Have Debit Cards Changed Thai Consumer Shopping Behavior?

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1 Intrnational Journal of Markting Studis Novmbr, 2009 Hav Dbit Cards Changd Thai Consumr Shopping Bhavior? Chtsada Noknoi Economics and Businss Administration Faculty, Thaksin Univrsity 140 Moo 4, Kanajanavanit Rd., Muang, Songkhla 90000, Thailand Tl: Sut Ngowsiri Economics and Businss Administration Faculty, Thaksin Univrsity 140 Moo 4, Kanajanavanit Rd., Muang, Songkhla 90000, Thailand Tl: Wannaporn Boripunt Economics and Businss Administration Faculty, Thaksin Univrsity 140 Moo 4, Kanajanavanit Rd., Muang, Songkhla 90000, Thailand Tl: Th arlir draft of this papr was prsntd at th 8th Intrnational Confrnc on Knowldg, Cultur and Chang in Organisations, August, 5-8, 2008, Cambridg Univrsity, Unitd Kingdom. It basd on th study of Bhavior and Quality Prciving on Using Dbit Card of th Consumrs in Songkhla Provinc that was financial supportd by Rsarch and Dvlopmnt Institut Thaksin Univrsity, Thailand. Abstract This rsarch aims to study th bhavior of using dbit cards and th quality prciving on using dbit cards of th consumrs in Songkhla Provinc, Thailand. Qustionnairs wr usd for data collction by purposiv sampling and qually distributd to 303 consumrs who hld at last 1 dbit card and usd it 3 months bfor th study. Th collctd data was analyzd using th dscriptiv statistics; frquncy and prcntag, and th infrntial statistics; Parson chi-squar at th.05 lvl of statistics significanc. This rsarch found that th dmographic charactrs of th consumrs wr fmal, btwn yars old, and hld bachlor dgr. Two-thirds of consumrs wr studnts, govrnmnt and company officrs. Mor than half of thm arnd 5,001 15,000 baht pr month. Th rsarch also found that th consumrs had only 1 dbit card and most of thm wr Visa typ. Most of thir dbit cards wr issud by Bangkok Bank. Thy ownd dbit card for 1-2 yars. Ratio of withdraw to paymnt is 40:60. Thy usd dbit card for withdrawing 2-3 tims a month and 1,001 3,000 baht ach tim. Thy usd dbit card for xpns 2-3 tims a month and 500 1,000 baht ach tim. Thy frquntly usd thir dbit card at dpartmnt stor and paid for thir infrastructurs. Dbit card mad a littl chang on thir xpns bhavior spcially in food and drink consumption. This rsarch also found that most of consumrs wll prcivd on th srvic quality in all dimnsion of tangibl, rliability, rsponsivnss, assuranc, and mpathy. This rsarch found that srvic markting mixs influncd on using dbit card bhavior ar dbit card, promotion, procss, physical vidncs, and productivity and quality control. Th rsarch also found that all srvic markting mix influncd on quality prciving on using dbit card. Th information from this rsarch is bnficial to st dbit card markting mix stratgy policy to stimulat consumr bhavior on using dbit card. Kywords: Dbit card, Shopping, Consumr bhavior, Quality prcption 151

2 Vol. 1, No. 2 Intrnational Journal of Markting Studis 1. Introduction Th progrss of information tchnology, communication, and th Intrnt systm has forcd th financial and banking systm to b globalizd. It is not convnint any mor to bring much mony for buying products and srvics. Banks play an important rol in managing mony transaction. Thy hav cratd many nw financial tools, such as ATM cards and crdit cards to incras th convninc and as of th conomic systm. Ths financial innovations support transactions and stimulat consumption. At th sam tim, card issurs mak incom from th fs (Managr, 2005). Bsids providing mor convninc and safty than cash, consumrs can us thir dbit cards to withdraw cash at th ATM. Incrasing dbit card us rducs th Thai govrnmnt s xpnss for producing banknots. Evn though dbit cards look lik crdit cards or ATM cards, thr ar diffrncs in thir function. Crdit cards man buy first-pay latr whil dbit cards man buy now-pay now. Whn using dbit card, it will dirctly connct to your account and will crdit th amount from your account to th vndor onc you buy a