 Wilshire Blvd., Ste. 350, Los Angeles, CA 90010 24-Hour Jobline: (800) 970-LIST http://dhr.lacounty.info

### What is Energy? 1 45 minutes Energy and You: Energy Picnic Science, Physical Education Engage

Unit Grades K-3 Awareness Teacher Overview What is energy? Energy makes change; it does things for us. It moves cars along the road and boats over the water. It bakes a cake in the oven and keeps ice frozen

### 2010 APPLICATION REFERENCE GUIDE

2010 APPLICATION REFERENCE GUIDE INDEX QUALITY POLICY 2 ERGO ASSIST STANDARD 4-13 CUSTOM 14-18 END EFFECTORS 19-24 LIFT ASSIST 25-41 FIXTURED TOOLS 42-53 FIXTURES 54-63 ASSEMBLY TABLES 64-72 CARTS/ DUNNAGE

### Simple and Complex Machines

Simple and Complex Machines A Science A Z Physical Series Word Count: 1,230 Simple and Complex Machines Written by Ned Jensen Visit www.sciencea-z.com www.sciencea-z.com Simple and Complex Machines Key

### Chapter 11 Equilibrium

11.1 The First Condition of Equilibrium The first condition of equilibrium deals with the forces that cause possible translations of a body. The simplest way to define the translational equilibrium of

### WindWise Education. 2 nd. T ransforming the Energy of Wind into Powerful Minds. editi. A Curriculum for Grades 6 12

WindWise Education T ransforming the Energy of Wind into Powerful Minds A Curriculum for Grades 6 12 Notice Except for educational use by an individual teacher in a classroom setting this work may not

### IV. POWER. P = W t. = E t. where W is the work done, t is the time required to do the work, and E is the energy used. 1 horsepower = 1 hp = 550

IV. POWER A. INTRODUCTION Power is the rate at which work is done. Work involves a force or force-like quantity acting on object and causing its displacement in the direction of the force. The time required

### Educational Objectives To investigate equilibrium using a lever in two activities.

Lever: Equilibrium and Torque Main Topic Subtopic Learning Level Technology Level Activity Type Forces Simple Machines High Low Student Teacher s Notes Description: Investigate torque and equilibrium in

### Newton s Law of Motion

chapter 5 Newton s Law of Motion Static system 1. Hanging two identical masses Context in the textbook: Section 5.3, combination of forces, Example 4. Vertical motion without friction 2. Elevator: Decelerating

### WORKSHEET: KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY PROBLEMS

WORKSHEET: KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY PROBLEMS 1. Stored energy or energy due to position is known as Potential energy. 2. The formula for calculating potential energy is mgh. 3. The three factors that

### Safe Lifting and Carrying

PART 1 Basic Lifts Proper lifting and handling will help protect against injury and make your job easier. It takes training and practice to do it right. The following are basic steps in safe lifting and

### Guidelines for Earthquake Bracing of Residential Water Heaters

Guidelines for Earthquake Bracing of Residential Water Heaters Department of General Services Division of the State Architect 1102 Q Street, Suite 5100 Sacramento, CA 95814 Phone: (916) 324-7099 Fax: (916)

### MKV Golf GTI Rear Brake Service - Replace Pads and Rotors

Page 1 Installation Procedures MKV Golf GTI Rear Brake Service - This tutorial is provided as a courtesy by ECS Tuning. Proper service and repair procedures are vital to the safe, reliable operation of

### HYDRAULIC LIFT TABLE CART 2200-LB.

HYDRAULIC LIFT TABLE CART 2200-LB. OWNER S MANUAL WARNING: Read carefully and understand all MACHINE ADJUSTMENT AND OPERATION INSTRUCTIONS before operating. Failure to follow the safety rules and other

### Body Positioning & Lifting Techniques

Body Positioning & Lifting Techniques Body Positioning But no matter what task we are undertaking we MUST Think through the task and we MUST Prepare ourselves before we attempt to complete them. If we

### LINEAR ACTUATORS. Linear Actuators. Linear Actuators. Linear Actuators are Actuators that creates motion in a straight line, as contrasted

LINEAR ACTUATORS Linear Actuators Linear Actuators Linear Actuators are Actuators that creates motion in a straight line, as contrasted with circular motion of a conventional electric motor. Linear actuators

### PHY121 #8 Midterm I 3.06.2013

PHY11 #8 Midterm I 3.06.013 AP Physics- Newton s Laws AP Exam Multiple Choice Questions #1 #4 1. When the frictionless system shown above is accelerated by an applied force of magnitude F, the tension

### Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry

### -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name: Date: D. Thomassen 2007 Machines by Lillian Duggan answer key Colorado Model Content Standard #2: Physical Science: Students know and understand common properties, forms, and changes in matter and

### Technological Studies

1 Features of machines... 2 (a) Load and effort... 3 (b) Mechanical Advantage... 3 (c) Velocity Ratio... 4 (d) Work done... 5 (e) Efficiency... 6 2 Classifications of motions... 7 (a) Linear motions...

### Lecture Presentation Chapter 7 Rotational Motion

Lecture Presentation Chapter 7 Rotational Motion Suggested Videos for Chapter 7 Prelecture Videos Describing Rotational Motion Moment of Inertia and Center of Gravity Newton s Second Law for Rotation Class