COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS SIMILARITIES IN PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS

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1 COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS Cells vary widely in structure and function, even within the same organism. The human body, for example, has more than 200 different types of cells, each with a specialized function. Each cell is made up of different, each responsible for a different role to help the cell function. It is important to understand that all cells have a greater purpose. In order to fully understand these purposes, we have to examine plant and animal cells on a structural level. Though they have structural differences, they have many similarities: SIMILARITIES IN PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS 1. CELL MEMBRANE The cell membrane provides, support and but also has a very important role in controlling the movement of materials into and out of the cell. It is made up of a bi layer with embedded in it. In plant cells it is found the cell wall and in animal cell it is the. 2. NUCLEUS The nucleus is the of the cell (the brain). It's large and oval and holds genetic material in, which are coiled up structures containing the organism's. 3. CYTOPLASM The cytoplasm is a clear, thick, jellylike material between the cell membrane and the nucleus that the organelles in place. It supports and protects the cell. 1

2 B03 Comparison of Plant & Animal Cells.notebook October 29, MITOCHONDRION The of the cell, the mitochondrion breaks down sugar ( ) molecules and combines with to release energy ( ) and carbon dioxide. This process, known as is what animal and plant cells use to power their cellular functions. Suspended in the cytoplasm, the mitochondria vary in number, depending on the type of cell. They have an inner and outer, to increase their surface area. 5. RIBOSOMES Ribosomes are responsible for synthesizing. There are ribosomes located on the endoplasmic reticulum as well as free ribosomes that float throughout the cell's. There are other organelles found in both animal and plant cells the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes and. Even under a microscope it is difficult to distinguish many plant organelles from the same animal organelles. Highlight Similar Organelles in the Plant and Animal Cell 2

3 DIFFERENCES IN PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS 1. CELL WALL Found only in cells, the cell wall the entire cell, including the cell membrane. It is made of, a strong substance which makes the cell rigid to support and protect the plant against pressure from wind, rain, and snow. It allows gases to pass through and also withstands the increased internal pressure from osmosis, when the plant absorbs. 2. CHLOROPLASTS Again, found only in plant cells, chloroplasts have the very important job of using acquired from the sun to convert and into molecules and, in a process called. These green and oval organelles give leaves their colour and have both inner and outer membranes, much like. 3. VACUOLES Found in both plant and animal cells, vacuoles are a facility used to hold and transport and other materials. In plant cells, there is usually one large vacuole that is extremely important in providing support, as well as disposing waste, providing protection and growth, and transporting other materials. In animal cells, vacuoles tend to be much, and are simply used to temporarily store materials or to transport substances. 3

4 B03 Comparison of Plant & Animal Cells.notebook October 29, 2013 The structural importance of the plant vacuole is related to its ability to control turgor pressure, which dictates the of the cell and is associated with the difference between the osmotic inside and outside of the cell. Osmotic pressure is the pressure required to prevent fluid diffusing through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions containing different concentrations of solute molecules. The response of plant cells to water is a prime example of the significance of turgor pressure. When a plant receives adequate amounts of water, the central vacuoles of its cells as the liquid collects within them, creating a high level of turgor pressure, which helps maintain the structural integrity of the plant, along with the support from the. In the absence of enough water, however, central vacuoles shrink and turgor pressure is reduced, compromising the plant's rigidity so plants. PLANT OR ANIMAL CELL? 4

5 HOMEWORK 1. Complete the following table on similarities and difference of plant and animal cells: FEATURE PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL Structures Found Solely in Each Structural Differences Vacuoles Structures Present Energy Use Structure and Protection Storage and Transportation Differences Similarities 2. Why don't animal cells need cell walls? 3. Why is it important that plant cells are different from animal cells? 4. What are the similarities and differences between cellular respiration and photosynthesis? 5

6 6

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