# A Note on Approximating. the Normal Distribution Function

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Applid Mathmatical Scincs, Vol, 00, no 9, A Not on Approimating th Normal Distribution Function K M Aludaat and M T Alodat Dpartmnt of Statistics Yarmouk Univrsity, Jordan and Abstract In this papr, w propos a on-trm-to-calculat approimation to th normal cumulativ distribution function Our approimation has a maimum absolut rror of W compar our approimation to th act on Kywords: Cumulativ distribution function, normal distribution Introduction Lt X b a standard normal random variabl, i, a random variabl with th following probability dnsity function f ( ), - < < Th cumulativ distribution function of th standard normal is givn by t Φ( ) dt () Th last intgral has no closd form Most basic statistical books giv th valus of this intgral for diffrnt valus of in a tabl calld th standard normal tabl From th this tabl w can also find th valu of whn Φ () is known Svral authors gav approimations for by polynomials (Chokri, 003; Johnson, 994; Baily, 9; Polya, 945) Ths approimations giv quit high accuracy, but computr programs ar ndd to obtain thir valus and thy hav a maimum absolut rror of mor than 003 But only th Polya's approimation

2 46 K M Aludaat and M T Alodat Φ ( ) 05( + ) has on-trm-to-calculat whil th othrs nd mor than on trm Thy ar rviwd in Johnson t al (994) as follows: Φ( ) 05( a + a + a3 + a4 + a5 + a6 ), whr a , a , a , a , a , a ( ) ( ) / Φ p( ), 5 5 p(y) 3 Φ 3( ), y 079( ) + p(y) (3 + 35) Φ4( ) 05p 703/ + 65 All ths approimations ar good but thy nd computr program to b obtaind In addition thir invrs can not b obtaind asily In this short not, w propos nw approimations for Φ () and it's invrs W can also find it's maimum absolut rror Th approimation Sinc Φ () is symmtric about zro, it is sufficint to approimat t 0 dt only for all valus of > 0 According to Johnson t al (994) th Ploya's approimation rprsnts an uppr bound for Φ (), i, Φ( ) 05 + If w can find a sharpr uppr bound on Φ (), thn w can improv th Polya's approimation Sinc implis that, thn So th trm

3 Normal distribution function is closr to Φ () than 05 + So w propos th following approimation for Φ () : Φ 5( ) Th invrs cumulativ distribution function is approimatd by log( ( p 05) ), whr p Φ() Our approimation has a maimum absolut rror of To prov this, w nd to study th diffrnc btwn th Φ () and So w dfin for > 0, a function g () as follows t dt 05 g( ) 0 Th first drivativ of g () is g ( ) W usd th Mathmatica Softwar to find th roots of th first drivativ, i, th roots of g ( ) 0 W got th following thr roots 0, and Tsting th drivativ for th sign lads to th following facts: g () is incrasing in th intrval [0, ] [ , [ and g () is dcrasing in [ , ] So g () has th two absolut trm valus and So th absolut maimum rror is

4 4 K M Aludaat and M T Alodat 3 Comparison In this sction, w compar th act valu of Φ () with its approimatd on For positiv valus of, Figur shows th valus of Φ( ) 5 and its approimation against > 0 W s from th Figur that Φ( ) 5 is vry clos to its approimation, which mans that our approimation is vry accurat Tabl Comparison btwn Φ () and its approimations Φ () Φ ( ) Φ ( ) Φ ( ) Φ ( ) Φ ( ) From Tabl w s that our approimation is good Th bst approimation is Φ 3( ), but computing its invrs rquirs computr programs, whil th invrs of our approimation nds simpl algbraic calculations W not that th approimation Φ ( ) is valid only for Figur Th act valu of Φ() -05 (dottd) and its approimation (smooth)

5 Normal distribution function 49 4 Conclusion In this papr, w proposd an approimation to th cumulativ distribution function of th standard normal distribution Our approimation is on-trm-to calculat and is bttr than th Polya's approimation Numrical comparison shows that our approimation is vry accurat Morovr, it dos not rquir computr programs to calculat both cumulativ distribution function and its invrs Acknowldgmnts This rsarch has bn supportd by a grant from Yarmouk Univrsity" Rfrncs [] Baily, B J R (9) Altrnativs to hasting's approimation to th invrs of th normal cumulativ distribution function Applid statistics, 30, (3) [] Chokri (003) A short not on th numrical approimation of th standard normal cumulativ distribution and its invrs Ral 03-T-7, onlin manuscript [3] Johnson, N I, Kotz, S and Balakrishnan, N (994) Continuous univariat distributions John wily & sons [4] LBouf, C, Gugand, J, Roqu, J L and Landry, P (97) Probabilits Ellipss [5] Polya, G (945) Rmarks on computing th probability intgral in on and two dimnsions Procding of th first Brkly symposium on mathmatical statistics and probability, 63-7 [6] Rnyi, A (970) Probability thory North Holland Rcivd: August, 007

