Cell Station. Cytoplasm DNA

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1 Cell Station Part 1: Cell Types --Turn to pages 74 & Create a double bubble comparing and contrasting eukaryotes and prokaryotes a. Must have three similarities and two differences No membranebound organelles Cytoplasm Membranebound organelles (nucleus, etc) Only unicellular Prokaryotes DNA Eukaryotes Can be unicellular or multicellular Simple structure Ribosomes Complex structure (many parts) 2. Create a Tree Map showing the different type of cells. Include the following words: Cells, eukaryotic, animal, prokaryotic, plant Cells Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Animal Plant

2 3. Create a double bubble comparing plant and animal cells a. Must have 3 similarities and 1 difference. Chloroplasts Lysosomes Nucleus Cell wall Plant Cell Cell membrane Animal Cell No cell wall Central vacuole Ribosomes, mitochondria, etc. Centrioles Part 2: Cell Parts 4. Make and fill in the chart below Nucleus Organelle/Structure Function Picture Runs the cell, contains DNA Ribosome Makes proteins, located in cytoplasm and on Rough ER Rough ER Site of protein and phospholipid synthesis

3 Smooth ER Site of lipid synthesis Golgi apparatus Sorts, modifies, and packages proteins and lipids from the ER, sends them out of the cell Mitochondria Makes energy for the cell, breaks down sugar to ATP Chloroplast Makes sugar by converting sun energy to chemical energy Part 2: Cell Membrane 5. Explain what is happening in figure 5-1 on page 97. The sugar molecules will dissolve and move from the area of high concentration to low concentration, eventually they will reach equilibrium, meaning they are equally spread out in the water. 6. Turn to page 78 and the cell membrane. Label the following: carbohydrate, phospholipid bilayer, heads, tails, cholesterol, integral protein, peripheral protein, inside cell, and outside cell. These are all labeled in your book, copy this diagram 7. Create a tree map for cell transport. Define and use the following terms: cell transport, osmosis, exocytosis, active transport, diffusion, membrane pumps, and endocytosis. You already made this on the back of page 32 of your notebook. Refer to this. Here is a simple version:

4 Cell Transport Passive Transport (does not require energy) Active Transport (requires energy) Diffusion (movement from areas of high concentration to low) Osmosis (movement of water) Facilitated Diffusion (uses carrier proteins to move large molecules across the cell membrane) Membrane pumps (move molecules against the concentration gradient) Movement of very large molecules Endocytosis (into the cell) Exocytosis (out of the cell) Part 3: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration 8. Explain figure 6-12 on page 124 a) As light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases until it reaches a maximum rate and then levels off at this rate b) As temperature rises, so does the rate of photosynthesis until a certain temperature is reached, then the rate decreases 9. Look at figure 6-5 on page 115. Which colors of light does chlorophyll absorb most and which does it absorb the least? Most: red and blue Least: green 10. Create and fill in the chart below Process Organelle Function Products Reactants Photosynthesis Chloroplast Converts sun energy into chemical energy Cellular Respiration Mitochondrion Converts sugar into useable energy (ATP) 6CO2 + 6H20 + sunlight C6H O2 + ADP + P C6H O2 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP energy

5 DNA Station Part 1: DNA Structure 1. Draw and label and nucleotide See page 197 in your textbook 2. What are the base pairing rules? A pairs with T, C pairs with G 3. DNA base pairs are held together by these bonds. Hydrogen bonds 4. What is the backbone of DNA made up of (the sides)? Phosphate and deoxyribose sugar 5. Replicate the following strand of DNA T T G C A A C G C A A C G T T G C G 6. Which enzyme unwinds and unzips DNA? Helicase 7. DNA replication is said to be this because the two molecules made receive one old and one new strand. Semi-conservative Part 2: Central Dogma 8. Draw the central dogma including the following words: DNA, protein, transcription, replication, RNA, translation. 9. Create and fill in the following chart using page 205 Type of RNA Function Picture mrna Carries the instructions from a gene to make a protein See pictures on page 205 rrna Part of the structure of ribosomes

6 trna Transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein 10. Create and fill in the following chart Process Products Location Replication DNA nucleus Transcription mrna nucleus Translation Protein (strand of amino acids) ribosome 11. Define codon. A three nucleotide sequence (triplet) of mrna that codes for an amino acid 12. Transcribe the following DNA into mrna T A C G C C T G C A T T A U G C G G A C G U A A 13. Translate your mrna into amino acids by using the genetic code on page 207 Met-Arg-Thr-Stop Biotechnology and Genetics Part 1: Biotechnology 1. What are transgenic organisms? Organisms that contains DNA/genes from other organisms 2. What is a plasmid? Small, circular DNA that is separate from a bacteria s main chromosome, can be used by scientists to change the traits of bacteria 3. What are two benefits of GMOs and what are two concerns? Benefit: can increase food production, can make food more nutritious Concerns: could produce bad mutations, could harm other organisms (including humans) Part 2: Genetics 4. Define genetics. The study of heredity: the study of how genes are passed from parents to offspring 5. Make and fill in the chart below

7 Inheritance Pattern Definition # of phenotypes Example Dominant/recessive One trait is dominant over the other, the recessive is completely masked by the dominant Codominant Two equally expressed dominant alleles Incomplete Dominance Neither allele is fully expressed or dominant over the other Many Purple and white flowers in pea plants PP: purple Pp: purple pp: white RR: red cattle RW: red and white cattle (roan) WW: white cattle 4 o clock flowers RR: red Rr: pink Rr: white Polygenic Many genes control one trait Skin color 6. Create this chart and fill it in. Blood Type A B AB O Genotype I A I A or I A i I B I B or I B i I A I B ii 7. Red unicorns are dominant to purple unicorns. Cross a heterozygous unicorn with a purple unicorn. a. Parents genotype Rr X rr b. Offspring phenotype and percentage Red 50%, Purple 50% c. Offspring genotype and percentage Rr 50%, rr 50% 8. Blue, yellow, and green frogs exist. A blue frog (BB) mate with a green frog (BY). What type of inheritance pattern does this follow? What percent of their offspring will be green? Incomplete dominance: 50% 9. What is a lethal allele? A version of an allele that causes the person to die (kept in the gene pool by carriers, heterozygous individuals, you will only die from the disease if you have both recessive copies) 10. What is a karyotype and what is it used for?

8 A karyotype is a picture of all of the chromosomes in a cell. It is used to diagnose genetic diseases due to missing and extra chromosomes or chromosomes that are missing or have extra parts, it is also used to determine the sex of the child. 11. What is a pedigree and what is it used for? A special type of family tree used to look at the phenotypes of family members for a certain disease or trait. Genotypes can also be determined from pedigrees. A pedigree can be used to determine the probability of this disease or trait being present in future offspring.

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