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1 Study Guide Cells Unit Test Matching. Write the letter of the correct response on the line. You may use the responses more than once. A. proteins B. simple carbohydrates C. complex carbohydrates D. lipids B 1. Source of quick energy for cells. A 2. Steak, Chicken, turkey C 3. Starch A 4. DNA holds the instructions for making these D,C_ 5. Source of slow burning energy D 6. May be stored as fat; repels water B 7. Apples, pears, and grapefruit A 8. Made of amino acids A 9. Used by body to repair or build new parts such as hair, nails or muscles. C 10. Carbohydrates such as bread, pasta, or baked potatoes. 11. How are cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems related? (List how each is related to the next, i.e. tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are ) Tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are made of tissues that work together, and organ systems are made of organs that work together 12. Define homeostasis. Describe an example of how your body maintains homeostasis. Keeping your internal environment the same. Example: Sweating when it is hot outside to keep your body temperature at 98.6 F

2 13. List 5 characteristics shared by all living things. Respond to stimuli Use energy Reproduce Grow and Develop Made of one or more cells Mnemonic Device: Richie Rich Enjoys Calling Girls 14. Compare a plant cell to an animal cell. Name 3 differences between plant and animal cells. a. _Plant cells are rectangular. Animal cells are more circular. b. _Plant cells have chloroplasts and cell walls. Animal cells do not. c. _Plant cells have a large vacuole. Animal cells have a small vacuole. Name 3 similarities between plant and animal cells. a. _Both are eukaryotic have a nucleus b. _Both have a cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm c. _Both do cellular respiration 15. You discover an organism that has 15 different kinds of cells, contains 4 organs, and 2 organ systems. You can conclude that this new organism is: a. unicellular b. multicellular c. prokaryotic d. in the plant kingdom Match the cell to the description. Some choices will be used more than once. A. Animal Cell B. Plant Cell C. Bacterial Cell _A, B A B 16. Which will do cellular respiration? 17. Which produces lactic acid if it is overworked? 18. Which will do photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

3 _C A, B 19. Prokaryotic 20. Eukaryotic 21. Which process do ALL human cells do? (Photosynthesis, Fermentation, or Cellular Respiration) Cellular Respiration; all cells can reproduce. 22. Write the function for each organelle: Cell wall provides structure and strength for plant cells Cell membrane lets materials in and out of the cell Mitochondria makes ATP, gives the cell energy Ribosomes builds proteins Endoplasmic reticulum tunnels that transport materials in the cell Golgi Complex packages and transports materials OUT of the cell Cytoplasm watery substance the organelles float in Nucleus the control center of the cell Nucleolus where the materials to make ribosomes are stored Chloroplast the place where photosynthesis happens (holds the chlorophyll) Vacuoles holds liquids and wastes DNA instructions on how to make proteins 23. Provide two examples for each of the following: (answers will vary) Cell (1.) Red Blood Cell (2.) Skin Cell Tissue- (1.) Bone Tissue (2.) Nerve Tissue Organ- (1.) Brain (2.) Stomach Organ System- (1.) Nervous (2.) Digestive

4 24. Fill in the following chart for the systems of the body: System of the Body Examples of 3 Organs Major Function of the System Biceps, Heart, tendons, Movement Muscular Skeletal Cartilage, Ligament, Femur Heart, Arteries, Veins Protect organs, movement, produce Red Blood Cells Carry oxygen and nutrients to tissues Circulatory Lungs, Heart, trachea Oxygen exchange Respiratory Brain, Spinal Cord, Eyes Communicate between brain and organs, Nervous Match the name of the organelle involved in the following processes. _E, D 25. diffusion _C 26. respiration _A,E _27. photosynthesis _D, E 28. osmosis A. chloroplasts B. nucleus C. mitochondria D. cell membrane