### Sharp bounds for Sándor mean in terms of arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means

Qian t al. Journal of Inqualitis and Applications (015) 015:1 DOI 10.1186/s1660-015-0741-1 R E S E A R C H Opn Accss Sharp bounds for Sándor man in trms of arithmtic, gomtric and harmonic mans Wi-Mao Qian

### Gold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis

Intrnational Journal of Dvlopmnt and Sustainability Onlin ISSN: 268-8662 www.isdsnt.com/ijds Volum Numbr, Jun 202, Pag -7 ISDS Articl ID: IJDS20300 Gold vrsus stock invstmnt: An conomtric analysis Martin

### SPREAD OPTION VALUATION AND THE FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM

RESEARCH PAPERS IN MANAGEMENT STUDIES SPREAD OPTION VALUATION AND THE FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM M.A.H. Dmpstr & S.S.G. Hong WP 26/2000 Th Judg Institut of Managmnt Trumpington Strt Cambridg CB2 1AG Ths paprs

### (Analytic Formula for the European Normal Black Scholes Formula)

(Analytic Formula for th Europan Normal Black Schols Formula) by Kazuhiro Iwasawa Dcmbr 2, 2001 In this short summary papr, a brif summary of Black Schols typ formula for Normal modl will b givn. Usually

### AP Calculus AB 2008 Scoring Guidelines

AP Calculus AB 8 Scoring Guidlins Th Collg Board: Conncting Studnts to Collg Succss Th Collg Board is a not-for-profit mmbrship association whos mission is to connct studnts to collg succss and opportunity.

### FACULTY SALARIES FALL 2004. NKU CUPA Data Compared To Published National Data

FACULTY SALARIES FALL 2004 NKU CUPA Data Compard To Publishd National Data May 2005 Fall 2004 NKU Faculty Salaris Compard To Fall 2004 Publishd CUPA Data In th fall 2004 Northrn Kntucky Univrsity was among

### Upper Bounding the Price of Anarchy in Atomic Splittable Selfish Routing

Uppr Bounding th Pric of Anarchy in Atomic Splittabl Slfish Routing Kamyar Khodamoradi 1, Mhrdad Mahdavi, and Mohammad Ghodsi 3 1 Sharif Univrsity of Tchnology, Thran, Iran, khodamoradi@c.sharif.du Sharif

### Mathematics. Mathematics 3. hsn.uk.net. Higher HSN23000

hsn uknt Highr Mathmatics UNIT Mathmatics HSN000 This documnt was producd spcially for th HSNuknt wbsit, and w rquir that any copis or drivativ works attribut th work to Highr Still Nots For mor dtails

### The example is taken from Sect. 1.2 of Vol. 1 of the CPN book.

Rsourc Allocation Abstract This is a small toy xampl which is wll-suitd as a first introduction to Cnts. Th CN modl is dscribd in grat dtail, xplaining th basic concpts of C-nts. Hnc, it can b rad by popl

### CPU. Rasterization. Per Vertex Operations & Primitive Assembly. Polynomial Evaluator. Frame Buffer. Per Fragment. Display List.

Elmntary Rndring Elmntary rastr algorithms for fast rndring Gomtric Primitivs Lin procssing Polygon procssing Managing OpnGL Stat OpnGL uffrs OpnGL Gomtric Primitivs ll gomtric primitivs ar spcifid by

### ICES REPORT 15-01. January 2015. The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas 78712

ICES REPORT 15-01 January 2015 A locking-fr modl for Rissnr-Mindlin plats: Analysis and isogomtric implmntation via NURBS and triangular NURPS by L. Birao da Viga, T.J.R. Hughs, J. Kindl, C. Lovadina,

### Basis risk. When speaking about forward or futures contracts, basis risk is the market

Basis risk Whn spaking about forward or futurs contracts, basis risk is th markt risk mismatch btwn a position in th spot asst and th corrsponding futurs contract. Mor broadly spaking, basis risk (also

### An Broad outline of Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Shaifali Shrivastava 1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering AITR, Indore

Intrnational Journal of mrging Tchnology and dvancd nginring Wbsit: www.ijta.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volum 2, Issu 4, pril 2012) n road outlin of Rdundant rray of Inxpnsiv isks Shaifali Shrivastava 1 partmnt

