Robert G. Hunsperger. Integrated Optics. Theory and Technology. Fourth Edition. With 195 Figures and 17 Tables. Springer

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1 Robert G. Hunsperger Integrated Optics Theory and Technology Fourth Edition With 195 Figures and 17 Tables Springer

2 Contents 1. Introduction Advantages of Integrated Optics Comparison of Optical Fibers with Other Interconnectors Comparison of Optical Integrated Circuits with Electrical Integrated Circuits Substrate Materials for Optical Integrated Circuits Hybrid Versus Monolithic Approach III-V and II-VI Ternary Systems Hybrid OIC's in LiNb OIC's in Glasses and Polymers Organization of this Book Optical Waveguide Modes Modes in a Planar Waveguide Structure Theoretical Description of the Modes of a Three-Layer Planar Waveguide Cutoff Conditions Experimental Observation of Waveguide Modes The Ray-Optic Approach to Optical Mode Theory Ray Patterns in the Three-Layer Planar Waveguide The Discrete Nature of the Propagation Constant ß.. 29 Problems Theory of Optical Waveguides Planar Waveguides The Basic Three-Layer Planar Waveguide The Symmetrie Waveguide The Asymmetrie Waveguide Rectangular Waveguides Channel Waveguides Strip-Loaded Waveguides 43 Problems Waveguide Fabrication Techniques Deposited Thin Films 48

3 XIV Contents Sputtered Dielectric Films Deposition from Solutions Organosilicon Films Substitutional Dopant Atoms Diffused Dopants Ion Exchange and Migration Ion Implantation Carrier-Concentration-Reduction Waveguides Basic Properties of Carrier-Concentration-Reduction Waveguides Carrier Removal by Proton Bombardment Epitaxial Growth Basic Properties of Epitaxially Grown Waveguides Ga^ALAs Epitaxially Grown Waveguides Epitaxial Waveguides in Other III-V and II-VI Materials Molecular Beam Epitaxy Metal-organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Electro-Optic Waveguides Methods for Fabricating Channel Waveguides Ridged Waveguides Formed by Etching Strip-Loaded Waveguides Masked Ion Implantation or Diffusion 71 Problems Losses in Optical Waveguides Scattering Losses Surface Scattering Loss Absorption Losses Interband Absorption Free Carrier Absorption Radiation Losses Radiation Loss from Planar and Straight Channel Waveguides Radiation Loss from Curved Channel Waveguides Measurement of Waveguide Losses End-Fire Coupling to Waveguides of Different Length Prism-Coupled Loss Measurements Scattering Loss Measurements 90 Problems Waveguide Input and Output Couplers Fundamentals of Optical Coupling Transverse Couplers 94

4 Contents XV Direct Focusing End-Butt Coupling Prism Couplers Gräting Couplers Basic Theory of the Gräting Coupler Gräting Fabrication Tapered Couplers Fiber to Waveguide Couplers Butt Coupling Tapered Film Fiber Couplers 110 Problems 111 Coupling Between Waveguides Multilayer Planar Waveguide Couplers Dual-Channel Directional Couplers Operating Characteristics of the Dual-Channel Coupler Coupled-Mode Theory of Synchronous Coupling Methods of Fabricating Dual-Channel Directional Couplers Applications Involving Directional Couplers Butt-Coupled Ridge Waveguides Branching Waveguide Couplers 125 Problems 126 Electro-Optic Modulators Basic Operating Characteristics of Switches and Modulators Modulation Depth Bandwidth Insertion Loss Power Consumption Isolation The Electro-Optic Effect Single-Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulators Phase Modulation Polarization Modulation Intensity Modulation Electro-Absorption Modulation Dual-Channel Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulators Theory of Operation Operating Characteristics of Dual-Channel Modulators Mach-Zehnder Type Electro-Optic Modulators 143

