Neuere Entwicklungen zur Herstellung optischer Schichten durch reaktive. Wolfgang Hentsch, Dr. Reinhard Fendler. FHR Anlagenbau GmbH

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1 Neuere Entwicklungen zur Herstellung optischer Schichten durch reaktive Sputtertechnologien Wolfgang Hentsch, Dr. Reinhard Fendler FHR Anlagenbau GmbH Germany

2 Contents: 1. FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief 2. Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering 3. Equipment and Applications 4. Conclusions

3 FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief FHR The Thin Film Company : 15 years established on the market! Background: Up to 1991 more than 20 years experience of the thin film technologies Private company founded by: Dr.- Ing. Reinhard Fendler Dipl.- Phys. Wolfgang Hentsch Dipl.- Ing. Christian Ränsch Member of: SEMI - Semiconductor Equipment and Materials Int. SILICON SAXONY e. V.

4 FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief NEW BUSINESS FACILITIES Since January 2000: 3000 sqm in Ottendorf-Okrilla near Dresden / Saxony, Germany Since November 2001: 1300 sqm in Radeberg near Dresden / Saxony, Germany Planned for 2007: 1800 sqm additional area in Ottendorf-Okrilla

5 FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief QUALITY POLICY Certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001 since 1997

6 FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief Our Mission: Development of Thin Film Technologies and Equipment for High Tech Applications like : - Micro Electronics - Micro Systems - Sensoric - Electronics - Optical Data Storage ( CD, DVD ) - Optics - Photovoltaics - Solar Appl. - Automotive Appl. - Decorative Appl. - Packaging

7 FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief Our Mission: Development of Thin Film Technologies and Equipment by: PVD - Physical Vapour Deposition CVD - Chemical Vapour Deposition PE - Plasma Etching RIE - Reactive Ion Etching

8 FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief Our Mission: Actually we are working for industrial utilization of the following nano deposition technologies for industrial applications: Reactive Sputtering for large area coating, several reference projects realised Filtered Arc Deposition for ultra thin films ALD Atomic Layer Deposition, first r&d cluster tool supplied in 2005 for semiconductor applications; next tool will be delivered to FHG CNT for 300mm wafer technologies

9 FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief Our Mission: Development & Production of Technology Relevant Key Components Sputter Sources, High Density Plasma Sources,Gas Control

10 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Classic Sputtering Technologies: DC Sputtering of RF Sputtering of conductive Materials non conductive Materials RF-Power supply DC-Power supply Auto-Match unit Cathode Target: Metal Cathode (Self-Bias) Target: Oxide (+) (+) Anode - chamber - substrate Anode - chamber - substrate

11 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Unipolar Sputtering magnetron unipolar pulse unit magnetron power supply Bipolar Sputtering magnetron magnetron bipolar pulse unit magnetron power supply

12 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Aim: Industrial reactive sputter deposition of Oxides and Nitrides and to offer higher deposition rates compared to RF sputtering from Oxide targets Solution: Pulsed bipolar or unipolar DC or MF sputtering from metal target in reactive atmosphere A lot of R&D work was investigated in these processes in recent years; German institutes and companies are leading.

13 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Main challenge to solve as process itself is investigated carefully: - Long time stability due to target poisoning e.g. coverings with non-conductive deposition changing electrical properties of the sputter source - A complex dynamical system: SPUTTER SOURCE GAS CONTROL POWER SUPPLY

14 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering It means, all aspects of dependencies have to be respected carefully! SPUTTER SOURCE Process Performance GAS CONTROL POWER SUPPLY

15 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Advanced source design: - Adjustment of magnetic field to compensate shift during operation due to target erosion - Target design to avoid contamination & crack and resulting arcs - Distributed gas inlet system to avoid volume effects - Optical control of gas inlet

16 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering old target design optimised target design

17 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Gas control by the help of fast Piezo Ceramic Gas inlet valve Universal Pressure Control System UPS 03 with valve PCV 03 Response time: < 1 ms 100 times faster than MFC!

18 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Utilisation of UPS 03: Optical control of TiO 2 process Gas Valve Vacuum chamber Plasma Collimator Fibre optic cable Vacuum feed through Filter Photo multiplier Vacuum pump Valve Open voltage V UPC 03 PS 03 Intensity signal V UPC 03 Valve Control Power Source PS 03 ±15 V 0 5 V

19 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Even after a carefully performed optimization of all components a dynamical compensation of drift is necessary! SPUTTER SOURCE Process Performance GAS CONTROL POWER SUPPLY

20 Example: Deposition of a reflection enhancing layer system TiO 2 SiO 2 TiO 2 SiO 2 TiO 2 SiO 2 TiO 2 Substrat

21 Example: Deposition of a reflection enhancing layer system Reflexion [%] Wellenlänge λ [nm] Use as decorative layer: - high reflection in the wavelength range of 600 to 800 nm (red) - high transmission in the wavelength range at 380 nm (blue)

22 Example: Deposition of a reflection enhancing layer system Use as decorative layer: - high reflection in the wavelength range up 600 to 800 nm (red) - high transmission in the wavelength range at 380 nm (blue)