product or srvic (Foundation for Consumrs, 2007). A markt survy of dbit card using in Thailand found that dbit card holdrs incrasd 27 prcnt to 12 million cards at th nd of March, Howvr only 4.5 billion baht was spnt using dbit cards, 20 prcnt incras (Wkly Managr, 1996). Whil 95 prcnt of Thai popl usd dbit card for withdrawing th mony via ATM, only 5 prcnt usd dbit card for purchasing. Th main rasons ar th inadquat advantag consumrs prciv for using thir dbit cards and distrust in onlin paymnt systm. To chang consumr bhavior, banks must activly markt th advantags of dbit card us (BrandAg, 1995). With th incrasing of th numbr of dbit card holdrs but only small proportion using th card for purchasing including nw ways in paymnt such as mobil paymnt, commrcial bank must b focus on making consumrs undrstand how to us dbit card. Th objctiv of this rsarch is to study th consumr s using dbit card bhavior, th consumr s srvic quality prcption, and th srvic markting mix that rlat to bhavior and prcption of th consumr. Th rsarch will concntrat on th consumr in Songkhla Provinc, Thailand, who hld at last on dbit card and usd it thr months bfor th study. 2. Litratur Rviw 2.1 Consumr Bhavior Today s world undrstanding consumr bhavior and knowing customrs ar nvr simpl bcaus customrs may say on thing but do anothr. Th study of consumr bhavior nabls marktrs to undrstand and prdict consumr bhavior in th marktplac. It focuss on how individuals mak dcisions to spnd thir availabl rsourcs (tim, mony, ffort) on consumption-rlatd itms that includs what thy buy, why thy buy it, whn thy buy it, whr thy buy it, how oftn thy buy it, and how oftn thy us it (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2000). Kotlr (2000) statd that consumr bhavior studis how individuals, groups, and organizations slct, buy, us, and dispos of goods, srvics, idas, or xprincs to satisfy thir nds and dsirs. Whil, Engl, Blackwll & Miniard (1995) dfind consumr bhavior as thos activitis dirctly involvd in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and srvics, including th dcision procsss th prcd and follow ths actions. Consumr bhavior is influncd by four factors: cultural (cultur, subcultur, and social class); social (rfrnc groups, family, and social rols and statuss); prsonal (ag, stag in th lif cycl, occupation, conomic circumstancs, lifstyl, prsonality, and slf-concpt); and psychological (motivation, prcption, larning, blifs, and attituds) (Zithaml, 1988). Rsarch into all ths factors can provid clus as to how to rach and srv consumrs mor ffctivly. To undrstand how consumrs actually mak thir buying dcisions, marktrs must idntify who maks and has input into th buying dcision; popl can b initiators, influncrs, dcidrs, buyrs, or usrs and diffrnt markting campaigns might b targtd to ach typ of prson. 2.2 Srvic A srvic is any act or prformanc that on party can offr to anothr that is ssntially intangibl and dos not rsult in th ownrship of anything (Kotlr, 2000). Its production may or may not b tid to a physical product. Srvics hav four major charactristics that gratly affct th dsign of markting program: intangibl, insparabl, variabl, and prishabl (Kotlr, 2000). Each charactristic poss challngs and rquirs crtain stratgis. Marktrs must find ways to giv tangibility to intangibls; to incras th productivity of srvic providrs; to incras and standardiz th quality of th srvic providd; and to match th supply of srvics during pak and nonpak priods with markt dmand (Parasuraman, 2000). 152