### An Adaptive Clustering MAP Algorithm to Filter Speckle in Multilook SAR Images

An Adaptiv Clustring MAP Algorithm to Filtr Spckl in Multilook SAR Imags FÁTIMA N. S. MEDEIROS 1,3 NELSON D. A. MASCARENHAS LUCIANO DA F. COSTA 1 1 Cybrntic Vision Group IFSC -Univrsity of São Paulo Caia

### Financial Mathematics

Financial Mathatics A ractical Guid for Actuaris and othr Businss rofssionals B Chris Ruckan, FSA & Jo Francis, FSA, CFA ublishd b B rofssional Education Solutions to practic qustions Chaptr 7 Solution

### Econ 371: Answer Key for Problem Set 1 (Chapter 12-13)

con 37: Answr Ky for Problm St (Chaptr 2-3) Instructor: Kanda Naknoi Sptmbr 4, 2005. (2 points) Is it possibl for a country to hav a currnt account dficit at th sam tim and has a surplus in its balanc

### Cloud and Big Data Summer School, Stockholm, Aug., 2015 Jeffrey D. Ullman

Cloud and Big Data Summr Scool, Stockolm, Aug., 2015 Jffry D. Ullman Givn a st of points, wit a notion of distanc btwn points, group t points into som numbr of clustrs, so tat mmbrs of a clustr ar clos

### Analyzing the Economic Efficiency of ebaylike Online Reputation Reporting Mechanisms

A rsarch and ducation initiativ at th MIT Sloan School of Managmnt Analyzing th Economic Efficincy of Baylik Onlin Rputation Rporting Mchanisms Papr Chrysanthos Dllarocas July For mor information, plas

### Traffic Flow Analysis (2)

Traffic Flow Analysis () Statistical Proprtis. Flow rat distributions. Hadway distributions. Spd distributions by Dr. Gang-Ln Chang, Profssor Dirctor of Traffic safty and Oprations Lab. Univrsity of Maryland,

### Constraint-Based Analysis of Gene Deletion in a Metabolic Network

Constraint-Basd Analysis of Gn Dltion in a Mtabolic Ntwork Abdlhalim Larhlimi and Alxandr Bockmayr DFG-Rsarch Cntr Mathon, FB Mathmatik und Informatik, Fri Univrsität Brlin, Arnimall, 3, 14195 Brlin, Grmany

### Incomplete 2-Port Vector Network Analyzer Calibration Methods

Incomplt -Port Vctor Ntwork nalyzr Calibration Mthods. Hnz, N. Tmpon, G. Monastrios, H. ilva 4 RF Mtrology Laboratory Instituto Nacional d Tcnología Industrial (INTI) Bunos irs, rgntina ahnz@inti.gov.ar

### Expert-Mediated Search

Exprt-Mdiatd Sarch Mnal Chhabra Rnsslar Polytchnic Inst. Dpt. of Computr Scinc Troy, NY, USA chhabm@cs.rpi.du Sanmay Das Rnsslar Polytchnic Inst. Dpt. of Computr Scinc Troy, NY, USA sanmay@cs.rpi.du David

### METHODS FOR HANDLING TIED EVENTS IN THE COX PROPORTIONAL HAZARD MODEL

STUDIA OECONOMICA POSNANIENSIA 204, vol. 2, no. 2 (263 Jadwiga Borucka Warsaw School of Economics, Institut of Statistics and Dmography, Evnt History and Multilvl Analysis Unit jadwiga.borucka@gmail.com

### Rural and Remote Broadband Access: Issues and Solutions in Australia

Rural and Rmot Broadband Accss: Issus and Solutions in Australia Dr Tony Warrn Group Managr Rgulatory Stratgy Tlstra Corp Pag 1 Tlstra in confidnc Ovrviw Australia s gographical siz and population dnsity

### On the moments of the aggregate discounted claims with dependence introduced by a FGM copula

On th momnts of th aggrgat discountd claims with dpndnc introducd by a FGM copula - Mathiu BARGES Univrsité Lyon, Laboratoir SAF, Univrsité Laval - Hélèn COSSETTE Ecol Actuariat, Univrsité Laval, Québc,

### QUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN

QUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN Th rgrssion modls studid in prvious classs assum that th rspons variabl is quantitativ. Oftn, howvr, w wish to study social procsss that lad to two diffrnt outcoms.

