Chemical Sputtering. von Kohlenstoff durch Wasserstoff. W. Jacob

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chemical Sputtering. von Kohlenstoff durch Wasserstoff. W. Jacob"

Transcription

1 Chemical Sputtering von Kohlenstoff durch Wasserstoff W. Jacob Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching Content: Definitions: Chemical erosion, physical sputtering, chemical sputtering Physical sputtering Chemical erosion Chemical sputtering The MAJESTIX experiment: Ion- interaction: Chemical Sputtering Summary

2 Plasma-surface interaction A large variety of species impinges on the surface Classes of species: stable neutrals (mostly working gas) neutral radicals ions General assumption non reactive reactive, sticking at surface What is the sticking coefficient? stick, enhance sticking of radicals modify deposited material All these species show mutual interactions! Radical/radical interaction Ion/radical interaction ion/c3 ion/ little is known, example: C 3 synergism ion-induced stitching postulated in literature ion-induced sticking ion-induced etching (reactive ion etching, RIE) chemical sputtering

3 Chemical vs. physical sputtering LRQVRUQUJWLFQXWUDOV QRQUDFWLY UDFWLYLRQV +DWRPV Physical sputtering threshold energy energy dependence (TRIM.SP) isotope effect (kinematic factor) no significant T dependence all species (incl. inert gases) Chemical sputtering ions + neutrals energy dependence T dependence very low threshold energy isotope effect ion-to-neutral ratio dep. high erosion yield Chemical erosion thermally activated (no threshold energy) no isotope effect requires chemically reactive species

4 Chemical vs. physical sputtering Chemical sputtering: l strong variation with surface T l eroded species = molecules involving atoms of target and projectiles l no (?) or very low threshold energy l highly selective (depends sensitively on target projectile combination) l activation or inhibition possible Physical sputtering: l T independent (more or less, for C measurable effect at high T) l eroded species = atoms or small clusters of target material l high (>10 - >100 ev) threshold energy (M 1, M 2, E SB ) l depends on energy transfer only (T max = 4 M 1 M 2 /(M 1 + M 2 ) 2 ) Energy distribution of emitted species: E mean kt surface E mean some ev

5 Physical sputtering l well understood (for the most part) l key parameter is the surface binding energy E SB (= 7.4 ev for carbon) l depends on energy l depends on projectile mass l only weakly T dependent l threshold energy depends on target/projectile combination l depends on angle of incidence l depends on substrate material l depends on target roughness Open questions / problems: energy transfer: T max = 4 M 1 M 2 /(M 1 + M 2 ) 2 isotope effect l molecular ions atomic ions (at low and high energy) (most data are measured using 2 + or 3 + ions!) l surface roughness (dynamical development during process)

6 Ion-solid interaction Schematic representation of C impinging on a-c: Relevant processes: sputtering implantation backscattering displacement Elastic energy loss: due to collisions with the nuclei (= nuclear energy loss) W. Jacob, Thin Solid Films 326 (1998) Inelastic energy loss: due to energy transfer to the electrons, continuos along the path, no change of direction

7 Chemical erosion -atom induced chemical erosion k C 3 dehydrogenation sp 3 k D 2 Thermally-activated release of C 3 sp x k hydrogenation k T> 600K TDS T>600K k 2 C x y erosion sp x C 3 k x T> 400K Precursor for chemical erosion is a C 3 group adjacent to a dangling bond site both are produced by interaction with atomic hydrogen sp 2 C 3

8 Chemical erosion E.Vietzke et al., Surf. Coat. Technol. 47 (1991)156 Total Erosion Yield [C/ o or C/D o ] 1.E-01 1.E-02 1.E-03 more soft D o on a-c: hard o on graphite 1000 X 1.E-01 1.E-02 1.E-03 Three orders of magnitude difference in total erosion. Í reactivity of the surface depends critically on the surface structure. 1.E-04 1.E-04 o on diamond films 1.E Temperature [K] 1.E-05

9 Sputtering with reactive ions: physics meets chemistry and D bombardment of carbon Chemical erosion, ion-induced chemical erosion, ion-enhanced chemical erosion, ion-induced etching, reactive ion etching, chemically enhanced physical sputtering, chemical sputtering,... A simple picture: Chemical reactions take place at the end of range, when isotopes are thermalized. Molecules are formed locally, then they diffuse to the surface and desorb. Í temperature dependence of process

