Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy

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1 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy

2 What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION: Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight glucose + oxygen

3 Photosynthesis Chloroplasts: organelles that carry on photosynthesis Light energy is trapped and turned into glucose Glucose is used to power respiration and make: ATP

4 Requirements for Photosynthesis Carbon Dioxide - CO 2 Water - H 2 O Energy In the form of sunlight

5 3 Main Stages 1. Energy is captured from sunlight. 2. Light energy is converted to chemical energy (ATP & NADPH) 3. ATP and NADPH power the synthesis of organic molecules, using carbon from carbon dioxide.

6 Where does Photosynthesis occur? Inside plant cells specifically chloroplasts 1. DNA 2. Ribosomes 3. & 6. Outer Membrane 4. Grana 5. Stroma 7. Starch Grain

7 Chloroplast Thylakoid flattened, membrane bound sac Grana stacks of thylakoids Stroma fluid matrix

8 Gas Exchange in Plants Stomata: holes in a leaf which allow for gas exchange guard cells: open and close the stomata

9

10 Stage 1) Light Energy (Energy is captured from sunlight) Electromagnetic Spectrum Radiant Energy energy that is transmitted in waves that can travel through a vacuum. Electromagnetic spectrum complete range of radiant energy.

11 PHOTONS! Tiny packets of radiant energy

12 When Photons strike a 1 reflected surface.. 2 absorbed 3 transmitted

13 Green plants are green because they absorb all of the colors of the visible spectrum except the green color (aka the green wavelengths).

14 Pigments Molecules containing atoms that enable it to absorb light.

15 Types of Pigments Chlorophyll the primary lightabsorbing agent for photosynthesis Carotenoids yellow & orange pigments Phycoerythrin red and blue

16 Photosystems- molecule clusters of pigments found in the thylakoid membranes. Electrons are released for stage 2 Photosystem I boost electrons by absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm Photosystem II boosts electrons by absorbing light with a slightly shorter wavelength than 680 nm

17 Stage 2 Light energy is converted to chemical energy a.k.a. Light Dependent Reactions

18 Electron Carriers Excited electrons high energy Special carriers electron carriers Electron transport chain NADP + - accepts and holds 2 high energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion (H + ) NADP + + H + = NADPH

19 Light-Dependent Reaction 4 Basic Processes Light absorption Electron transport O 2 production ATP formation

20 Light-Dependent Reaction cont. 1. Photons of radiant energy strike thylakoid Energy passes to the electrons in the chlorophyll molecule Excited electron (e - ) is boosted to. 2. A thylakoid membrane protein where the e - is passed along a series of electron carriers called the electron transport chain

21 3. At the end of the ETC, an ATP is released into the stroma 4. PS I gets the e - from PS II. It gets boosted to. 5. Thylakoid membrane protein where The e - is passed to the ETC 6. The ETC passes the e - to the electron carrier NADP + and is converted to NADPH

22 7. As e - move from chlorophyll to NADP +, more H + ions are pumped across the membrane 8. The inside of the thylakoid membrane builds up with + charge 9. Outside the thylakoid is charged. 10. H + ions can exit without help. They use ATP synthase. 11. Protein channel rotates. 12. As it rotates, ADP binds with a phosphate to make ATP

23 Why doesn t the chlorophyll run out of e -? Enzymes on the inner side of the thylakoids break up water molecules into 2 electrons, H + ions, and 1 oxygen atom!

24 Light-Dependent Reaction Uses Water ADP NADP + Produces Oxygen ATP NADPH

25 Stage 3) The Calvin Cycle sometimes called Light Independent Reactions (carbon dioxide fixation) Named after Melvin Calvin, American biochemist who worked out the chemical reactions in the cycle. Plants use the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high-energy compounds that can be stored for a long time. Uses ATP and NADPH from the light dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars.

26

27 Steps to the Calvin Cycle Step 1) 3 CO 2 molecules enter the cycle from the atmosphere These combine with 3, 5 - carbon molecules to make 6, 3 - carbon molecules Step 2) Phosphate groups from ATP and electrons from NADPH are added forming 6, 3 carbon sugars

28 Calvin Cycle cont. Step 3) One of the 3 carbon sugars is removed from the cycle and converted into higher-energy forms (including sugars, lipids, amino acids or other compounds )- energy is stored for later use Step 4) The remaining 5, 3 carbon molecules are regenerated back to form 3, 5 carbon molecules. Cycle starts again.

29

30 Photosynthesis

31 Increasing Rate of Photosynthesis Increasing the level of CO 2 Increasing temperature from 0 C to 35 C. Increasing light intensity to a certain point

32 Decreasing Rate of Photosynthesis Creating drought conditions Increasing temperatures over 35 C

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