Excimer Laser Technology

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1 D. Basting G. Marowsky (Eds.) Excimer Laser Technology With 257 Figures ^y Springer

2 Contents 1 Introduction Introductory Remarks The Unique Microstructuring Capabilities of Excimer Lasers Commercial Impact of Excimer Lasers Could Excimers Have Been the First Media with Optical Gain? Literature 6 References Historical Review of Excimer Laser Development 8 References Trends in Worldwide Excimer Laser Sales The World's Laser Markets at the End of Excimer Laser Markets Excimer Laser Markets: Industrial Excimer Laser Markets: Medical Therapy Excimer Laser Markets: Research 29 References 29 Part I Fundamentals 2 Some Fundamentals of Laser Physics The Wave-Particle Duality of Light Electromagnetic Radiation Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission, Population Inversion Design Principle of a Laser Types of Lasers 38 References 40 3 Principles of Excimer Lasers 41 References 45

3 VIII Contents 4 Design and Technology of Excimer Lasers Excitation Preionization Discharge Electrodes Discharge Circuits Power Supplies Circulation, Laser Gas Cooling, and Cleaning Safety Standards for Industrial Excimer Lasers CE Mark Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive 89/366/ECC Design Rules for Electromagnetic Compatibility Low Voltage Directive 73/23/ECC Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC Machinery Directive 89/392/EEC (Amended 98/37/EEC) Laser Radiation Safety SEMI Standards 71 References 73 5 Specially Designed Excimer Lasers High-Repetition-Rate and High-Power Lasers 75 References High-Energy Lasers KrF and ArF Lasers XeCl Lasers 85 References 88 6 Excimer Lasers for Microlithography Motivation Wavelengths Spectral Output Line Narrowing Wavelength Control Laser Power and Energy Energy Dose Control Dual-Chamber Lasers Pulse Length Outlook 102 References Laser Beam Characterization Introduction Recording of Spatial Beam Profiles Evaluation of Beam Parameters 107

4 Contents Beam Width Beam Divergence Beam Positional and Directional Stability Homogenized Beams Wavefront Measurement 114 References Optical Coatings for Excimer Laser Applications Introduction Basics Interaction Mechanisms of UV Photons with Coated Optical Elements Absorption Coatings Metals Dielectrics XUV Coatings Summary 126 References Small Structures with Large Excimer Lasers Introduction Nozzle Plates for Ink Jet Printers Attenuators Homogenizers Projection Lenses Mechanically and Thermally Stable Support System Beam Diagnostics Summary and Outlook 135 References 135 IX Part II Applications 10 Overview 139 References Ablative Micro-Fabrication Ablation 149 References Micro-Machining Processing Techniques Removal of Thin Layers Drilling Fabrication of Micro Parts 174

5 X Contents Indirect Ablation Micro Optics Fabrication MEMS and Nanofabrication 183 References Via Drilling Introduction Basics Applications 192 References Micro-Processing of Borosilicate Glass and Polymers Borosilicate Glass Drilling of Holes in Pyrex Glass Generation of Channels in Borosilicate Glass Summary Polymers Generation of Channels in PMMA Using Scanner Generation of Three Dimensional Structures in PMMA Using Scanner Microstructuring of Polymer Tubes Writing of Mixer Structures in PMMA Acknowledgement 219 References F 2 -Laser Microfabrication for Photonics and Biophotonics Introduction Vacuum-Ultraviolet Optical Tools High-Fluence F 2 -Laser Optical Tool Optical Resolution Micromachining of Silica Glasses Ablation Rates and Surface Morphology Heat-Affected Zone Ablation Debris Micro-Optics Fabrication Microchannels and Holes Fiber and Rib Waveguides Mask Fabrication Gratings Diffractive Optical Elements Controlling Refractive Index F2-Laser Photosensitivity: Silica Glasses F 2 -Laser Photosensitivity: Optical Fiber Trimming Planar Lightwave Circuits Writing Buried Optical Waveguides 264

6 Contents 13.6 Biophotonics on a Chip 268 References Nano-Structuring with Femtosecond Excimer Laser Pulses Introduction The Laser System Mask Projection Interference Techniques 281 References Physical Aspects of Ultra-Fast UV Laser Transfer Introduction to the Laser Transfer Process Visualization of the Laser Materials Transfer Time Resolved Schlieren Imaging Method Dynamics of the sub-ps- and ns-process - A Comparative Study Conclusions 292 References Material Modification Microlithography The Patterning Process Optical Resolution Optical Materials Technology Roadmap 300 References TFT Annealing Electron Mobility Increases with Grain Size Layer Stratification, Near and Complete Melt-Through Excimer-Laser Based Annealing System Outlook 312 References Fiber Bragg Gratings Introduction to Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) Manufacturing of Fiber Bragg Gratings Applications for Fiber Bragg Gratings 318 References Marking 321 References Activation and Metallization of Dielectrics 331 References 333 XI

7 XII Contents 17 Excimer-Laser Assisted Deposition of Carbon and Boron Nitride-Based High-Temperature Superconducting Films Introduction Characteristics of Excimer Laser Ablation Deposition Techniques Deposition and Properties of Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-c) Films Deposition and Properties of Cubic Boron Nitride (c-bn) Films Summary and Outlook 349 References Combustion Analysis Scattering Methods Fluorescence Methods 356 References Medical Applications of Excimer Lasers Refractive Laser Surgery Photo Refractive Keratectomy (PRK) Photo Therapeutic Keratectomy (PTK) Laser In-situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) Customized Ablation Glaucoma Surgery Laser Angioplasty XeCl Excimer Laser Treatment of Psoriasis 370 References High-Intensity Applications of Excimer Lasers Introduction Precis of Experimental Findings Anomalous Nonlinear Coupling to Atoms at 193 nm Direct Multiquanturn Inner-Orbital Excitation of N 2 at 248 nm Hollow Atoms and the Cluster Concept Multikilovolt X-ray Amplification with Clusters in Self-Trapped Plasma Channels Conclusions 381 References High-Repetition-Rate Applications of Excimer Lasers Introduction Technological Advances Solid-State Pulsed High-Voltage Switch Performance Characteristics 387

8 Contents XIII 21.3 High-Repetition-Rate Applications Flexible Mask Patterning Long-Term Testing of Optical Material and Coatings Advanced Medical Excimer Laser Systems 396 References New Frontiers: Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) Technology at 13.5 nm Prospects of EUV Lithography Drive the Development of High-Power EUV Sources Challenges of EUV Lithography Basic Technology and Requirements for EUV Sources Gas-Discharge-Produced and Laser-Produced Plasma EUV Sources Gas-Discharge-Produced Plasma EUV Sources Laser-Produced Plasma EUV Sources How to Characterize EUV Sources GDPP and LPP EUV Sources - State of the Art GDPP EUV Source XTS for Integration into EUV Microstepper High-Power Gas-Discharge-Produced Plasma EUV Sources at XTREME Technologies Laser-Produced Plasma EUV Sources at XTREME technologies Outlook 419 References 421 List of Abbreviations 423 Index 427

List of Abbreviations

List of Abbreviations List of Abbreviations a-c AFM AMLCD APD AR ASE BGA BN c-bn CCD CE CEN CFC CMOS CVD DLC DNA DOE DoF DPE DRAM DUV DUV EBDW EDM EEA EELS ELA ELIF EMC EMI amorphous carbon atomic-force microscope/microscopy

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