10 Chemical erosion: T dependence and influence of doping -atom induced chemical erosion 0.05 boron-doped graphite (15 at%) 50 ev D k C 3 sp 3 dehydrogenation k D 2 Chemical erosion yield (a. u.) experimental data pyrol. graph. USB 15 (B) model E rel = 1.8 ev E rel = 1.2 ev Temperature (K) 200 ev D sp x release k hydrogenation k T> 600K TDS T>600K sp 2 2 C x y sp x C 3 Maximum in erosion yield = competition between release (T act = 1.8 ev) and C 3 release (T act = 1.6 ev). Doping reduces T act for release interruption of chemical erosion cycle k erosion k x T> 400K C 3 C 3 release C. García-Rosales, J. Roth, J. Nucl. Mater (1992) 573.

11 Chemical sputtering of carbon: D, Í C 1 D + Í C 1 + Í C Total erosion yield (C/D) T RT T max Total erosion yield (C/) T max TRIM.SP Deuterium impact energy (kev) T RT TRIM.SP ydrogen impact energy (kev) M. Balden, J. Roth, J. Nucl. Mater. 280, (2000) New weight-loss measurements of the chemical erosion yields of carbon materials under hydrogen ion bombardment

12 Particle-beam experiments Chemical sputtering

13 Measuring erosion yields &+ILOP TXDQWLILGLRQEDP TXDQWLILG K\GURJQ EDP VXEVWUDW URVLRQ\LOG PDVXUGURVLRQUDWLQURGGFDUERQDWRPVSUFP V LPSLQJLQJLRQIOX[SUFP V

14 Experimental set-up UV experiment with 2 radical beam sources and one ion beam source $U N9 + :LQ )LOWU 1 &+ G FOUDWLRQ UISODVPD + $U 9 &+ OOLSVRPWU\LQIUDUG VXEVWUDW VXEVWUDW SUSDUDWLRQFKDPEU 8+9FKDPEU W. Jacob, Ch. opf, A. von Keudell, M. Meier, and T. Schwarz-Selinger: Particle-beam Experiment to Study eterogeneous Surface Reactions Relevant to Plasma-assisted Thin Film Growth and Etching, Review of Scientific Instruments 74, (2003).

15 Ion synergism Y (eroded C atoms per ion) Ion flux density = 3.5 * cm -2 s Chemical Sputtering -1 flux density = 1.4 * 1015 cm-2 s-1 Y(Ar + / ), Y(Ar + ) TRIM.SP, E sb = 0.1 ev TRIM.SP, E sb = 4.5 ev Γ() ion energy (ev) Chemical erosion due to atomic alone T = 340 K erosion rate Γ (cm -2 s -1 ) Physical sputtering threshold: ~ 60 ev Christian opf, PhD Thesis Ch. opf, A. von Keudell, and W. Jacob, Chemical Sputtering of ydrocarbon Films by Low-energy Ar + Ions and Atom Impact, Nuclear Fusion 42, L27 (2002). Ch. opf, A. von Keudell, and W. Jacob, Chemical Sputtering of ydrocarbon Films, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2373 (2003). Erosion of a-c: layers comparison of simple physical sputtering (red symbols) due to Ar ions with erosion due to simultaneous interaction of and Ar + (blue symbols). enhanced erosion above 200 ev for simultaneous interaction erosion below threshold for physical sputtering (threshold energy for physical sputtering 60 ev erosion at 20 ev >> pure chemical erosion chemical sputtering separation of chemical and kinematical effects due to use of Ar + and neutral / ion ratio 400

16 Chemical sputtering of silicon -:&REXUQ+):LQWUV-$SSO3K\V +):LQWUV-:&REXUQ6XUIDF6FLQF5SRUWV

17 Chemical sputtering: Definition.F. Winters, J.W. Coburn, Surface Science Reports 14 (1992) 162: For the propose of this paper Chemical sputtering is defined as a process whereby ion bombardment causes or allows a chemical reaction to occur which produces a particle that is weakly bound to the surface and hence easily desorbed in the gas phase. The key process leading to desorption is the chemical reaction. The collision cascade physics... is operative in inducing the chemical reaction.