### Policies for Simultaneous Estimation and Optimization

Policis for Simultanous Estimation and Optimization Migul Sousa Lobo Stphn Boyd Abstract Policis for th joint idntification and control of uncrtain systms ar prsntd h discussion focuss on th cas of a multipl

### Category 7: Employee Commuting

7 Catgory 7: Employ Commuting Catgory dscription This catgory includs missions from th transportation of mploys 4 btwn thir homs and thir worksits. Emissions from mploy commuting may aris from: Automobil

### Projections - 3D Viewing. Overview Lecture 4. Projection - 3D viewing. Projections. Projections Parallel Perspective

Ovrviw Lctur 4 Projctions - 3D Viwing Projctions Paralll Prspctiv 3D Viw Volum 3D Viwing Transformation Camra Modl - Assignmnt 2 OFF fils 3D mor compl than 2D On mor dimnsion Displa dvic still 2D Analog

### EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS

25 Vol. 3 () January-March, pp.37-5/tripathi EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS *Shilpa Tripathi Dpartmnt of Chmical Enginring, Indor Institut

### 5 2 index. e e. Prime numbers. Prime factors and factor trees. Powers. worked example 10. base. power

Prim numbrs W giv spcial nams to numbrs dpnding on how many factors thy hav. A prim numbr has xactly two factors: itslf and 1. A composit numbr has mor than two factors. 1 is a spcial numbr nithr prim

### Sci.Int.(Lahore),26(1),131-138,2014 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 131

Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1),131-138,214 ISSN 113-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 131 REQUIREMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN AGILE OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT (RCMAOD) 1 Suhail Kazi, 2 Muhammad Salman Bashir, 3 Muhammad Munwar Iqbal,

### Development of Financial Management Reporting in MPLS

1 Dvlopmnt of Financial Managmnt Rporting in MPLS 1. Aim Our currnt financial rports ar structurd to dlivr an ovrall financial pictur of th dpartmnt in it s ntirty, and thr is no attmpt to provid ithr

### Optimization design of structures subjected to transient loads using first and second derivatives of dynamic displacement and stress

Shock and Vibration 9 (202) 445 46 445 DOI 0.3233/SAV-202-0685 IOS Prss Optimization dsign of structurs subjctd to transint loads using first and scond drivativs of dynamic displacmnt and strss Qimao Liu

### Estimating Powers with Base Close to Unity and Large Exponents

Divulgacions Mamáicas Vol. 3 No. 2005), pp. 2 34 Esimaing Powrs wih Bas Clos o Uniy and Larg Exponns Esimacón d Poncias con Bas Crcana a la Unidad y Grands Exponns Vio Lampr Vio.Lampr@fgg.uni-lj.si) FGG,

### Enforcing Fine-grained Authorization Policies for Java Mobile Agents

Enforcing Fin-graind Authorization Policis for Java Mobil Agnts Giovanni Russllo Changyu Dong Narankr Dulay Dpartmnt of Computing Imprial Collg London South Knsington London, SW7 2AZ, UK {g.russllo, changyu.dong,

### Keywords Cloud Computing, Service level agreement, cloud provider, business level policies, performance objectives.

Volum 3, Issu 6, Jun 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X Intrnational Journal of Advancd Rsarch in Computr Scinc and Softwar Enginring Rsarch Papr Availabl onlin at: wwwijarcsscom Dynamic Ranking and Slction of Cloud

### Hardware Modules of the RSA Algorithm

SERBIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. 11, No. 1, Fbruary 2014, 121-131 UDC: 004.3`142:621.394.14 DOI: 10.2298/SJEE140114011S Hardwar Moduls of th RSA Algorithm Vlibor Škobić 1, Branko Dokić 1,

### 1754 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 6, NO. 5, MAY 2007

1754 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 6, NO. 5, MAY 007 On th Fasibility of Distributd Bamforming in Wirlss Ntworks R. Mudumbai, Studnt Mmbr, IEEE, G. Barriac, Mmbr, IEEE, and U. Madhow,

### Entity-Relationship Model

Entity-Rlationship Modl Kuang-hua Chn Dpartmnt of Library and Information Scinc National Taiwan Univrsity A Company Databas Kps track of a company s mploys, dpartmnts and projcts Aftr th rquirmnts collction

### Journal of Engineering and Natural Sciences Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi

Journal of Enginring and Natural Scincs Mühndisli v Fn Bilimlri Drgisi Sigma 4/ Invitd Rviw Par OPTIMAL DESIGN OF NONLINEAR MAGNETIC SYSTEMS USING FINITE ELEMENTS Lvnt OVACIK * Istanbul Tchnical Univrsity,

### Job shop scheduling with unit processing times

Job shop schduling with unit procssing tims Nikhil Bansal Tracy Kimbrl Maxim Sviridnko Abstract W considr randomizd algorithms for th prmptiv job shop problm, or quivalntly, th cas in which all oprations

### Taiwan Stock Forecasting with the Genetic Programming

Procings of th 2011 Confrnc on Tchnologis an Applications of Artificial Intllignc (TAAI 2011) Taiwan Stock Forcasting with th Gntic Programming Siao-Ming Jhou, Chang-Biau Yang an Hung-Hsin Chn Dpartmnt

### ME 612 Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity. 6. Strain

Mtal Forming and Thory of Plasticity -mail: azsnalp@gyt.du.tr Makin Mühndisliği Bölümü Gbz Yüksk Tknoloji Enstitüsü 6.1. Uniaxial Strain Figur 6.1 Dfinition of th uniaxial strain (a) Tnsil and (b) Comprssiv.

