THIN FILM MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY

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1 THIN FILM MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY Sputtering of Compound Materials by Kiyotaka Wasa Yokohama City University Yokohama, Japan Makoto Kitabatake Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Kyoto, Japan Hideaki Adachi Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Kyoto, Japan YMam Andrew publishing Springer

2 Table of Contents 1 Thin Film Materials and Devices THIN FILM MATERIALS THIN FILM DEVICES 10 REFERENCES 14 2 Thin Film Processes THIN FILM GROWTH PROCESS Structural Consequences of the Growth Process Microstructure Surface Roughness and Density Adhesion Metastable Structure Solubility Relaxation THIN FILM DEPOSITION PROCESS Classification of Deposition Processes PVD Processes CVD Processes Deposition Conditions CHARACTERIZATION.' 60 REFERENCES 66 3 Sputtering Phenomena SPUTTER YIELD Ion Energy Incident Ions, Target Materials Effects of Incidence Angle 79 XI

3 aw Contents Crystal Structure of Target Sputter Yields of Alloys SPUTTERED ATOMS Features of Sputtered Atoms Velocity and Mean Free Path Velocity of Sputtered Atoms MeanFreePath MECHANISMS OF SPUTTERING Sputtering Collisions Sputtering Classical Empirical Formula of Sputtering Yield Linear Cascade Collision Theory Simplified Model and Modern Yield Formula 109 REFERENCES Ill 4 Sputtering Systems DISCHARGE IN A GAS Cold Cathode Discharge Discharge in a Magnetic Field Spark Voltage in a Magnetic Field Glow Discharge in a Magnetic Field Glow Discharge Modes in a Transverse Magnetic Field Plasma in a Glow Discharge SPUTTERING SYSTEMS DC Diode Sputtering RF Diode Sputtering Magnetron Sputtering Ion Beam Sputtering ECRPlasma Medium-Frequency Sputtering PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF SPUTTERING SYSTEMS Targets for Sputtering Compound Targets Powder Targets Auxiliary Cathode Sputtering Gas Thickness Distribution Substrate Temperature Off-Axis Sputtering; Facing-Target Sputtering Monitoring ' Gas Composition 177

4 Contents xiii Sputtering Discharge Plasma Parameters Substrate Temperature Monitoring Thickness Monitoring Film Structure 185 REFERENCES 187 Deposition of Compound Thin Films OXIDES ZnO Thin Films Deposition of ZnO Electrical Properties and Applications Sillenite Thin Films Amorphous/Polycrystalline Films Single-Crystal Films Perovskite Dielectric Thin Films PbTiO 3 Thin Films PLZTThinFilms Perovskite Superconducting Thin Films Studies of Thin Film Processes Basic Thin Film Processes Synthesis Temperature Low-Temperature Processes, In-Situ Deposition Deposition of Rare-Earth, High~r c Superconductors Deposition of Rare-Earth-Free, High-r c Superconductors Structure and Structural Control Phase Control by Layer-by-Layer Deposition DiamagnetizationProperties Passivation of Sputtered High-r c Thin Films Multilayers and Superconducting Devices Transparent Conducting Films NITRIDES TiN Thin Films Compound Nitride Thin Films Si-N Thin Films.' CARBIDES AND SILICIDES SiC Thin Films Tungsten Carbide Thin Films Mo-Si Thin Films DIAMOND SELENIDES AMORPHOUS THIN FILMS 368

5 xiv Contents Amorphous ABO Amorphous SiC SUPERLATTICE STRUCTURES ORGANIC THIN FILMS MAGNETRON SPUTTERING UNDER A STRONG MAGNETIC FIELD Abnormal Crystal Growth Low-Temperature Doping of Foreign Atoms into Semiconducting Films 382 REFERENCES Structural Control of Compound Thin Films: Perovskite and Nanometer Oxide Thin Films FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Ferroelectric Materials Microstructure of Heteroepitaxial Thin Films CONTROL OF STRUCTURE Growth Temperature Buffer Layers and Graded Interfaces Cooling Rate Vicinal Substrates Dielectric Properties of Structure-Controlled Thin Films NANOMETER STRUCTURE Nanometer Materials Nanometer Superlattice INTERFACIAL CONTROL 455 REFERENCES Microfabrication by Sputtering CLASSIFICATION OF SPUTTER ETCHING ION-BEAM SPUTTER ETCHING DIODE SPUTTER ETCHING DEPOSITION INTO DEEP-TRENCH STRUCTURES 487 REFERENCES 490 Appendix 493 Table A. 1. Electric Units, Their Symbols and Conversion Factors. 493 Table A.2. Fundamental Physical Constants 495 List of Acronyms.,*. 497 Index 501

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