18 Chemical sputtering mechanism ions break C C bonds passivates broken bonds (1) and (2) formation of volatile hydrocarbons below the surface diffusion of C compounds to the surface and desorption

19 Energy dependence Y ( ions ) ybb ( x) p pass ( x) dx bond breaking due to ion impact Y ( ions ) passivation by atomic = a displacement events per depth interval calculated by TRIM.SP a is a fit parameter y dp ( x) e ( x / λ ) exponential decay, maximum range about 2 nm, known from plasma experiments dx y dp C (x) [nm -1 ] y dp (x) p Pass (x) ion energy (ev) depth x [nm] E dp C = 5 ev, λ = 0.4 nm p Pass (x)

20 Energy dependence Ar + / 2+ / data Y(Ar + / ) Y C dp model Y( + 2 / ) data 10-3 Y C dp model ( + 2 = 2+ ) model ( + 2 ) Ar + energy (ev) + 2 energy (ev) a = 0.4 a = 0.4 j = cm -2 s -1, j Ar+ = cm -2 s -1, R = j / j Ar 400

21 Energy dependence: Modeling results 10 chemical sputtering yield (per ion) N + 2 Ar + Ne + e energy (ev) a = 0.4 R 400

22 Energy dependence: Modeling results 0.8 chemical sputtering yield e + T + D a = 0.4 R 400 ion energy (ev)

23 Growth competition: Deposition chem. sputtering Ausbeute / 2 = Growth ion-induced sticking R = j / j Ausbeute chemical sputtering here: constant contribution from sticking - flux ratio dep. contribution from chemical sputtering

24 Summary Physical sputtering: for the most part well understood well modeled by TRIM.SP (binary collision approximation) energy, projectile mass, angle, roughness Chemical erosion: for the most part well understood thermally activated process can be influenced by doping Chemical sputtering: increase of yield and lowering of threshold mechanistic model for chemical sputtering flux ratio dependence (rate equation model): high fluxes required energy dependence: bond breaking passivation predictions for other ions, e.g., D, T, e, N 2,.. Growth of a-c: is always a competition between deposition and erosion (chemical sputtering).

25 The end Collaborators: Christian opf Achim von Keudell Matthias Meier Thomas Schwarz-Selinger

Vacuum Evaporation Recap

Vacuum Evaporation Recap Sputtering Vacuum Evaporation Recap Use high temperatures at high vacuum to evaporate (eject) atoms or molecules off a material surface. Use ballistic flow to transport them to a substrate and deposit.

More information

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD): SPUTTER DEPOSITION

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD): SPUTTER DEPOSITION We saw CVD PECVD Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD): SPUTTER DEPOSITION Gas phase reactants: P g 1 mtorr to 1 atm. Good step coverage, T > > RT Plasma enhanced surface diffusion without need for elevated

More information

Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering

Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering Satisloh Italy S.r.l. Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering Gianni Monaco, PhD R&D project manager, Satisloh Italy 04.04.2016 V1 The aim of this document is to provide basic technical information

More information

Sputtering by Particle Bombardment I

Sputtering by Particle Bombardment I Sputtering by Particle Bombardment I Physical Sputtering of Single-Element Solids Edited by R. Behrisch With Contributions by H. H. Andersen H. L. Bay R. Behrisch M. T. Robinson H. E. Roosendaal P. Sigmund

More information

III. Wet and Dry Etching

III. Wet and Dry Etching III. Wet and Dry Etching Method Environment and Equipment Advantage Disadvantage Directionality Wet Chemical Solutions Atmosphere, Bath 1) Low cost, easy to implement 2) High etching rate 3) Good selectivity

More information

1. Photon Beam Damage and Charging at Solid Surfaces John H. Thomas III

1. Photon Beam Damage and Charging at Solid Surfaces John H. Thomas III 1. Photon Beam Damage and Charging at Solid Surfaces John H. Thomas III 1. Introduction............................. 2. Electrostatic Charging of Samples in Photoemission Experiments............................