### Bilingual Practices in Higher Education in Northern Europe:

r Bilual Practics in Highr Education in Northrn Europ: r A cas for trminoly plann? - Anna Kristina Hultgrn Cntr for Intrnationalisation and Paralll Languag Us Univrsity of Copnhagn r Outlin r udn n strudn,

### Real-Time Evaluation of Email Campaign Performance

Singapor Managmnt Univrsity Institutional Knowldg at Singapor Managmnt Univrsity Rsarch Collction L Kong Chian School Of Businss L Kong Chian School of Businss 10-2008 Ral-Tim Evaluation of Email Campaign

### International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR) (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Intrnational Association of Scintific Innovation and Rsarch (IASIR) (An Association Unifing th Scincs, Enginring, and Applid Rsarch) ISSN (Print): 79-000 ISSN (Onlin): 79-009 Intrnational Journal of Enginring,

### Performance Evaluation

Prformanc Evaluation ( ) Contnts lists availabl at ScincDirct Prformanc Evaluation journal hompag: www.lsvir.com/locat/pva Modling Bay-lik rputation systms: Analysis, charactrization and insuranc mchanism

### An International Journal of the Polish Statistical Association

STATISTICS IN TRANSITION nw sris An Intrnational Journal of th Polish Statistical Association CONTENTS From th Editor... Submission information for authors... 5 Sampling mthods and stimation CIEPIELA P.,

### union scholars program APPLICATION DEADLINE: FEBRUARY 28 YOU CAN CHANGE THE WORLD... AND EARN MONEY FOR COLLEGE AT THE SAME TIME!

union scholars YOU CAN CHANGE THE WORLD... program AND EARN MONEY FOR COLLEGE AT THE SAME TIME! AFSCME Unitd Ngro Collg Fund Harvard Univrsity Labor and Worklif Program APPLICATION DEADLINE: FEBRUARY 28

### Research Progress in Acoustical Application to Petroleum Logging and Seismic Exploration

Snd Ordrs of Rprints at rprints@bnthamscinc.nt Th Opn Acoustics Journal 23 6 - Opn Accss Rsarch Progrss in Acoustical Application to Ptrolum Logging and Sismic Exploration Lin Fa * Li Wang Yuan Zhao 2

### Noise Power Ratio (NPR) A 65-Year Old Telephone System Specification Finds New Life in Modern Wireless Applications.

TUTORIL ois Powr Ratio (PR) 65-Yar Old Tlphon Systm Spcification Finds w Lif in Modrn Wirlss pplications ITRODUTIO by Walt Kstr Th concpt of ois Powr Ratio (PR) has bn around sinc th arly days of frquncy

### Abstract. Introduction. Statistical Approach for Analyzing Cell Phone Handoff Behavior. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2009

Volum 3, Issu 1, 29 Statistical Approach for Analyzing Cll Phon Handoff Bhavior Shalini Saxna, Florida Atlantic Univrsity, Boca Raton, FL, shalinisaxna1@gmail.com Sad A. Rajput, Farquhar Collg of Arts

### Vector Network Analyzer

Cours on Microwav Masurmnts Vctor Ntwork Analyzr Prof. Luca Prrgrini Dpt. of Elctrical, Computr and Biomdical Enginring Univrsity of Pavia -mail: luca.prrgrini@unipv.it wb: microwav.unipv.it Microwav Masurmnts

### A Theoretical Model of Public Response to the Homeland Security Advisory System

A Thortical Modl of Public Rspons to th Homland Scurity Advisory Systm Amy (Wnxuan) Ding Dpartmnt of Information and Dcision Scincs Univrsity of Illinois Chicago, IL 60607 wxding@uicdu Using a diffrntial

### The Neolithic transition, a major episode in human history, is

Synthsis btwn dmic and cultural diffusion in th Nolithic transition in Europ Joaquim Fort 1 Complx Systms Laboratory, Dpartmnt of hysics, Univrsity of Girona, ES-1771 Girona, Catalonia, Spain Editd by

