Cytology. Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells.

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1 CYTOLOGY

2 Cytology Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells. A. two major cell types B. distinguished by structural organization See table on handout for differences. Plant, Animal and Bacteria Cell Models at

3 Prokaryotic Cells Kingdoms: 1. Monera (Eubacteria) 2. Archaea (Archaebacteria) Characteristics: 1. lack a nuclear membrane 2. have no membrane-bound organelles

4 Prokaryotic Cell - Bacteria

5 Eukaryotic Cells Kingdoms: 1. Protista 2. Fungi 3. Plantae 4. Animalia Characteristics: 1. have a nuclear membrane 2. have membrane-bound organelles

6 Eukaryotic - Animal Cell

7 Eukaryotic - Plant Cell

8 Cellular Evolution Current evidence indicates that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes between 1 and 1.5 billion years ago. Two theories: 1. Infolding theory 2. Endosymbiotic theory

9 1. Infolding Theory The infolding of the prokaryotic plasma membrane gave rise to eukaryotic organelles.

10 2. Endosymbiotic theory Endosymbiosis refers to one species living within another - the host. Theory - the movement of smaller photosynthetic (chloroplast) and heterotrophic (mitochondria) prokaryotes into larger prokaryotic host cells.

11 Cytoplasm Entire region between the nuclear membrane and the cell (plasma) membrane. This includes all organelles! cytoplasm

12 Cytosol The semi-fluid medium found in the cytoplasm. This does not include the organelles.

13 Nucleus Conspicuous membrane-bound cellular organelle in eukaryotes. Contains the genes (DNA). nucleus

14 Nucleolus Spherical region in nucleus. Found in non-dividing cells. Has nuclear organizers and ribosomes. Sometimes more than one nucleolus present. nucleolus

15 Ribosomes Nuclear and cytoplasmic organelle. Composed of 60% protein and 40% ribosomal- RNA (rrna). Site of protein synthesis. Polyribosome or polysome. incoming large subunit mrna incoming small subunit polypeptide

16 Endomembrane System Eukaryotic organelles that are formed of interrelated membranes. 1. nuclear envelope (membrane) 2. endoplasmic reticulum 3. transport vesicles 4. golgi apparatus (complex) 5. lysosomes 6. vacuoles 7. plasma (cell) membrane

17 1. Nuclear Membrane Encloses the nucleus. A double membrane perforated with pores through which materials enter and leave the nucleus.

18 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Extensive membranous network of tubules and sacs called cisternae. Two distinct regions: A. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER).

19 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum A. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). 1. Studded with ribosomes. 2. Site of protein synthesis B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). 1. Synthesizes lipids, phosolipids and steroids. 2. Detoxifies drugs, alcohol and poisons.

20 3. Transport Vesicles A membrane organelle that transits materials from one part of the cell to another. ER Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus plasma membrane

21 4. Golgi Apparatus (Complex) A stacked, flattened membranous organelle with sacs called cisternae. Modifies, stores and routes products from the ER to the plasma membrane.

22 5. Lysosomes Membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes (digestive enzymes). Functions: 1. intracellular digestion - phagocytosis. 2. Autophagy - engulfs other cellular organelles.

23 6. Vacuoles Large membrane-closed sac for cellular storage. Three types: 1. Food vacuole (lysosomes attach) 2. Contractile vacuole (Protozoans) 3. Central Vacuole (mature plant cells)

24 7. Plasma (Cell) Membrane The boundary of every cell. Approximately 8 nm thick. Separates the living cell from its nonliving surroundings. Acts as a selective barrier. Hydrophobic region Hydrophilic region

25 Mitochondria A doubled membrane cellular organelle with its own circular DNA found in both plants and animals. It is the site of cellular respiration, a catabolic, exergonic, oxygen requiring process that uses energy extracted from organic macromolecules (like glucose) to produce ATP.

26 Mitochondria Outer membrane Inner membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae

27 Chloroplast A doubled membrane cellular organelle with its own circular DNA found in photosynthetic plants. The site of photosynthesis, an anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide requiring process the uses light energy (sun) and water to produce organic macromolecules (glucose).

28 Chloroplast Outer Membrane Inner Membrane Stroma Thylakoid Granum

29 Microbodies Two types: 1. Peroxisomes: produces and degrades hydrogen peroxide (H ). 2. Glyoxysomes: fat-storing tissue of germinating seeds.

30 Cytoskeleton Network of fibers through out the cytoplasm. Aids in cellular support and movement. Composed of three components: 1. Microfilaments - globular protein (actin) - support and cellular contraction 2. Intermediate filaments - fibrous protein - support 3. Microtubles - globular protein (tubulin) - support and cell motility

31 Centriole Composed of microtubules. Arranged in a pattern. Remember: Animal cells only! Helps organize microtuble assembly during cell division (mitosis and meiosis).

32 Cilia and Flagella Extensions of the plasma membrane. Microtubular core (9 + 2 pattern). Attached by a basal body (identical to centriole).

33 Cell Wall Strong cellulose fibers surrounding plant cells and some bacteria only! Composed of polysaccharides and proteins.

34 Intercellular Junctions Junctions where anchoring and communication takes place between cells. Plants: Animals: plasmodesmata tight junctions anchoring junctions communicating junctions

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