3 Intrnational Journal of Markting Studis Novmbr, Srvic Quality Srvic marktrs frquntly complain about th difficulty of diffrntiating thir srvics (Kotlr, 2000). Consumrs oftn judg th quality of srvic on th basis of a varity of informational cus that thy associat with th srvic (Zithaml, Brry & Parasuraman, 1996). It is mor difficult for consumrs to valuat th quality of srvics than th quality of products (Woodsid & Taylor, 1978). This is tru bcaus of crtain distinctiv charactristics of srvics: Thy ar intangibl, thy ar variabl, thy ar prishabl, and thy ar simultanously producd and consumd. To ovrcom th fact that consumrs ar unabl to compar srvics sid-by-sid as thy do with compting products, consumrs rly on surrogat cus (i.., xtrinsic cus) to valuat srvic quality (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2000). Parasuraman, Zithaml & Brry (1985) formulatd a srvic-quality modl that highlights th main rquirmnts for dlivring high srvic quality. Th modl idntifis fiv gaps that caus unsuccssful dlivry: 1) Gap btwn consumr xpctation and managmnt prcption: Managmnt dos not always prciv corrctly what customr want. 2) Gap btwn managmnt prcption and srvic-quality spcification: Managmnt might corrctly prciv th customrs wants but not st a spcifid prformanc standard. 3) Gap btwn srvic-quality spcifications and srvic dlivry: Th prsonnl might b poorly traind, or incapabl or unwilling to mt th standard. Or thy may b hld to conflicting standards, such as taking tim to listn to customrs and srving thm fast. 4) Gap btwn srvic dlivry and xtrnal communications: Consumr xpctations ar affctd by statmnts mad by company rprsntativs and ads. 5) Gap btwn prcivd srvic and xpctd srvic: This gap occurs whn th consumr misprcivs th srvic quality. Brry & Parasuraman (1991) found fiv dtrminants of srvic quality. Ths ar prsntd in ordr of importanc. 1) Rliability: Th ability to prform th promisd srvic dpndably and accuratly. 2) Rsponsivnss: Th willingnss to hlp customrs and to provid prompt srvic. 3) Assuranc: Th knowldg and courtsy of mploys and thir ability to convy trust and confidnc 4) Empathy: Th provision of caring, individualizd attntion to customrs 5) Tangibls: Th apparanc of physical facilitis, quipmnts, prsonnl, and communication matrials. In accordanc with th litratur, th dvlopd concptual framwork is shown in Figur 1. Insrt Figur 1 hr In ordr to tst th influnt factors, dmographic charactristic and srvic markting mix, that ffct to th consumr bhavior and th srvic quality prcption, four hypothss wr tstd in this study. Thr wr: Hypothsis 1: Th rlationship btwn th dmographic charactristics and th dbit card using bhavior. Hypothsis 2: Th rlationship btwn th dmographic charactristics and th srvic quality prcption. Hypothsis 3: Th rlationship btwn th srvic markting mixs and th dbit card using bhavior. Hypothsis 4: Th rlationship btwn th srvic markting mixs and th srvic quality prcption. 3. Rsarch Mthodology Th population of this rsarch will concntrat on th consumr in Songkhla Provinc, Thailand, who hld at last on dbit card and usd it thr months bfor th study. Qustionnairs wr usd for data collction by purposiv sampling and qually distributd to 303 consumrs who hld at last 1 dbit card and usd it 3 months bfor th study. Th qustionnair for this rsarch was comprisd of thr sctions. Sction on containd itms on dmographics dtails of th rspondnt. Sction two containd th qustions rlatd to th consumr bhaviors. Sction thr containd th modifid SERVQUAL itms to masur consumr srvic prcptions. Th collctd data was analyzd using th dscriptiv statistics; frquncy and prcntag, and th infrntial statistics; Parson chi-squar at th 0.05 lvl of statistics significanc. In ordr to tst th rliability of th markting mixs and th SERVQUAL fiv dimnsions, Cronbach s alpha cofficint wr computd. Th rsult from tsting show that th Cronbach s alpha cofficint of both srvic markting mixs and srvic quality prcption wr high lvl which ar and rspctivly. 4. Rsults This rsarch found that th dmographic charactrs of th consumrs wr fmal (62.0%), btwn yars old (38.6%), and hld bachlor dgr (65.4%). Two-third of consumrs was studnts, govrnmnt and company officrs. 153