23 1. TiO2 2. SiO Position [mm] Schichtdicke [nm] Schichtdicke [nm] Position [mm] TiO2 4. SiO Position [mm] Position [mm] Schichtdicke [nm] Schichtdicke [nm] 5. TiO2 6. SiO Schichtdicke [nm] Schichtdicke [nm] Position [mm] Position [mm] TiO Position [mm] Schichtdicke [nm] 90 Decreasing 85 of deposition rate of target 60 ends TiO2 2. SiO Schichtdicke [nm] Schichtdicke [nm] Position [mm] Position [mm] TiO2 4. SiO2 Tilting 130 of deposition rate 115 over the ends of target Position [mm] Position [mm] Schichtdicke [nm] Schichtdicke [nm] 5. TiO2 6. SiO Schichtdicke [nm] Schichtdicke [nm] Position [mm] Position [mm] Optimized starting point 7. TiO2 System drift after 5 hours cont. operation Position [mm] Schichtdicke [nm] Case 1: Case 2:

24 TiO2 2. SiO2 3. TiO2 4. SiO2 5. TiO2 6. SiO2 7. TiO Position [mm] TiO2 2. SiO2 3. TiO2 4. SiO2 5. TiO2 6. SiO2 7. TiO Position [mm] 7-layer system Not corrected thickness distribution after approx. 5 hours cont. operation measured by Sentech-Senduro Corrected thickness distribution of 7-layer system Schichtdicke [nm] Schichtdicke [nm]

25 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Drift compensation by adjustment of gas inlet Gas inlet Gas valves M M M Source Target

26 Actual Developments to Improve Reactive Sputtering Main results: The dynamical drift compensation enables a continuous sputtering process without process interruption for a target life time! - Actually target life time is abt 150 hours! - The tolerance of film thickness can be kept within +/- 3% within batch and from run to run during the whole target life time without process interruption!

27 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SH 700

28

29 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SH 700 main advantages: - Horizontal In-line System for Simultaneous 7 Layer Reactive Deposition - Modular system - Substrate sizes: 550 x 750 mm 2-7 layer simultaneous deposition & pre-treatment - Unipolar & bipolar sputtering - Consequent process decoupling of reactive sections - Versatile system for process and product development - Free programmable transport system

30 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SH 700

31 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SV 400 reactive

32 Equipment and Applications: Inline Priciple of Inline SV 400 reactive Load Lock Process Chamber Decoupling of processes Load Lock Etcher or heater He Holding Holding Heater Heater(Option) DMS (Option) DMS Vorlauf Heizen (Option) Etcher or Heater DMS Holding heater (Option) DMS Holding Heater (Option) Holding Heater(Opti on) Process decoupling possible: a) Within transport direction b) For opposite process stations

33 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SV 400 reactive main advantages: - Advanced vertical Inline for R&D and pilot applications - Substrate sizes: 300 x 300 mm 2 - Modular system - Double side and two layer simultaneous deposition & pretreatment - Unipolar & bipolar sputtering - Consequent process decoupling of reactive sections - Versatile system for process and product development - Free programmable transport system - Up-scale concept

34 Equipment and Applications: Inline Example: Double side AR Coating on PMMA SiO 2 TiO 2 PMMA Substrate Hard Coating Results: TiO 2 SiO 2 Deposition rate: 25 nm x m /min for TiO 2 and SiO 2 per source Uniformity: < 3% Reflection: < 0,5% ( nm) Transmission: > 99% ( nm) Stability: granted for target life time Max. thermal load: < 80 C on PMMA substrate

35 Equipment and Applications: Inline Optical properties of AR System Transmission-, Reflection- and Absorption-Spectrum Substrate : 2 mm PMMA; double side hard-coated Deposition : double side AR-coating Samples : 2. Series (May 2005); sample no.: to measured by λ900-spectrometer (FEP Dresden) 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 Transmission Reflection Absorption Transmission/Reflection/Absorption 0, Wavelength λ [nm]

36 Equipment and Applications: Inline

37 Equipment and Applications: Inline

38 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SV

39 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SV main advantages: - Vertical Inline system for Metal + reactive SiO 2, TiO 2 deposition - Modular system - Substrate sizes: 500 x 3300 mm 2 (stripes 20 x 3300 mm 2 ) - Two layer simultaneous deposition & pre-treatment - Unipolar & bipolar sputtering - Consequent process decoupling of reactive sections - Free programmable transport system - Application for high-precision measuring systems - Application for high-reflective mirror systems

40 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SV Example: Application of Reactive Sputtered Layers (V) - HR-coatings - TiO 2 SiO 2 TiO 2 SiO 2 glass substrate Al Results: Deposition rate : 50 nm x m /min for TiO 2 and SiO 2 per source Uniformity : < 3% Reflection: ca. 100% ( nm) Stability : granted for target life time

41 Equipment and Applications: Inline Optical properties of HR System 1 0,9 measured by ETA-RT spectrometer 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 Reflection Transmission Absorption Reflection / Transmission / Absorption 0, Wavelength λ [nm]

42 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SV 1700 Concept Vertical In-line Sputtering System for Display Applications

43 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SV 1000 (Dekoline) 100 measured by ETA-RT spectrometer Design IR-Layer system Transmission [%] Wavelength [nm]

44 Equipment and Applications: Inline Inline SV

45 Conclusions - FHR has proven experience in reactive sputtering under industrial conditions - FHR sputter technologies open the way to high qualitative optical coatings for mass production and large area on sensitive materials like PMMA - FHR is a partner to develop new products - FHR offers complete customised solutions for industrial large area deposition

46 Many thanks for your attention!

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