More information

Graduate Student Presentations

Graduate Student Presentations Graduate Student Presentations Dang, Huong Chip packaging March 27 Call, Nathan Thin film transistors/ liquid crystal displays April 4 Feldman, Ari Optical computing April 11 Guerassio, Ian Self-assembly

More information

Chemical Vapor Deposition

Chemical Vapor Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) So far we have seen deposition techniques that physically transport material from a condensed phase source to a substrate. The material to be deposited

More information

. Tutorial #3 Building Complex Targets

. Tutorial #3 Building Complex Targets . Tutorial #3 Building Complex Targets. Mixed Gas/Solid Targets Gas Ionization Chamber Previous Tutorials have covered how to setup TRIM, determine which ion and energy to specify for a semiconductor n-well

More information

Lecture 11. Etching Techniques Reading: Chapter 11. ECE 6450 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Lecture 11. Etching Techniques Reading: Chapter 11. ECE 6450 - Dr. Alan Doolittle Lecture 11 Etching Techniques Reading: Chapter 11 Etching Techniques Characterized by: 1.) Etch rate (A/minute) 2.) Selectivity: S=etch rate material 1 / etch rate material 2 is said to have a selectivity

More information

Modification of Pd-H 2 and Pd-D 2 thin films processed by He-Ne laser

Modification of Pd-H 2 and Pd-D 2 thin films processed by He-Ne laser Modification of Pd-H 2 and Pd-D 2 thin films processed by He-Ne laser V.Nassisi #, G.Caretto #, A. Lorusso #, D.Manno %, L.Famà %, G.Buccolieri %, A.Buccolieri %, U.Mastromatteo* # Laboratory of Applied

More information

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

More information

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power : Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics

More information

Lecture 6 PVD (Physical vapor deposition): Evaporation and Sputtering

Lecture 6 PVD (Physical vapor deposition): Evaporation and Sputtering F. G. Tseng Lec6, Fall/2001, p1 Lecture 6 PVD (Physical vapor deposition): Evaporation and Sputtering Vacuum evaporation 1. Fundamental of Evaporation: The material to be evaporated is heated in an evacuated

More information

Lecture 12. Physical Vapor Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering Reading: Chapter 12. ECE 6450 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Lecture 12. Physical Vapor Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering Reading: Chapter 12. ECE 6450 - Dr. Alan Doolittle Lecture 12 Physical Vapor Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering Reading: Chapter 12 Evaporation and Sputtering (Metalization) Evaporation For all devices, there is a need to go from semiconductor to metal.

More information

Sputtering (cont.) and Other Plasma Processes

Sputtering (cont.) and Other Plasma Processes Sputtering (cont.) and Other Plasma Processes Sputtering Summary Create an ionic plasma by applying a high voltage to a glow tube. Ions bombard the target material at the cathode. Target atoms are ejected

More information

Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials

Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials PhD theses Gabriella Kecskeméti Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics University of Szeged Supervisor: Dr. Béla Hopp senior research fellow Department

More information

Welcome to the World of Chemistry

Welcome to the World of Chemistry Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of

More information

Module 7 Wet and Dry Etching. Class Notes

Module 7 Wet and Dry Etching. Class Notes Module 7 Wet and Dry Etching Class Notes 1. Introduction Etching techniques are commonly used in the fabrication processes of semiconductor devices to remove selected layers for the purposes of pattern

More information

Atomic Structure Chapter 5 Assignment & Problem Set

Atomic Structure Chapter 5 Assignment & Problem Set Atomic Structure Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Atomic Structure 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information

What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material

What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material Laser Ablation Fundamentals & Applications Samuel S. Mao Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Advanced Energy Technology Department March 1, 25 Laser Ablation What

More information

Chapter 8. Low energy ion scattering study of Fe 4 N on Cu(100)

Chapter 8. Low energy ion scattering study of Fe 4 N on Cu(100) Low energy ion scattering study of 4 on Cu(1) Chapter 8. Low energy ion scattering study of 4 on Cu(1) 8.1. Introduction For a better understanding of the reconstructed 4 surfaces one would like to know

More information

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance. .1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

More information

Neuere Entwicklungen zur Herstellung optischer Schichten durch reaktive. Wolfgang Hentsch, Dr. Reinhard Fendler. FHR Anlagenbau GmbH

Neuere Entwicklungen zur Herstellung optischer Schichten durch reaktive. Wolfgang Hentsch, Dr. Reinhard Fendler. FHR Anlagenbau GmbH Neuere Entwicklungen zur Herstellung optischer Schichten durch reaktive Sputtertechnologien Wolfgang Hentsch, Dr. Reinhard Fendler FHR Anlagenbau GmbH Germany Contents: 1. FHR Anlagenbau GmbH in Brief

More information

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq.

