Cellular Structure and Function

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1 Chapter Test A CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question. 1. Which defines a cell? A. microscopic organisms in water B. protein molecules in animals C. the basic unit of living things D. the smallest type of animal 2. Which is a structure common to all cells? A. mitochondria B. nucleus C. endoplasmic reticulum D. plasma membrane 3. Which is a protein fiber that forms the cell s supporting network? A. cytoskeleton B. cell wall C. endoplasmic reticulum D. plasma membrane Part B: Matching Matching Set 1 Place a check in the correct box to identify the type of cell described by each statement. Statement Eukaryote Prokaryote 1. A unicellular organism such as bacteria 2. A cell with a nucleus 3. A cell with organelles that do specific tasks 4. The first type of cell to evolve Matching Set 2 Write the letter of the correct cell structure on the line next to the structure s description. Answers may be used only once. 5. creates energy for the cell 6. produces proteins 7. unwanted substances would build up in the cell without this organelle 8. contains the cell s DNA A. lysosome B. mitochondria C. nucleus D. ribosome Unit 2 CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function 63

2 Chapter Test A CONTINUED Part C: Interpreting Drawings Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Study the drawing of a plasma membrane. Identify the substances that belong with the arrows labeled A to E. Use the substances carbon dioxide, glucose, oxygen, wastes, and water for your labels. A. D. B. E. C. 2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. A. B. C. Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. State the three principles of the cell theory. 64 Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7 Unit 2

3 Chapter Test A CONTINUED 2. Explain how a selectively permeable plasma membrane works. 3. Describe the function of a cell nucleus. Part E: Concept Application Write your response to the statement in the space provided. 1. Contrast the organelles you might observe in the cell of a celery stalk and the skin cell of a human. Read the paragraph below to respond to each statement. Tamara puts a drop of red food dye into a glass of water. The dye makes swirls of color in the water for several minutes. After 10 min, the water has a uniform, red color. 2. Infer how the concept of diffusion explains Tamara s observations. 3. Identify the time when the solution reached a dynamic equilibrium. Unit 2 CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function 65

4 Chapter Test B CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, phrase, or sentence that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Which scientist first used the term cell? A. Hooke B. Janssen C. Pasteur D. Virchow 2. Which would be the result if the electron microscope had not been invented? A. Images of cells and microorganisms would remain blurry. B. Microscope magnification would be limited to C. Scientists would be unable to view different cell organelles. D. The atoms of elements would not have been discovered. 3. Which manufactures ribosomes? A. nucleolus B. nucleus C. endoplasmic reticulum D. Golgi apparatus 4. Which is the result of smooth endoplasmic reticulum being damaged in liver cells by excess alcohol consumption? A. absorption of excess water B. difficulty with protein synthesis C. excessive breakdown of carbohydrates D. inability to detoxify harmful substances 5. The process of the plasma membrane pumping excess sodium out of a cell into an environment where there is a lower concentration of sodium is called A. diffusion. B. osmosis. C. active transport. D. coupled transport. 66 Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7 Unit 2

5 Chapter Test B CONTINUED Part B: Matching and Completion Matching Write the letter of the correct organelle on the line next to its description. Answers may be used only once or not at all. 1. stores cell materials 2. produces protein for the cell 3. controls cell division 4. acts as a distribution center for cell proteins 5. breaks down excess microtubules A. Golgi apparatus B. lysosome C. mitochondria D. nucleus E. ribosome F. vacuole Completion Write the correct term or name to complete each sentence below. 6. The scientist who first named cells was. 7. An instrument used to magnify thin slices of cells is called a(n). 8. Large, complex cells that contain a nucleus are called. 9. Substances that move wastes and other materials through the plasma membrane are called. 10. The organelles that allow a unicellular paramecium to sweep food toward its mouthlike opening are called. 11. The diffusion of water across the selectively permeable membrane of an alga cell is called. Part C: Interpreting Drawings Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Study the drawing of a plasma membrane above. Identify the substances that belong with the arrows labeled A to E. Identify the substance embedded in the plasma membrane labeled F. A. B. C. D. E. F. Unit 2 CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function 67

6 Chapter Test B CONTINUED 2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the three solutions. A. B. C. Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. State the principles of the cell theory. 2. Infer why the nonpolar, fatty-acid tails in a cell s plasma membrane are essential for creating a barrier between the cell s internal environment and the external environment. 3. Describe the support structure of the cell s interior. Include the terms cytoskeleton, microtubules, and microfilaments in your discussion. Part E: Concept Application Write your response to the statement in the space provided. 1. Hypothesize how the evolutionary history of cells might have differed had endosymbiosis not occurred. 68 Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7 Unit 2

7 Chapter Test C CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Which scientist revolutionized the way biologists think about the evolutionary history of eukaryotes? A. Everett B. Margulis C. Pasteur D. Virchow 2. The advantage of a compound-light microscope over an electron microscope is that it A. can view living microorganisms. B. does not blur magnified images. C. has a greater degree of magnification. D. relies on readily available visible light. 3. Which organelle produces protein for a cell? A. nucleus B. ribosome C. endoplasmic reticulum D. Golgi apparatus 4. Which organelle is large in plant cells but small or absent in animal cells? A. centriole B. chloroplast C. nucleolus D. vacuole 5. Which organelle is called the powerhouse of the cell? A. mitochondria B. nucleus C. ribosome D. vesicle 6. Which organelle is present in a paramecium protozoan but absent in the cells of a strawberry plant? A. cilia B. cytoskeleton C. microtubules D. nucleus Unit 2 CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function 69

8 Chapter Test C CONTINUED Part B: Completion Write the correct term to complete each sentence below. 1. The bacterium E. coli is a type of cell called. 2. Substances would have more difficulty moving across the plasma membrane without a substance called. 3. The central structure that defines the cell is called the. 4. A flu virus could easily infect a cell without the presence of. 5. The spread of a drop of food dye throughout a glass of milk is called. 6. A pump located in a cell s plasma membrane transports sodium and. Part C: Interpreting Drawings Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Study the drawing of a plasma membrane to the right. Identify the substances that belong with the arrows labeled A to E. Identify the substance embedded in the plasma membrane labeled F, and explain how this substance regulates materials entering and exiting a cell. Figure 1 A. B. C. F. 2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the three types of solutions. D. E. Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 A. B. C. 70 Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7 Unit 2

9 Chapter Test C CONTINUED 3. Infer which drawing on the previous page would resemble a blood cell after a patient has been injected with an intravenous solution of pure water instead of an intravenous solution made of 1 percent salt. Explain the reason(s) for your choice. Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Discuss the advancement of scientific knowledge about the microscopic world during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 2. Explain why phosphate groups in the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane face toward the outside and the fatty acids face inward. 3. Contrast endocytosis and exocytosis. Part E: Concept Application Write your response to the statement in the space provided. 1. Analyze the principles of the cell theory that serve as the fundamental ideas for modern biology. Critique the modern theory of unicellular evolution based on one or more principles of the cell theory. Unit 2 CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function 71

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