THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY"

Transcription

1 SECTION 4-1 REVIEW THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY Define the following terms. 1. cell 2. cell theory Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the observation that a. only plants are composed of cells. c. cells come from other cells. b. only animals are composed of cells. d. animal cells come from plant cells. 2. The scientist who described cells as many little boxes was a. Robert Hooke. c. Theodor Schwann. b. Anton van Leeuwenhoek. d. Rudolf Virchow. 3. Living and nonliving things are different in that only a. nonliving things are made of cells. c. living things are made of cells. b. nonliving things are made of atoms. d. living things are made of atoms. 4. Microscopes were used to study cells beginning in the a. 16th century. c. 18th century. b. 17th century. d. 19th century. 5. The advantage of van Leeuwenhoek s microscopes was that a. they were simple. c. the lenses could be moved. b. they had two lenses. d. the lenses were ground very precisely. 6. Which of the following was a major event in the history of cell biology? a. cloning animals c. discovery of cell parts b. growing bone tissue for transplant d. All of the above 7. A light microscope uses optical lenses to magnify objects by a. bending light rays. c. reflecting beams of light. b. bending electron beams. d. reflecting beams of electrons. Modern Biology Study Guide 19

2 Answer the questions in the space provided. 1. State the three parts of the cell theory. 2. Why did it take 150 years for the cell theory to be developed after microscopes were invented? 3. Why did Hooke s cork cells appear to be empty? 4. Critical Thinking If you read that a new organism had been discovered, what would you know about the organism without examining it in terms of cells? Use the figure to answer the following questions. Robert Hooke observes cork cells Karl Von Baer discovers the mammalian egg. Timeline History of Cell Biology Rudolf Virchow adds to the cell theory Approximately how many years elapsed between the time cells were discovered and the observation of cell parts in muscle cells? 1857 Kolliker describes mitochondria in muscle. Camillo Golgi discovers the Golgi apparatus in cells Researchers in Scotland clone a sheep from an adult sheep cell. Tissue engineering used to grow new skin and bone for transplant. 2. When was the third part of the cell theory added? What was the time interval between this event and the discovery of cells? 20 Section 4-1 Review

3 SECTION 4-2 REVIEW INTRODUCTION TO CELLS Define the following terms. 1. organelle 2. nucleus 3. eukaryote 4. prokaryote Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. Cells are limited in size by the a. rate at which substances needed by the cell can enter the cell through its surface. b. rate at which the cell can manufacture genetic information. 2. The diameter of most plant and animal cells is about a. 0.1 to 0.2 µm. b. 10 to 50 µm. c. 1 to 2 mm. d. 10 to 50 mm. 3. The characteristic of a nerve cell that relates directly to its function in receiving and transmitting nerve impulses is its a. long extensions. b. flat shape. 4. One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that only a. prokaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. b. prokaryotic cells have a nucleus. c. amount of material the cell can collect to fill itself. d. amount of cell membrane the cell can produce. c. ability to change shape. d. ability to engulf and destroy bacteria. c. eukaryotic cells have genetic information. d. eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles. Modern Biology Study Guide 21

4 Answer the questions in the space provided. 1. How is the shape of a skin cell suited to its function? 2. How are the organelles of a single cell like the organs of a multicellular organism? 3. Name two features of eukaryotic cells that prokaryotic cells lack. 4. Critical Thinking When a spherical cell increases in diameter from 2 µm to 20 µm, by what factor does its surface area change? By what factor does its volume change? (The surface area of a sphere 4π radius 2, and the volume of a sphere 4/3π radius 3. Remember that diameter 2 radius.) 1. These figures represent a eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell. In the spaces below the diagrams, indicate which type of cell each diagram represents. X Y a 2. List two features that formed the basis for your identification of these cells. 3. Identify the structures labeled X and Y. SECTION 4-3 REVIEW b 22 Section 4-2 Review

5 SECTION 4-3 REVIEW CELL ORGANELLES AND FEATURES Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. 1. nucleoplasm, nuclear envelope 2. cytoskeleton, microtubule 3. cilia, flagella Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. The plasma membrane a. allows all substances to pass into and out of the cell. b. prevents all substances from passing into and out of the cell. 2. Substances produced in a cell and exported outside of the cell would pass through the a. endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. b. mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. 3. Cells that have a high energy requirement generally have many a. nuclei. b. flagella. c. mitochondria. d. microfilaments. 4. Viruses, bacteria, and old organelles that a cell ingests are broken down in a. ribosomes. b. lysosomes. c. is composed mainly of a protein bilayer. d. is composed mainly of a lipid bilayer. c. nucleus and lysosomes. d. vacuoles and lysosomes. c. the rough endoplasmic reticulum. d. the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 5. Organelles that are surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA are the a. nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomes. b. nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and chloroplasts. c. nucleus and mitochondria. d. endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Modern Biology Study Guide 23

6 Answer the questions in the space provided. 1. What roles do membrane proteins play in transporting only certain substances into a cell? 2. What are ribosomes made of? What cellular function are they involved in? 3. What is the cytoskeleton, and what are three of its major components? 4. Describe the structural organization shared by cilia and flagella. 5. Critical Thinking When lipid is added to a solution of a detergent in water, the detergent breaks up large globules of the lipid into much smaller globules. What effect do you think a detergent would have on the integrity of cells? Explain your answer. This diagram represents a typical animal cell. Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided. a. b. c. d. e. f. a b c d e f 24 Section 4-3 Review