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq. 1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,

More information

The Physics of Energy sources Nuclear Fission

The Physics of Energy sources Nuclear Fission The Physics of Energy sources Nuclear Fission B. Maffei Bruno.maffei@manchester.ac.uk Nuclear Fission 1 Introduction! We saw previously from the Binding energy vs A curve that heavy nuclei (above A~120)

More information

The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules

The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules The Mole Concept Ron Robertson r2 c:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 final slides for web\mole concept.docx The Mole The mole is a unit of measurement equal to 6.022 x 10 23 things (to 4 sf) just like there

More information

Chemistry AS/A Level Bridging Unit

Chemistry AS/A Level Bridging Unit Chemistry AS/A Level Bridging Unit Welcome to Chemistry! This bridging unit is designed to help you bridge the gap between your GCSE Science studies and the AS/A Level Chemistry course It includes a list

More information

Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy

Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy Applications Laboratory Report Introduction Electron microscope specimens, both scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM), often require a

More information

Chapter Test B. Chapter: Measurements and Calculations

Chapter Test B. Chapter: Measurements and Calculations Assessment Chapter Test B Chapter: Measurements and Calculations PART I In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1.

More information

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4)

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4) Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Question What is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction? What 3 things (values) is a mole of a chemical

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

More information

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK FOR DEPTH PROFILING AND BULK IMPURITY ANALYSIS R. G. Wilson Hughes Research Laboratories Malibu, California F. A. Stevie AT&T Bell Laboratories Allentown,

More information

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

More information

Chapter 2 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements. An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop

Chapter 2 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements. An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop Chapter 2 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop Chapter Map Chemistry The science that deals with the structure and behavior of matter Scientific

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

More information

Study of Surface Reaction and Gas Phase Chemistries in High Density C 4 F 8 /O 2 /Ar and C 4 F 8 /O 2 /Ar/CH 2 F 2 Plasma for Contact Hole Etching

Study of Surface Reaction and Gas Phase Chemistries in High Density C 4 F 8 /O 2 /Ar and C 4 F 8 /O 2 /Ar/CH 2 F 2 Plasma for Contact Hole Etching TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MATERIALS Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 90-94, April 25, 2015 Regular Paper pissn: 1229-7607 eissn: 2092-7592 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4313/teem.2015.16.2.90 OAK Central:

More information

Deposition of Thin Metal Films " (on Polymer Substrates)!

Deposition of Thin Metal Films  (on Polymer Substrates)! Deposition of Thin Metal Films " (on Polymer Substrates)! Shefford P. Baker! Cornell University! Department of Materials Science and Engineering! Ithaca, New York, 14853! MS&E 5420 Flexible Electronics,

More information

Products. Emission spectrometer. NIR sensor. Ultrasonic analysis

Products. Emission spectrometer. NIR sensor. Ultrasonic analysis XXII. Erfahrungsaustausch Mühlleiten 2015 Plasmaanalyse und Prozessoptimierung mittels spektroskopischem Plasmamonitoring in industriellen Anwendungen Swen Marke,, Lichtenau Thomas Schütte, Plasus GmbH,

More information

Periodic Table. inert gases. Columns: Similar Valence Structure. give up 1e - give up 2e - Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - give up 3e -

Periodic Table. inert gases. Columns: Similar Valence Structure. give up 1e - give up 2e - Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - give up 3e - Periodic Table give up 1e - give up 2e - give up 3e - H Li Be Na Mg K Ca Columns: Similar Valence Structure Sc Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - inert gases S Se F Cl Br He Ne Ar Kr Adapted from Fig. 2.6, Callister

More information

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

More information

Database and Knowledge Base developments at IAEA A+M Unit

Database and Knowledge Base developments at IAEA A+M Unit Database and Knowledge Base developments at A+M Unit B. J. Braams, H.-K. Chung, K. Sheikh Atomic and Molecular Data Unit Nuclear Data Section Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences May 2011 International

More information

7.2.5 Diffusion. 23 minutes. 26 marks. Page 1 of 9

7.2.5 Diffusion. 23 minutes. 26 marks. Page 1 of 9 7.2.5 Diffusion 23 minutes 26 marks Page 1 of 9 Q1. An experiment was set up as shown in the drawing. After several minutes white smoke of ammonium chloride, NH 4 Cl, appeared as shown. solution gas given

More information

THIN FILM MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY

THIN FILM MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY THIN FILM MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY Sputtering of Compound Materials by Kiyotaka Wasa Yokohama City University Yokohama, Japan Makoto Kitabatake Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Kyoto, Japan Hideaki

More information

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment.