### The price of liquidity in constant leverage strategies. Marcos Escobar, Andreas Kiechle, Luis Seco and Rudi Zagst

RACSAM Rv. R. Acad. Cin. Sri A. Mat. VO. 103 2, 2009, pp. 373 385 Matmática Aplicada / Applid Mathmatics Th pric of liquidity in constant lvrag stratgis Marcos Escobar, Andras Kichl, uis Sco and Rudi Zagst

### Electronic Commerce. and. Competitive First-Degree Price Discrimination

Elctronic Commrc and Comptitiv First-Dgr Pric Discrimination David Ulph* and Nir Vulkan ** Fbruary 000 * ESRC Cntr for Economic arning and Social Evolution (ESE), Dpartmnt of Economics, Univrsity Collg

### The Constrained Ski-Rental Problem and its Application to Online Cloud Cost Optimization

3 Procdings IEEE INFOCOM Th Constraind Ski-Rntal Problm and its Application to Onlin Cloud Cost Optimization Ali Khanafr, Murali Kodialam, and Krishna P. N. Puttaswam Coordinatd Scinc Laborator, Univrsit

### Data warehouse on Manpower Employment for Decision Support System

Data warhous on Manpowr Employmnt for Dcision Support Systm Amro F. ALASTA, and Muftah A. Enaba Abstract Sinc th us of computrs in businss world, data collction has bcom on of th most important issus du

### In the previous two chapters, we clarified what it means for a problem to be decidable or undecidable.

Chaptr 7 Computational Complxity 7.1 Th Class P In th prvious two chaptrs, w clarifid what it mans for a problm to b dcidabl or undcidabl. In principl, if a problm is dcidabl, thn thr is an algorithm (i..,

### Key Management System Framework for Cloud Storage Singa Suparman, Eng Pin Kwang Temasek Polytechnic {singas,engpk}@tp.edu.sg

Ky Managmnt Systm Framwork for Cloud Storag Singa Suparman, Eng Pin Kwang Tmask Polytchnic {singas,ngpk}@tp.du.sg Abstract In cloud storag, data ar oftn movd from on cloud storag srvic to anothr. Mor frquntly

### Problem Set 6 Solutions

6.04/18.06J Mathmatics for Computr Scic March 15, 005 Srii Dvadas ad Eric Lhma Problm St 6 Solutios Du: Moday, March 8 at 9 PM Problm 1. Sammy th Shar is a fiacial srvic providr who offrs loas o th followig

### Lecture notes: 160B revised 9/28/06 Lecture 1: Exchange Rates and the Foreign Exchange Market FT chapter 13

Lctur nots: 160B rvisd 9/28/06 Lctur 1: xchang Rats and th Forign xchang Markt FT chaptr 13 Topics: xchang Rats Forign xchang markt Asst approach to xchang rats Intrst Rat Parity Conditions 1) Dfinitions

### June 2012. Enprise Rent. Enprise 1.1.6. Author: Document Version: Product: Product Version: SAP Version: 8.81.100 8.8

Jun 22 Enpris Rnt Author: Documnt Vrsion: Product: Product Vrsion: SAP Vrsion: Enpris Enpris Rnt 88 88 Enpris Rnt 22 Enpris Solutions All rights rsrvd No parts of this work may b rproducd in any form or

### Time to Event Tutorial. Outline. How Not to Understand Time to Event

Holford & Lavill http://www.pag-mting.org/dfault.asp?abstract=8 Rvision Errors corrctd slid 8 Tim to Evnt Tutorial Nick Holford Dpt Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology Univrsity of Auckland, Nw Zaland

### Theoretical approach to algorithm for metrological comparison of two photothermal methods for measuring of the properties of materials

Rvista Invstigación Cintífica, ol. 4, No. 3, Nuva época, sptimbr dicimbr 8, IN 187 8196 Thortical approach to algorithm for mtrological comparison of two photothrmal mthods for masuring of th proprtis

### MAXIMAL CHAINS IN THE TURING DEGREES

MAXIMAL CHAINS IN THE TURING DEGREES C. T. CHONG AND LIANG YU Abstract. W study th problm of xistnc of maximal chains in th Turing dgrs. W show that:. ZF + DC+ Thr xists no maximal chain in th Turing dgrs

### SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND APPLIED CRYPTOGRAPHY IN CLOUD COMPUTING AND BIG DATA

Intrnational Journal on Tchnical and Physical Problms of Enginring (IJTPE) Publishd by Intrnational Organization of IOTPE ISSN 077-358 IJTPE Journal www.iotp.com ijtp@iotp.com Sptmbr 015 Issu 4 Volum 7

