Plant and Animal Cells

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1 Plant and Animal Cells

2 Cell Scientists Hans and Zacharias Janssen Dutch lens grinders, father and son produced first compound microscope (2 lenses)

3 Robert Hooke (1665) English Scientist looked at a thin slice of cork (oak cork) through a compound microscope observed tiny, hollow, room like structures called these structures 'cells' because they reminded him of the rooms that monks lived in only saw the outer walls (cell walls) because cork cells are not alive

4 Anton van Leeuwenhoek (around the same time as Hooke 1680?) Dutch fabric merchant and amateur scientist looked at blood, rainwater, scrapings from teeth through a simple microscope (1 lens) observed living cells; called some 'animalcules' some of the small 'animalcules' are now called bacteria

5 Matthias Schleiden (1838) German botanist viewed plant parts under a microscope discovered that plant parts are made of cells

6 Theodor Schwann (1839) German zoologist viewed animal parts under a microscope discovered that animal parts are made of cells

7 Rudolph Virchow (1855) German physician stated that all living cells come only from other living cells

8 The Cell Theory 1. All living things are made up of cells. 2. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. 3. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

9 Definition of a Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. Two types of Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

10 Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells come in two basic types, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. "Karyose" comes from a Greek word which means "kernel," as in a kernel of grain. In biology, we use this word root to refer to the nucleus of a cell. "Pro" means "before," and "eu" means "true," or "good." "Prokaryotic" means "before a nucleus," and "eukaryotic" means "possessing a true nucleus." Prokaryotic cells have no nuclei, while eukaryotic cells do have true nuclei.

11 Prokaryotic Do not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria

12 Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms Eukaryotic

13 Typical Plant Cell

14 Typical Animal Cell

15 CELL PARTS Cell Parts- Organelles Surrounding the Cell- Cell Wall Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria Supports & protects cells

16 Cell Membrane Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell Double layer

17 Inside the Cell Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA

18 Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus

19 Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics

20 Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins

21 Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material

22 Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface

23 Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell

24 Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

25 Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell

26 Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes

27 Vacuoles Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solution Help plants maintain shape

28 Chloroplast Usually found in plant cells Contains green chlorophyll Where photosynthesis takes place

29

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