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment. Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The

More information

Dry Etching and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE)

Dry Etching and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Dry Etching and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) MEMS 5611 Feb 19 th 2013 Shengkui Gao Contents refer slides from UC Berkeley, Georgia Tech., KU, etc. (see reference) 1 Contents Etching and its terminologies

More information

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X?

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X? 1. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least penetrating power? an alpha particle a beta particle a neutron a positron 2. Which equation represents alpha decay? 3. An unstable nucleus

More information

Mass Spectrometry. Overview

Mass Spectrometry. Overview Mass Spectrometry Overview Mass Spectrometry is an analytic technique that utilizes the degree of deflection of charged particles by a magnetic field to find the relative masses of molecular ions and fragments.2

More information

Lecture 22: Integrated circuit fabrication

Lecture 22: Integrated circuit fabrication Lecture 22: Integrated circuit fabrication Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Layering 4 3 Patterning 7 4 Doping 8 4.1 Thermal diffusion......................... 10 4.2 Ion implantation.........................

More information

Student Review Sheet Matter & Energy Semester B Examination

Student Review Sheet Matter & Energy Semester B Examination Matter & Energy Semester B Examination Test Description Length: 2 hours Items: 59 SR (~85%), 2 BCRs (~15%) Unit Approximate Number of Selected Response Items Science Process Skills 13 Molecules to Atoms

More information

PLASMA TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

PLASMA TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW PLASMA TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW Plasmas are not a lab curiosity. Plasma processing has been an essential production tool for more than 30 years in the fabrication of microelectronic devices for example. Over

More information

TDS. Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg.

TDS. Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg. Modern Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research TDS Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg.de TDS = TPD

More information

State of the art in reactive magnetron sputtering

State of the art in reactive magnetron sputtering State of the art in reactive magnetron sputtering T. Nyberg, O. Kappertz, T. Kubart and S. Berg Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden D.

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 0620/03 Paper 3 Theory (Core) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1 hour

More information

Ref. Ch. 11 in Superalloys II Ch. 8 in Khanna Ch. 14 in Tien & Caulfield

Ref. Ch. 11 in Superalloys II Ch. 8 in Khanna Ch. 14 in Tien & Caulfield MTE 585 Oxidation of Materials Part 1 Ref. Ch. 11 in Superalloys II Ch. 8 in Khanna Ch. 14 in Tien & Caulfield Introduction To illustrate the case of high temperature oxidation, we will use Ni-base superalloys.

More information

THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE. Sub-topics. Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry

THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE. Sub-topics. Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE Sub-topics 1 Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry RATE PROCESSES IN SOLIDS At any temperature different from absolute zero all atoms, irrespective of their state of aggregation

More information

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon Covalent Crystals - covalent bonding by shared electrons in common orbitals (as in molecules) - covalent bonds lead to the strongest bound crystals, e.g. diamond in the tetrahedral structure determined

More information

Sputtering. Ion-Solid Interactions

Sputtering. Ion-Solid Interactions ssistant Professor Department of Microelectronic Engineering Rochester Institute of Technology 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604 Tel (716) 475-2923 Fax (716) 475-5041 PDRDV@RIT.EDU Page 1

More information

1. PECVD in ORGANOSILICON FED PLASMAS

1. PECVD in ORGANOSILICON FED PLASMAS F. FRACASSI Department of Chemistry, University of Bari (Italy) Plasma Solution srl SURFACE MODIFICATION OF POLYMERS AND METALS WITH LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA OUTLINE METAL TREATMENTS 1 low pressure PECVD

More information

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCE Centre Number Chemistry Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry Candidate Number Thursday 13 January 2011 Morning Time: 1 hour

More information

Summary of single and double electron capture cross sections for ion-atom collisions at low and intermediate energy

Summary of single and double electron capture cross sections for ion-atom collisions at low and intermediate energy Summary of single and double electron capture cross sections for ion-atom collisions at low and intermediate energy Anna Simon Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow Abstract: As the low

More information

Matter. Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole

Matter. Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole Matter Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole Atomic Mass Unit Chemists of the nineteenth century realized that, in order to measure the mass of an atomic particle, it was useless to use the standard

More information

Chapter 5: Diffusion. 5.1 Steady-State Diffusion

Chapter 5: Diffusion. 5.1 Steady-State Diffusion : Diffusion Diffusion: the movement of particles in a solid from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, resulting in the uniform distribution of the substance Diffusion is process

