Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells

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1 Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems All organisms are Cells can be Cell cycle Cell division is made up explained occurs in important for of one or more cells by microscopes distinct stages growth, repair, and reproduction Organism: several organ systems form an organism Organ System: organs can work together with other organs to form an organism, e.g. cardiovascular system: heart, lungs, blood vessels, blood Organ: two or more tissues working together, e.g. brain, kidney, heart, lungs, etc. Tissue: a group of cells with similar structure and function, e.g. muscle tissue, nervous tissue made of made of made of organism sssd organ system sssd organs ssssd tissuessssd cells e.g. dog circulatory system heart cardiac tissue heart cell What is the Cell? The cell is the basic unit for all life. (FYI: the word cell is derived from the Latin word cellula, meaning small compartment, an adult human has ~ trillion cells, i.e cells, cell size ~10-6 m, whereas a molecule size = m ~ 10-9 m) The cell is the building block of life because all living things are made of cells, which perform all the basic functions of life. An organism can have different types of cells: nerve cells, muscle cells, etc. Cell Theory 1. All living organisms are made up of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells, they do not come from non-living matter. 4. The activity of an entire organism depends on the total activity of its independent cells. Single celled life forms, example bacteria, (E. coli), are called prokaryotes: these cells do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles. More complex cells that can exist as single-celled organisms or multicellular organisms, (e.g. amoeba, plants, animals), are known as eukaryotes: a cell that contains a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. What is an organelle? Inside the cell are many smaller parts called organelles that carry out specific functions for the cell. Organelles are specialized structures that perform specific functions in the cell in order to maintain all the life processes of the cell. Some of these functions include energy production, transportation of materials, and waste packaging and disposal. See Table on Page 6 & 7 below: Description and Function of Cell Organelles 1

2 There are two types of cells: plant and animal cells. Diagram of an animal cell: The following is an animal cell because it does not contain a cell wall or chloroplasts, and the vacuole is quite small. Assignment: Match each organelle with the correct location in the drawing below a. nucleus f. endoplasmic reticulum b. nuclear membrane g. vacuole c. cytoplasm h. ribosome d. cell membrane i. mitochondrion e. Golgi body Answer to Cell Organelle Label 1 = cytoplasm 2 = Golgi body 3 = cell membrane 4 = mitochondrion 5 = vacuole 6 = nucleus 7 = nuclear membrane 8 = endoplasmic reticulum 9 = ribosome 2

3 The following is a plant cell: because it contains a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a singular, large vacuole. Label the following Plant Cell 3

4 What are the major differences between plant cells and animal cells discussed in this chapter? Plant cells have cell wall tough rigid structure outside cell membrane providing cellular support. Plant cells have chloroplasts containing chlorophyll, to trap solar energy to manufacture glucose, whereas animal cells do not. The sugar (carbohydrate) is converted into usable energy. (Recall: photosynthesis: 6 CO H 2 O sssd C 6 H 12 O O 2 ) Plant cells typically contain a single, large vacuole, whereas animal cells contain several small vacuoles. The large vacuole in plants allows the plant cell to store water and maintain internal fluid pressure (turgor). In animals, mitochondria release energy stored in glucose that animals digested, however in plants mitochondria release energy stored in glucose that the plant produced itself. Animal cells have centrioles that are involved in cell division while plant cells do not. Assignment: Complete the following Table: Differences between Plant and Animal cells Plant Cells Animal Cells What would make plant cells easier to see than animal cells? The size, and plant cells have a cell wall, and chloroplasts which makes it easier to identify individual cells. Why do some plant cells contain more chloroplasts than others? The number of chloroplasts will depend on the position of the cell within the plant. Photosynthesis occurs mainly in the leaves. Therefore, the cells in the leaves will contain more chloroplasts. What happens when the leaves of a plant appear wilted? If the plant does not absorb enough water, the vacuoles of the cells shrink and can no longer provide support for the plant. Why would the cells of a desert plant, such as a cactus, to have thickened cell walls? The cells of a desert plant would have thick cell walls in order to reduce the amount of water the plant loses, in order to conserve water. Assignment I: Development of the Cell Theory Research the following scientists to determine their contribution to the development of the cell theory: Robert Hooke (1663), Henri Dutrochet (1824), Robert Brown (1831), Felix Dujardin (1835), Mathais Schleiden (1838), Theodor Schwann (1839), Rudolf Virchow (1858) 4