4 Vol. 1, No. 2 Intrnational Journal of Markting Studis Mor than half of thm arnd 5,001 15,000 baht pr month (52.8%). Th majority of consumrs had only 1 dbit card (71.9%) advisd by bank officr. Most of th card wr Visa typ (81.1%) and issud by Bangkok Bank (35.6%). Thy ownd dbit card for 1-2 yars (40.3%) and had th ratio of withdraw to paymnt for 40:60. Thy usd dbit card for withdrawing 2-3 tims a month (40.3%) and 1,001 3,000 baht ach tim (37.0%) and spnding 2-3 tims a month (39.2%) with 500 1,000 baht ach tim (34.0%). Thy frquntly usd thir dbit card at dpartmnt stor (64.4%) and paid for thir infrastructurs (22.9%). Dbit card mad a littl chang by incrasing thir xpns bhavior spcially in food and drink consumption (28.4%). Morovr, salsprson is th most influnc prson to th consumr for using th dbit card instad of cash in paymnt. For th first hypothsis tst rsult, focusd on th rlationship btwn th dmographic charactristics and th using dbit card bhaviors of th consumrs, th rsarch found that th consumr bhavior is dpndnt on dmographic charactristic spcially on occupation, incom, and marital status as shown in Tabl 1. Insrt Tabl 1 hr Th scond hypothsis tst rsult, focusd on th rlationship btwn th dmographic charactristics and srvic quality prcption of th consumrs, th rsarch found that srvic quality prcption of th consumrs is dpndnt on dmographic charactristic spcially on gndr, ag, ducation, occupation, and incom. Howvr consumr prcivd srvic quality appar to b indpndnt on marital status as shown in Tabl 2. Insrt Tabl 2 hr Th third hypothsis tst rsult, focusd on th rlationship btwn th srvic markting mixs and th using dbit card bhavior of th consumrs, th rsarch found that th consumr bhavior is dpndnt on product, plac, promotion, popl, procss, physical vidnc, and productivity and srvic quality. Howvr th bhavior is indpndnt on pric which is th annual f as shown in Tabl 3. Insrt Tabl 3 hr Th last hypothsis tst rsult, focusd on th rlationship btwn th srvic markting mixs and srvic quality prcption of th consumrs, th rsarch found that srvic quality prcption of th consumr is dpndnt on th srvic markting mixs as shown in Tabl 4. Insrt Tabl 4 hr 5. Discussion and Conclusion Th aim of this rsarch is to study th bhavior of using dbit card and th quality prciving on using dbit card of th consumr in Songkhla Provinc, Thailand. Th rsarch found that th dmographic charactrs of th consumrs wr fmal, btwn yars old, and hld bachlor dgr. Two-third of consumrs was studnts, govrnmnt and company officrs. By studying thir dmographic, this rsult can lad th issuing bank to pay th attntion or dfin stratgy to th right targt group and xpand th markt to th nw targt group such as mal. Th rsarch also found that mor than half of th rspondnt arnd 5,001 15,000 baht pr month. This will caus from th minimum incom for applying th crdit card is 15,000 baht. Thrfor, th consumr who has th incom mor than 15,000 baht will prfr to hav th crdit card than dbit card. For consumr bhavior, th rsarch found that most of th consumr had only on dbit card and usd it for spnding mor than withdrawing. This is th good signal as in th past th consumr usd th dbit card as ATM. Evn if thy usd dbit card for spnding in th sam frquncy as withdrawing but th amount is only 500 1,000 baht ach tim. Thy frquntly usd thir dbit card at dpartmnt stor and paid for thir infrastructur mor than spnding on product and srvic. Morovr, th dbit card mad a littl chang on thir xpns bhavior spcially on food and drink consumption. Th issuing back should b coordinat with mrchants to motivat th consumr to us dbit card mor on spnding. Morovr, th rsarch rsult shown that all aspcts of srvic markting mixs is ffct to thir prcption, th issuing bank should b incras th consumr quality prcption by using th appropriat srvic markting mixs. Rfrncs Brry, L. & Parasuraman, A. (1991). Markting Srvics: Compting Through Quality. Nw York: Th Fr Prss. BrandAg. (1995). Plastic Card: Th Progrss of Mony, Octobr, Engl, J. F., Blackwll, R.D., & Miniard, P.W. (1995). Consumr bhavior. (8 th d.). Chicago: th Drydn Prss. Foundation for Consumrs. (2007). Forcing by Bank to Hav Dbit Card. [Onlin] Availabl: &id=605&itmid=38 (Rtrivd from Fbruary 25, 2008). Kotlr, P. (2000). Markting managmnt. (10 th d.). Uppr Saddl Rivr, NJ: Prntic-Hall. 154