More information

KS3 Science: Chemistry Contents

KS3 Science: Chemistry Contents summary KS3 Science MyWorks Guide Chemistry KS3 Science: Chemistry Mini zes: 40 Super zes: 5 Extension zes: 4 Skills zes: 6 TOTAL 54 What are MyWorks zes? MyWorks zes are short individual learning tasks

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I PREPARED BY: NICOLE HELDT SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

More information

2. Deposition process

2. Deposition process Properties of optical thin films produced by reactive low voltage ion plating (RLVIP) Antje Hallbauer Thin Film Technology Institute of Ion Physics & Applied Physics University of Innsbruck Investigations

More information

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

More information

THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION

THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE CHEMISTRY A Atoms, Bonds and Groups F321 *CUP/T73721* Candidates answer on the question paper OCR Supplied Materials: Data Sheet for Chemistry A (Inserted)

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Name Period This chapter covers the basics that you may have learned in your chemistry class. Whether your teacher goes over this chapter, or assigns it for you

More information

Period 3 elements

Period 3 elements 3.1.4.2 Period 3 elements 173 minutes 169 marks Page 1 of 17 Q1. (a) Explain why certain elements in the Periodic Table are classified as p-block elements. Illustrate your answer with an example of a p-block

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

More information

Plasma Cleaner: Physics of Plasma

Plasma Cleaner: Physics of Plasma Plasma Cleaner: Physics of Plasma Nature of Plasma A plasma is a partially ionized gas consisting of electrons, ions and neutral atoms or molecules The plasma electrons are at a much higher temperatures

More information

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons, neutrons and electrons Nuclear Structure particle relative charge relative mass proton 1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons and neutrons make up

More information

Decorative vacuum coating technologies 30.05.2014 Certottica Longarone. Thin Film Plasma Coating Technologies

Decorative vacuum coating technologies 30.05.2014 Certottica Longarone. Thin Film Plasma Coating Technologies Dr. Stefan Schlichtherle Dr. Georg Strauss PhysTech Coating Technology GmbH Decorative vacuum coating technologies 30.05.2014 Certottica Longarone Thin Film Plasma Coating Technologies Content The fascination

More information

Solar Energy Production

Solar Energy Production Solar Energy Production We re now ready to address the very important question: What makes the Sun shine? Why is this such an important topic in astronomy? As humans, we see in the visible part of the

More information

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7. Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1.

More information

Introduction to Thin Film Technology LOT. Chair of Surface and Materials Technology

Introduction to Thin Film Technology LOT. Chair of Surface and Materials Technology Introduction to Thin Film Introduction to Thin Film Verfahrenstechnik der Oberflächenmodifikationen Prof. Dr. Xin Jiang Lecture Institut für Werkstofftechnik der Uni-Siegen Sommersemester 2007 Introduction

More information

Lecture 2 Semiconductor Physics (I)

Lecture 2 Semiconductor Physics (I) Lecture 2 Semiconductor Physics (I) Outline Intrinsic bond model : electrons and holes Generation and recombination Intrinsic semiconductor Doping: Extrinsic semiconductor Charge Neutrality Reading Assignment:

More information

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids 12-1 Liquids I. Properties of Liquids and the Kinetic Molecular Theory A. Fluids 1. Substances that can flow and therefore take the shape of their container B. Relative

More information

Chemistry Objectives

Chemistry Objectives Chemistry Objectives Matter, and Measurement 1. know the definition of chemistry and be knowledgeable 3-14 about specific disciplines of chemistry. 2. understand the nature of the scientific method and

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Types of Epitaxy. Homoepitaxy. Heteroepitaxy

Types of Epitaxy. Homoepitaxy. Heteroepitaxy Epitaxy Epitaxial Growth Epitaxy means the growth of a single crystal film on top of a crystalline substrate. For most thin film applications (hard and soft coatings, optical coatings, protective coatings)

More information

Read the sections on Allotropy and Allotropes in your text (pages 464, 475, 871-2, 882-3) and answer the following:

Read the sections on Allotropy and Allotropes in your text (pages 464, 475, 871-2, 882-3) and answer the following: Descriptive Chemistry Assignment 5 Thermodynamics and Allotropes Read the sections on Allotropy and Allotropes in your text (pages 464, 475, 871-2, 882-3) and answer the following: 1. Define the word allotrope