5 Plant Cell An Animal Cell 5

6 Description and Function of Cell Organelles Organelle Description Function Nucleus Nucleus membrane DNA Chromatin Nucleolus Ribosomes Cell membrane cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria Spherical or oval body usually near the center of the cell (largest organelle) Appears as a large dark staining structure Double membrane that surrounds the nucleus Molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid Found in the nucleus Model has the shape of a double helix Long strands of DNA scattered throughout the nucleus When cell divides strands form chromosomes Located in nucleus this dense body is made up of nucleic acids (RNA & DNA and proteins) Tiny grainy organelles located on the surface of the ER of floating freely in cytoplasm Composed mainly of DNA Selectively permeable barrier plasma membrane (double membrane made up of lipids and proteins) Jelly-like clear material enclosed by the cell membrane, fills the cell and surrounds the organelles. Often moving Folded membrane that forms a series of canals Sausage shaped structure surrounded by two membranes. Active cells, e.g. muscle cells have more mitochondria. Control center of all cell processes Contains the information to regulate the growth and reproduction of the cell Regulates the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus Hereditary material that carries the genetic code for all cell activity. Genetic code controls cell processes such as protein synthesis Contains genetic information to control cell processes Manufacturers ribosome parts, which in turn help produce protein Site of protein synthesis (Amino acids join together to form proteins), i.e.. make hormones Holds the contents of the cell together Controls passage of materials in and out of the cell, (diffusion process) Suspends the organelles. Provides the environment for movement of materials cytoplasmic streaming Transports materials within the cell Centers of respiration of the cell Release energy that powers all cell activities, powerhouse of cell 6

7 Golgi bodies, (Golgi apparatus, Golgi complex) Vacuoles Lysosomes Cell wall (Organelle in plants) Chloroplast (Organelle in plants) Centriole Several flattened membrane tubes ends have tiny sacs Scattered throughout the cytoplasm Fluid filled spaces surrounded by a single membrane Contain food, water, waste and other materials Fluid filled spaces surrounded by a single membrane Contain food, water, waste and other materials Composed largely of cellulose Located outside the cell membrane of plant cells, rigid frame around the cell (fungi and bacteria have a cell wall) plastids oval shaped organelle found in plant cells contain chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis Occur in pairs in a structure called centrosome, located near the nucleus Store and transport cell products Package proteins and transport them outside the cell Storage area for materials: water, food, minerals, and waste, in plants, when large vacuole is full it can add support to the cell structure Contain digestive enzymes to breakdown cell materials: carbohydrates, fats proteins, foreign materials such as bacteria, warn out cell parts If released from lysosome enzymes could digest entire cell suicide bags Provides strength, support and protection for cell parts Gives shape to individual plant cells to produce carbohydrates food Involved in cell division 7

8 Assignment II 1. What is an organelle? 2. (a) Are your cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Explain. (b)what is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? 3. What is the function of the: vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. 4. What are three differences between plant and animal cells? 5. Match each organelle with the life function it is associated with in the cell from the following word bank: cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole, Golgi bodies a. collect and process materials to be removed from the cell b. power plants of the cell c. functions to support the cell d. fluid-filled tubes that transport materials, such as proteins, through the cell e. a single layer of membrane enclosing fluid in a sac f. contains genetic information that controls all cell activities g. functions to allow some substances to enter while keeping others out 6. What are the major differences between plant cells and animal cells. 7. Where does cellular respiration occur? Explain what it is. (Answer: Mitochondria; it is the organelle in the cell that converts the stored energy into an easily usable form.) 8. Explain how diffusion works. How does a cell utilize diffusion? (Answer: Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. A cell uses diffusion to bring chemicals and water that it needs into the cell and move stuff out of the cell that it does not need. Example: a tea bag steeping in hot water is an example of diffusion. The tea particles from the bag are diffusing throughout the entire cup of water.) 9. When viewing the cells taken from the leg muscle of an athlete and cells taken from the skin of an elderly individual. What differences in the number of mitochondria would you see in the two samples? (When answering, consider the function of the mitochondria: it is the powerhouse of the cell, i.e. to supply energy this organelle converts the chemical energy in sugars into energy that the cell can use; hence which person would need a greater number of mitochondria organelle!!) 10. How does the nucleus coordinate cell activities? 8

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