### AC Circuits Three-Phase Circuits

AC Circuits Thr-Phs Circuits Contnts Wht is Thr-Phs Circuit? Blnc Thr-Phs oltgs Blnc Thr-Phs Connction Powr in Blncd Systm Unblncd Thr-Phs Systms Aliction Rsidntil Wiring Sinusoidl voltg sourcs A siml

### Testing the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum within the Solar System

Tsting th gravitational proprtis of th quantum vacuum within th Solar Systm Dragan Hajdukovic To cit this vrsion: Dragan Hajdukovic. Tsting th gravitational proprtis of th quantum vacuum within th Solar

### Theoretical aspects of investment demand for gold

Victor Sazonov (Russia), Dmitry Nikolav (Russia) Thortical aspcts of invstmnt dmand for gold Abstract Th main objctiv of this articl is construction of a thortical modl of invstmnt in gold. Our modl is

### Remember you can apply online. It s quick and easy. Go to www.gov.uk/advancedlearningloans. Title. Forename(s) Surname. Sex. Male Date of birth D

24+ Advancd Larning Loan Application form Rmmbr you can apply onlin. It s quick and asy. Go to www.gov.uk/advancdlarningloans About this form Complt this form if: you r studying an ligibl cours at an approvd

### Whole Systems Approach to CO 2 Capture, Transport and Storage

Whol Systms Approach to CO 2 Captur, Transport and Storag N. Mac Dowll, A. Alhajaj, N. Elahi, Y. Zhao, N. Samsatli and N. Shah UKCCS Mting, July 14th 2011, Nottingham, UK Ovrviw 1 Introduction 2 3 4 Powr

### Online Price Competition within and between Heterogeneous Retailer Groups

Onlin Pric Comptition within and btwn Htrognous Rtailr Groups Cnk Kocas Dpartmnt of Markting and Supply Chain Managmnt, Michigan Stat Univrsity kocas@msu.du Abstract This study prsnts a modl of pric comptition

### An IAC Approach for Detecting Profile Cloning in Online Social Networks

An IAC Approach for Dtcting Profil Cloning in Onlin Social Ntworks MortzaYousfi Kharaji 1 and FatmhSalhi Rizi 2 1 Dptartmnt of Computr and Information Tchnology Enginring,Mazandaran of Scinc and Tchnology,Babol,

### Quantum Graphs I. Some Basic Structures

Quantum Graphs I. Som Basic Structurs Ptr Kuchmnt Dpartmnt of Mathmatics Txas A& M Univrsity Collg Station, TX, USA 1 Introduction W us th nam quantum graph for a graph considrd as a on-dimnsional singular

### Architecture of the proposed standard

Architctur of th proposd standard Introduction Th goal of th nw standardisation projct is th dvlopmnt of a standard dscribing building srvics (.g.hvac) product catalogus basd on th xprincs mad with th

### ONLINE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

G.J. C.M.P., Vol. 2(4):98-17 July-August, 213 ISSN: 2319 7285 ONLINE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY Namita Bhandari* & Prti Kaushal** *Panjab Univrsity, Chandigarh, India **Chitkara Univrsity,

### Budget Optimization in Search-Based Advertising Auctions

Budgt Optimization in Sarch-Basd Advrtising Auctions ABSTRACT Jon Fldman Googl, Inc. Nw York, NY jonfld@googl.com Martin Pál Googl, Inc. Nw York, NY mpal@googl.com Intrnt sarch companis sll advrtismnt

### Simple and Effective Dynamic Provisioning for Power-Proportional Data Centers

Simpl and Effctiv Dynamic Provisioning for Powr-Proportional Data Cntrs Tan Lu, Minghua Chn, and Lachlan L. H. Andrw Abstract Enrgy consumption rprsnts a significant cost in data cntr opration. A larg

### TIME MANAGEMENT. 1 The Process for Effective Time Management 2 Barriers to Time Management 3 SMART Goals 4 The POWER Model e. Section 1.

Prsonal Dvlopmnt Track Sction 1 TIME MANAGEMENT Ky Points 1 Th Procss for Effctiv Tim Managmnt 2 Barrirs to Tim Managmnt 3 SMART Goals 4 Th POWER Modl In th Army, w spak of rsourcs in trms of th thr M

### Fraud, Investments and Liability Regimes in Payment. Platforms

Fraud, Invstmnts and Liability Rgims in Paymnt Platforms Anna Crti and Mariann Vrdir y ptmbr 25, 2011 Abstract In this papr, w discuss how fraud liability rgims impact th pric structur that is chosn by

### Planning and Managing Copper Cable Maintenance through Cost- Benefit Modeling

Planning and Managing Coppr Cabl Maintnanc through Cost- Bnfit Modling Jason W. Rup U S WEST Advancd Tchnologis Bouldr Ky Words: Maintnanc, Managmnt Stratgy, Rhabilitation, Cost-bnfit Analysis, Rliability