More information

UW Department of Chemistry Lab Lectures Online

UW Department of Chemistry Lab Lectures Online Lab 5: Periodic Trends Part I: (Prelab) A Computer Study and Introduction to ChemDraw Part II: Acid-Base Properties of Period 3 and Group 5A Elemental Oxides Part III: Oxidizing Ability of the Elemental

More information

427.00-6 FISSION. At the conclusion of this lesson the trainee will be able to:

427.00-6 FISSION. At the conclusion of this lesson the trainee will be able to: FISSION OBJECTIVES At the conclusion of this lesson the trainee will be able to: 1. Explain where the energy released by fission comes from (mass to energy conversion). 2. Write a typical fission reaction.

More information

INSPIRE GK12 Lesson Plan. The Chemistry of Climate Change Length of Lesson

INSPIRE GK12 Lesson Plan. The Chemistry of Climate Change Length of Lesson Lesson Title The Chemistry of Climate Change Length of Lesson 180 min Created By David Wilson Subject Physical Science / Chemistry / Organic Chemistry Grade Level 8-12 State Standards 2c, 4d / 2a, 4d /

More information

Oberflächenbearbeitung durch reaktive Ionenstrahlen

Oberflächenbearbeitung durch reaktive Ionenstrahlen Oberflächenbearbeitung durch reaktive Ionenstrahlen André Mießler, Thomas Arnold Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V. Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig andre.miessler@iom-leipzig.de www.iom-leipzig.de

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter: Selected Answersc for Practice Exam.

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter: Selected Answersc for Practice Exam. Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter: Selected Answersc for Practice Exam. MULTIPLE CHOICE 50. 5.80 g of dioxane (C 4 H 8 O 2 ) is how many moles of dioxane? 0.0658 mol 0.0707 mol 0.0725 mol d. 0.0804

More information

Conversion of Methane to C 2 Hydrocarbons via Cold Plasma Reaction

Conversion of Methane to C 2 Hydrocarbons via Cold Plasma Reaction Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry 12(2003)178 182 Conversion of Methane to C 2 Hydrocarbons via Cold Plasma Reaction Baowei Wang, Genhui Xu School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University,

More information

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Chemical Reaction A chemical change or chemical reaction is a process in which one or more pure substances

More information

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity

More information

The Structure of the Atom

The Structure of the Atom The Structure of the Atom Section 4.1 Early Ideas About Matter Section 4.2 Defining the Atom Section 4.3 How Atoms Differ Section 4.4 Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay Click a hyperlink or folder tab

More information

1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain)

1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain) I. Law vs. Theory 1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain) 2) Theory (model) = a set of assumptions used to explain observations and

More information

Studying an Organic Reaction. How do we know if a reaction can occur? And if a reaction can occur what do we know about the reaction?

Studying an Organic Reaction. How do we know if a reaction can occur? And if a reaction can occur what do we know about the reaction? Studying an Organic Reaction How do we know if a reaction can occur? And if a reaction can occur what do we know about the reaction? Information we want to know: How much heat is generated? How fast is

More information

2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai,

2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai, Ch1 1) Which of the following underlined items is not an intensive property? A) A chemical reaction requires 3.00 g of oxygen. B) The density of helium at 25 C is 1.64 10-4 g/cm3. C) The melting point

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

Chemistry 104 Chapter Three PowerPoint Notes

Chemistry 104 Chapter Three PowerPoint Notes Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Chapter 3 Chemistry 104 Professor Michael Russell Atomic Theory Chemistry founded on four fundamental assumptions about atoms and matter which make up the modern

More information

6. Each column of the periodic table is

6. Each column of the periodic table is 1. Atoms of elements that are in the same group have the same number of 5. Mendeleev left gaps in his periodic table because A. Protons B. Valence Electrons A. the table was too full B. no known elements

More information

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells A supplement topic to: Mi ti l S Micro-optical Sensors - A MEMS for electric power generation Science of Silicon PV Cells Scientific base for solar PV electric power generation

More information

Pressure effect on diamond nucleation in a hot-filament CVD system

Pressure effect on diamond nucleation in a hot-filament CVD system PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 55, NUMBER 23 15 JUNE 1997-I Pressure effect on diamond nucleation in a hot-filament CVD system S. T. Lee and Y. W. Lam Department of Physics & Materials Science, City University

More information