5 XVI Contents 8.6 Electro-Optic Modulators Employjng Reflection or Diffraction Bragg-Effect Electro-Optic Modulators Electro-Optic Reflection Modulators Comparison of Waveguide Modulators to Bulk Electro-Optic Modulators Traveling Wave Electrode Configurations 149 Problems Acousto-Optic Modulators Fundamental Principles of the Acousto-Optic Effect Raman-Nath-Type Modulators Bragg-Type Modulators Bragg-Type Beam Deflectors and Switches Performance Characteristics of Acousto-Optic Modulators and Beam Deflectors Acousto-Optic Frequency Shifters 166 Problems Basic Principles of Light Emission in Semiconductors A Microscopic Model for Light Generation and Absorption in a Crystalline Solid Basic Definitions Conservation of Energy and Momentum Light Emission in Semiconductors Spontaneous Emission Stimulated Emission Lasing Semiconductor Laser Structures Lasing Threshold Efficiency of Light Emission 186 Problems Semiconductor Lasers The Laser Diode Basic Structure Optical Modes Lasing Threshold Conditions Output Power and Efficiency The Tunnel-Injection Laser Basic Structure Lasing Threshold Conditions 200 Problems Heterostructure, Confined-Field Lasers Basic Heterojunction Laser Structures 204

6 Contents XVII Single Heterojunction (SH) Lasers Double Heterostructure (DH) Lasers Performance Characteristics of the Heterojunction Laser Optical Field Confinement Carrier Confinement Comparison of Laser Emission Characteristics Control of Emitted Wavelength Ga^^ALAs Lasers for Fiber-Optic Applications Lasers Made of Quaternary Materials Long-Wavelength Lasers Advanced Heterojunction Laser Structures Stripe Geometry Lasers Single-Mode Lasers Integrated Laser Structures Reliability Catastrophic Failure Gradual Degradation Laser Amplifiers 222 Problems Distributed-Feedback Lasers Theoretical Considerations Wavelength Dependence of Bragg Reflections Coupling Efficiency Lasing with Distributed Feedback Fabrication Techniques Effects of Lattice Damage Gräting Location DBR Lasers Performance Characteristics Wavelength Selectability Optical Emission Linewidth Stability Threshold Current Density and Output Power 242 Problems Direct Modulation of Semiconductor Lasers Basic Principles of Direct Modulation Amplitude Modulation Pulse Modulation Frequency Modulation Microwave Frequency Modulation of Laser Diodes Summary of Early Experimental Results Factors Limiting Modulation Frequency Design of Laser Diode Packages for Microwave Modulation 255

7 XVIII Contents 14.3 Monolithically Integrated Direct Modulators Future Prospects for Microwave Modulation of Laser Diodes 258 Problems Integrated Optica! Detectors Depletion Layer Photodiodes < Conventional Discrete Photodiodes Waveguide Photodiodes Effects of Scattering and Free-Carrier Absorption Specialized Photodiode Structures Schottky-Barrier Photodiode Avalanche Photodiodes p-i-n Photodiodes Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodiodes Techniques for Modifying Spectral Response Hybrid Structures Heteroepitaxial Growth Proton Bombardment Electro-Absorption Factors Limiting Performance of Integrated Detectors High Frequency Cutoff Linearity Noise 282 Problems Quantum-Well Devices Quantum Wells and Superlattices Quantum-Well Lasers Single Quantum Well Lasers Multiple Quantum Well Lasers Quantum-Well Modulators and Switches Electro-Absorption Modulators Electro-Optic Effect in Quantum Wells Multiple Quantum Well Switches Quantum-Well Detectors Photoconductive Detectors MQW Avalanche Photodiodes Self-Electro-Optic Effect Devices Quantum-Well Devices in OEIC's Integrated Laser/Modulators A Four-Channel Transmitter Array with MQW Lasers 308 Problems 309

8 Contents XIX 17. Applications of Integrated Optics and Current Trends Applications of Optical Integrated Circuits RF Spectrum Analyzer Monolithic Wavelength-Multiplexed Optical Source Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Integrated-Optic Doppler Velocimeter An IO Optical Disk Readhead OIC Temperature Sensor IO High Voltage Sensor Opto-Electronic Integrated Circuits An OEIC Transmitter An OEIC Receiver An OEIC Phased-Array Antenna Driver Devices and Systems for Telecommunications Trends in Optical Telecommunications New Devices for Telecommunications Opto-Microwave Applications Future Projections 332 References 335 Subject Index 363

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