5 C_ 29. ATP production E. vacuole Identify the process described in the following examples. Choose from these words: Osmosis, diffusion, active transport, fermentation, photosynthesis, respiration. 30. spraying perfume _Diffusion 31. smelling vanilla through a balloon _Diffusion 32. raisins becoming plump in water Osmosis 33. chloroplasts using sunlight to make glucose Photosynthesis 34. mitochondria using glucose and oxygen Cellular Respiration 35. lactic acid building in your muscles Fermentation 36. Discuss the following: a. Active Transport: Moving molecules using energy. Could move molecules against the concentration gradient, from Low to High or could be moving molecules that are too large to easily pass through the cell membrane. b. Endocytosis: Cell taking in molecules that are too large to pass through the cell membrane. Cell membrane wraps around molecule creating a vesicle. Example: White Blood Cells c. Exocytosis: Cell getting rid of things that are too large or dangerous to pass through the cell membrane. Example: Stomach cells releasing digestive enzymes. 37. Write the equation for cellular respiration. Glucose + Oxygen ATP + Carbon Dioxide + Water 38. Write the equation for photosynthesis. Sunlight + Water + Carbon Dioxide Glucose + Oxygen 39. How are photosynthesis and respiration related?

6 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are in a cycle. The materials needed for photosynthesis (Water and carbon dioxide) are the materials given off by respiration; the materials needed for respiration (glucose and oxygen) are the materials given off by photosynthesis. 40. Why would a muscle or yeast cell need to do fermentation? There is no oxygen present, but the cell needs energy. 41. Besides osmosis and diffusion, what are 2 other ways that cells can move materials in and out of the cell? Cells could use energy during active transport to move particles against the norm (moving from low to high) or to move molecule that are a little too big. The cell can use endocytosis and exocytosis to move particles in and out of the cell. 42. Identify the functions of the following parts of a microscope: a. Course Adjustment: Use first to focus. Moves the stage a lot. b. Eyepiece: Look here; magnifies 10x c. Scanning Objective :Use first to find object. Magnifies object 4x (Total Magnification 40x) d. Diaphragm: Controls the amount light passing through the stage. e. Fine Adjustment: Use second to focus. Moves the stage a little.

7 43. Look at the following diagrams. Draw arrows to indicate where molecules are moving. Which molecules are moving? Iodine Which molecule can not move? Starch Iodine & Water This is an example of Diffusion. Starch & Water Which molecules are moving? _Iodine Draw arrows to indicate where molecules are moving. Iodine This is an example of Equilibrium Iodine

8 Which molecules are moving? _Water Draw arrows to indicate where molecules are moving. Sugar & Water This is an example of Osmosis. Water Read the following scenario and answer the questions that follow. Nick s mother packed him sliced apples in his lunch everyday. Nick was disappointed when he would open his lunch and find brown, mushy apples. Nick decided that he would try to find a way to keep his sliced apples crisp and white. He packed apple slices 3 different ways and recorded his observations in the chart below. Appearance Texture Apple Slices brown Soft and mushy Apple slice & ¼ cup sugar water white crisp Apple slice & ¼ cup sugar white soft and mushy 44. What was the control in the experiment? The plain apple slices are the control. 45. What was the independent variable? ( I changed) The independent variable is the sugar and water that was added to the apple slices.

9 46. What was the dependent variable? (how are you going to know a change happened?) The dependent variable is the observed appearance and texture of the apples. 47. Using your knowledge of diffusion, explain why the apple slice was crisp when stored in sugar water but soft when stored in sugar. The water in the apple is in equilibrium with the sugar water. There is not much movement of water in or out so the apple stays crisp. The apple placed in sugar will lose water because the apple has a higher concentration of water than the plain sugar. Water leaving the apple will cause it to become soft.

10 48. Label the diagram. ER Cell Membrane DNA Nucleolus Chloroplast Cell Wall Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes Vacuole Mitochondria Golgi Complex x

11 49. Scientist Discovery Hooke Schleiden Schwann Virchow Discovered cells. All plants are made of cells All animals are made of cells All cells come from other cells. 50. Identify 2 examples of stimulus/response: a. stimulus: Bright light b. response: Pupils get smaller a. stimulus: Hot temperature b. response: You begin to sweat 51. What is metabolism? The chemical reactions that keep you alive (cellular respiration, etc.) 49. Scientist Discovery Hooke Schleiden Schwann

12 Virchow 50. Identify 2 examples of stimulus/response: a. stimulus: b. response: a. stimulus: b. response: 51. What is metabolism?

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