5 Intrnational Journal of Markting Studis Novmbr, 2009 Managr. (2005). Warning! Dbit Ownr Bwar of Losing, Octobr, 12. Parasuraman, A. (2000). Suprior Srvic and Markting Excllnc: Two Sids of th Sam Succss Coin. Vikalpa: Th Journal for Dcision Makrs, 25(3), Parasuraman, A., Zithaml, V. & Brry, L. (1985). A Concptual Modl of Srvic Quality and Its Implications for Futur Rsarch. Journal of Markting, Fall, Schiffman, L. G., & Kanuk, L. L. (2000). Consumr bhavior. (7 th d.). Uppr Saddl Rivr, NJ: Prntic-Hall. Wkly Managr. (1996). 7 Yars in Failur of Dbit Card, Banks Forgot to Promot-Consumrs Didn t Familiar, July, 24. Woodsid, A. G., & Taylor, J. L. (1978). Consumr purchas intntions and prcptions of product quality and national advrtising. Journal of Advrtising, 7(1), Zithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumr prcptions of pric, quality, and valu: a mans-nd modl and synthsis of vidnc. Journal of Markting, July, Zithaml, V., Brry, L. & Parasuraman, A. (1996). Th Bhavioral Consquncs of Srvic Quality. Journal of Markting, April, Tabl 1. Th rlationship btwn th dmographic charactristics and th dbit card using bhavior of th consumrs *Significant at 95% lvl of confidnc Dbit card using bhavior Dmographic charactristics Gndr Ag Marital status Education Occupation Incom Priod of tim holding dbit card Rason for holding Avrag tims pr month for using Priod of month for th most using Fstival that using th dbit card Product/ srvic catgoris to buy via dbit card Influnc for using 9.997* * Sig * * * * * Sig * * * * * * Sig * * * Sig * * * * * * Sig * * * * * * Sig

6 Vol. 1, No. 2 Intrnational Journal of Markting Studis Tabl 2. Th rlationship btwn th dmographic charactristics and srvic quality prcption of th consumrs Dmographic charactristics *Significant at 95% lvl of confidnc Srvic quality prcption Tangibl Rliability Rsponsiv Assuranc Empathy Gndr Chi-Squar 8.727* * * Sig Ag Chi-Squar * * * * * Sig Marital status Chi-Squar Sig Education Chi-Squar * * * Sig Occupation Chi-Squar * Sig Incom Chi-Squar * * * * Sig Tabl 3. Th rlationship btwn th srvic markting mixs and th dbit card using bhavior of th consumrs *Significant at 95% lvl of confidnc Dbit card using bhavior Priod of Rason Avrag Priod of Fstival Product/ Influnc Srvic markting mixs tim for tims pr month for that using srvic for using holding holding month for th most th dbit catgoris dbit card using using card to buy via dbit card Product Chi-Squar * * * * Sig Pric Chi-Squar Sig Plac Chi-Squar * * Sig Promotion Chi-Squar * * * Sig Popl Chi-Squar * * * Sig Procss Chi-Squar * * * * Sig Physical Chi-Squar * * * * * vidnc Sig Productivity and srvic quality Chi-Squar * * Sig

7 Intrnational Journal of Markting Studis Novmbr, 2009 Tabl 4. Th rlationship btwn th srvic markting mixs and srvic quality prcption of th consumrs *Significant at 95% lvl of confidnc Srvic markting mixs Srvic quality prcption Tangibl Rliability Rsponsiv Assuranc Empathy Product Chi-Squar * * * * * Sig Pric Chi-Squar * * * * * Sig Plac Chi-Squar * * * * * Sig Promotion Chi-Squar * * * * * Sig Popl Chi-Squar * * * * * Sig Procss Chi-Squar * * * * * Physical vidnc Productivity and srvic quality Sig Chi-Squar * * * * * Sig Chi-Squar * * * * * Sig Indpndnt Variabls Dmographic Charactristic 1. Gndr 2. Ag 3. Marital Status 4. Education 5. Occupation 6. Incom Dpndnt Variabls Dbit Card Using Bhavior 1. Th priod of tim holding dbit card 2. Th rason for holding 3. Th avrag tims pr month for using 4. Th priod of month for th most using 5. Th fstival that using th dbit card 6. Th product/srvic catgoris to buy via dbit card 7. Th influnc for using Srvic Markting Mix 1. Product / Srvic 2. Pric 3. Plac 4. Promotion 5. Popl 6. Procss 7. Physical Evidnc Srvic Quality Prcption 1. Tangibls 2. Rliability 3. Rsponsivnss 4. Assuranc 5. Empathy Figur 1. Th concptual framwork 157

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