### Production Costing (Chapter 8 of W&W)

Production Costing (Chaptr 8 of W&W).0 Introduction Production costs rfr to th oprational costs associatd with producing lctric nrgy. Th most significant componnt of production costs ar th ful costs ncssary

### EVALUATING EFFICIENCY OF SERVICE SUPPLY CHAIN USING DEA (CASE STUDY: AIR AGENCY)

Indian Journal Fundamntal and Applid Lif Scincs ISSN: 22 64 (Onlin) An Opn Accss, Onlin Intrnational Journal Availabl at www.cibtch.org/sp.d/jls/20/0/jls.htm 20 Vol. (S), pp. 466-47/Shams and Ghafouripour

### Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in a Model With 2 States of the World

Advrs Slction and Moral Hazard in a Modl With 2 Stats of th World A modl of a risky situation with two discrt stats of th world has th advantag that it can b natly rprsntd using indiffrnc curv diagrams,

### The fitness value of information

Oikos 119: 219230, 2010 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.17781.x, # 2009 Th Authors. Journal compilation # 2009 Oikos Subjct Editor: Knnth Schmidt. Accptd 1 Sptmbr 2009 Th fitnss valu of information Matina

### TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION OF A THERMAL FLOW SENSOR BY USING TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION NETWORK. *Corresponding author: sima@tatiuc.edu.

National Confrnc on Postgraduat sarch (NCON-PG) 2009 st Octobr 2009, UMP Confrnc Hall, Malaysia Cntr for Graduat Studis, Univrsiti Malaysia Pahang Editors: M.M. Noor; M.M. ahman and K. Kadirgama EMPEAUE

### C H A P T E R 1 Writing Reports with SAS

C H A P T E R 1 Writing Rports with SAS Prsnting information in a way that s undrstood by th audinc is fundamntally important to anyon s job. Onc you collct your data and undrstand its structur, you nd

### Current and Resistance

Chaptr 6 Currnt and Rsistanc 6.1 Elctric Currnt...6-6.1.1 Currnt Dnsity...6-6. Ohm s Law...6-4 6.3 Elctrical Enrgy and Powr...6-7 6.4 Summary...6-8 6.5 Solvd Problms...6-9 6.5.1 Rsistivity of a Cabl...6-9

### Who uses our services? We have a growing customer base. with institutions all around the globe.

not taking xpr Srvic Guid 2013 / 2014 NTE i an affordabl option for audio to txt convrion. Our rvic includ not or dirct trancription rvic from prviouly rcordd audio fil. Our rvic appal pcially to tudnt

### Efficiency Losses from Overlapping Economic Instruments in European Carbon Emissions Regulation

iscussion Papr No. 06-018 Efficincy Losss from Ovrlapping Economic Instrumnts in Europan Carbon Emissions Rgulation Christoph Böhringr, Hnrik Koschl and Ulf Moslnr iscussion Papr No. 06-018 Efficincy Losss

### Logo Design/Development 1-on-1

Logo Dsign/Dvlopmnt 1-on-1 If your company is looking to mak an imprssion and grow in th marktplac, you ll nd a logo. Fortunatly, a good graphic dsignr can crat on for you. Whil th pric tags for thos famous

### Proceedings of the 6th WSEAS International Conference on Simulation, Modelling and Optimization, Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 2006 246

Procdings of th 6th WSEAS Intrnational Confrnc on Simulation, Modlling and Optimization, Lisbon, Portugal, Sptmbr 22-24, 2006 246 Larg dformation modling in soil-tillag tool intraction using advancd 3D

### Parallel and Distributed Programming. Performance Metrics

Paralll and Distributd Programming Prformanc! wo main goals to b achivd with th dsign of aralll alications ar:! Prformanc: th caacity to rduc th tim to solv th roblm whn th comuting rsourcs incras;! Scalability:

### STATEMENT OF INSOLVENCY PRACTICE 3.2

STATEMENT OF INSOLVENCY PRACTICE 3.2 COMPANY VOLUNTARY ARRANGEMENTS INTRODUCTION 1 A Company Voluntary Arrangmnt (CVA) is a statutory contract twn a company and its crditors undr which an insolvncy practitionr

### Essays on Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in Insurance Market

Gorgia Stat Univrsity ScholarWorks @ Gorgia Stat Univrsity Risk Managmnt and Insuranc Dissrtations Dpartmnt of Risk Managmnt and Insuranc 8--00 Essays on Advrs Slction and Moral Hazard in Insuranc Markt