Sputtering by Particle Bombardment I

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1 Sputtering by Particle Bombardment I Physical Sputtering of Single-Element Solids Edited by R. Behrisch With Contributions by H. H. Andersen H. L. Bay R. Behrisch M. T. Robinson H. E. Roosendaal P. Sigmund With 117 Figures Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1981

2 Contents 1. Introduction and Overview. By R. Behrisch Overview The Sputtering Yield Distributions in Sputtered Particles Physical Understanding Sputtering Calculation Applications of Sputtering 7 References 8 2. Sputtering by Ion Bombardment: Theoretical Concepts By P. Sigmund (With 24 Figures) Introductory and Historical Survey Identification of Sputtering Events Historical Overview Classification of Sputtering Events 15 a) Knockon Sputtering 15 b) Sputtering by Electronic Excitation Needs and Tools Cross Sections Some Results from Elastic-Collision Theory Some Results from Penetration Theory Boltzmann's Equation Some Results from Linear Cascade Theory Sputtering from Linear Collision Cascades Particle Flux in an Infinite Medium Backsputtering Yield from a Plane Surface Energy and Angular Spectra, Characteristic Depths Corrections to Simple Cascade Theory 39 a) Bulk Binding Forces 39 b) Backsputtering from a Semi-Infinite Target 40 c) Anisotropy Correction Comments on Atomic Motion at Low Energies Transmission Sputtering Single-Knockon and Spike Regimes Single-Knockon Regime 51 a) Light-Ion Sputtering 51

3 VIII Contents b) Near-Threshold Regime 51 c) Threshold Processes Spike Regime Related Problems States of Sputtered Particles Ion-Induced Desorption Recoil Implantation and Ion-Beam Induced Atomic Mixing Sputtering from Multiple-Component Targets 60 a) Primary Effects 61 b) Secondary Effects 64 Appendix A: Connection Between Forward and Backward Boltzmann Equations 65 References Theoretical Aspects of Monocrystal Sputtering By Mark T. Robinson (With 16 Figures) Historical Origins Surface Crystallography and Thermodynamics The Structures of Surfaces Effects of Radiation Damage on Surface Structures Surface Binding Energies The Sputtering Yields of Monocrystals The Concept of Transparency The Open Axes and Planes in Common Crystal Structures Channeling and Dechanneling The Onderdelinden Model of Monocrystal Sputtering Yields Monocrystal Effects at Low Energies The Angular Distribution of Atoms Ejected from Monocrystals Classical Scattering Theory Collision Sequences Along Isolated Rows Assisted Focusing The Interaction of Linear Collision Sequences with Surfaces The Role of Linear Collision Sequences in Sputtering Ejection The Computer Simulation of Monocrystal Sputtering Displacement Cascades in Stable Dynamical Models Sputtering Studies with Stable Dynamical Models Studies of Sputtering in a Metastable Dynamical Model Collision Cascades in Quasistable Dynamical Models Collision Cascades in the Binary Collision Approximation Validity of the Binary Collision Approximation Monocrystal Sputtering in the Binary Collision Approximation Conclusions and Prospects 137 References 138

4 Contents IX 4. Sputtering Yield Measurements By H. H. Andersen and H. L. Bay (With 50 Figures) Experimental Conditions and Methods The Characterization of Experimental Conditions Determination of the Irradiation Dose Yield Measurements on the Sputtered Target 151 a) Mass-Change Measurements 151 b) Thickness-Change Measurements 153 c) Microscopic Measurements on the Target 155 d) Yield Determination Through Analysis of Surface Compositions Measurements on the Sputtered Material 157 a) Dynamical Techniques 157 b) Collection of the Sputtered Material Polycrystalline and Amorphous Material Yields Survey over Yield Data Dependence of Yield on Target Properties and Dose Effects Dependence of Sputtering Yields on Projectile Species and Energy and on Target Material Dependence on Angle of Incidence Transmission Sputtering Energy Reflection Coefficients (Sputtering Efficiency) References Sputtering Yields of Single Crystalline Targets By H. E. Roosendaal (With 27 Figures) First Observation of Single Crystal Effects in Sputtering Experimental Methods.' On the Energy Dependence of the Sputtering Yield for Normal Incidence of Ions onto Low Index Crystallographic Planes FCC Crystals 223 a) Experimental Data for Ar + ->Cu 223 b) Theoretical Considerations 225 c) Other Projectile-Target Combinations HCP Crystals Other Crystals On the Angular Dependence of the Sputtering Yield Absolute Measurements of the Angular Dependence of the Sputtering Yield Theoretical Considerations Relative Measurements of the Angular Variation of the Sputtering Yield On the Temperature Dependence of the Single- Crystal Sputtering Yield Metal Targets 241

5 X Contents Semiconductor Targets Ferromagnetic Materials Angular Fine Structure of the Sputtering Yield and Its Relation to Surface Structure Conclusions 253 References 254 Additional References with Titels 257 List of Symbols 261 Author Index 265 Subject Index 275

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