7 SECTION 4-4 REVIEW UNIQUE FEATURES OF PLANT CELLS Define the following terms. 1. cell wall 2. plastid 3. thylakoids 4. chlorophyll 5. central vacuole Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. Which of the following organelles is found in plant cells but not in animal cells? a. nucleus c. mitochondrion b. chloroplast d. Golgi apparatus 2. The end products of photosynthesis include a. carbon dioxide and water. c. carbon dioxide and oxygen. b. sugars. d. oxygen and water. 3. A cell that contains a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a central vacuole is a a. plant cell. b. animal cell. c. prokaryotic cell. d. bacterial cell. 4. A central vacuole forms from a. chloroplasts. c. the fusion of smaller vacuoles. b. fusion of amyloplasts. d. the products of photosynthesis. 5. Thylakoids are located a. between the two membranes of a chloroplast. b. outside the outer membrane of a chloroplast. c. inside the inner membrane of a chloroplast. d. in chromoplasts. Modern Biology Study Guide 25

8 Answer the questions in the space provided. 1. How are secondary cell walls different from primary cell walls? 2. What are plant cell walls made of? What is the function of cell walls? 3. What is the appearance of a plant cell when water is plentiful? 4. Critical Thinking Bacteria have a region called a nucleoid, in which their genetic material is located. Why, then, are bacteria classified as prokaryotes? Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided. This diagram represents a typical plant cell. a b c d e f g h i 26 Section 4-4 Review

9 6. By neutralizing small amounts of acid or base that may be added to a solution, buffers keep ph values at normal and safe levels. The control of ph is essential for the function of enzymes. 7. Since a tenfold increase in H 3 O ion concentration reflects a decrease of one ph unit, a 100-fold increase in concentration reflects a decrease of two ph units. Therefore, the new ph would be 5.5. Drawings should show two water molecules below and one above the central water molecule. The molecules below should have their H atoms facing away from the central molecule, and the molecule above should have one of its H atoms pointing toward the central molecule. Dashed lines should be drawn between each H atom in the central molecule and the O atom in each of the lower water molecules, and between the O atom in the central molecule and the nearer H atom in the upper water molecule. Section An organic compound is a compound containing carbon atoms covalently bonded to other carbon atoms and to other elements. Examples: any carbon-containing compound, such as benzene, ethanol, glycerol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, ATP, and ADP. 2. A functional group is a cluster of atoms in a compound that influences the properties of that compound. Examples: hydroxyl group, phosphate group. 3. An alcohol is an organic compound with a hydroxyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms. Examples: ethanol, methanol, glycerol. 4. A monomer is a simple molecule that can bond to others of its kind to form more complex molecules. Examples: glucose, fructose. 5. A polymer is a complex molecule that consists of repeated, linked units. Example: DNA, proteins. 1. a 2. c 3. b 4. a 5. d 1. The hydroxyl group on alcohols is polar, and this makes alcohols polar compounds. Alcohols can therefore form hydrogen bonds. 2. carbon atom, monomer, polymer, macromolecule 3. The glucose molecule releases a hydroxide ion, OH, and the fructose molecule releases a hydrogen ion, H. These two ions combine to produce water, H 2 O. 4. The hydrolysis products are ADP and inorganic phosphate. Energy is released. 5. With seven electrons in its outermost energy level, carbon could not form double or triple bonds with other atoms, so far fewer organic compounds could be formed. 1. Forward reaction: reactants, glucose and fructose; products, sucrose and H 2 O. 2. condensation reaction 3. Reverse reaction: reactants, sucrose and H 2 O; products, glucose and fructose. 4. hydrolysis Section A monosaccharide is a simple sugar containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1; a polysaccharide is a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides. 2. An amino acid is a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. A protein is a large polymer of amino acids. 3. A nucleotide is a compound containing a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ringshaped nitrogen base; a nucleic acid is a very large polymer of nucleotides. 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. d 1. The storage form is glycogen, and the quick-energy form is glucose. Glycogen consists of hundreds of glucose molecules linked in a highly branched chain. 2. Starch, 1; proteins, Phospholipid composes most of the cell membrane. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids provide a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell. 4. Steroids are lipids made of four fused carbon rings. Examples: testosterone and cholesterol. 5. Wax serves as a waterproof layer, limiting water loss and preventing insects from drying out. a, substrate; b, enzyme; c, products Section A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life. 2. The cell theory states that all living organisms are made of one or more cells, that cells are the basic units of structure and function, and that cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells. 1. c 5. d 2. a 6. d 3. c 7. a 4. b 1. (1) All living things are composed of one or more cells. (2) Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism. (3) Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells. 2. Information about cells could not be understood and organized into a central theory until microscope technology had improved and accurate observations were made. 3. The cork cells that Hooke observed were the remains of dead plant cells. The material from the inside of the cells had been lost or destroyed. 4. You would know that it was made of cells and the cells reproduce to make more cells. Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key 3

10 1. Approximately 200 years elapsed between the discovery of cells in 1665 and the observation of mitochondria in muscle cells in The third part of the cell theory was added in This was 190 years after cells were discovered. Section An organelle is a cell component that performs specific functions for the cell. 2. The nucleus is an organelle that contains coded information in the form of DNA for regulating functions and reproduction and directs most of the activities of the cell. 3. A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles. 4. A prokaryote is an organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. d 1. Its flat platelike shape covers and protects the body s surface. 2. Just as organs carry out the organism s life functions, organelles maintain the life of the cell. 3. Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. 4. The surface area increases by a factor of 100. The volume increases by a factor of 1, a, prokaryotic cell; b, eukaryotic cell. 2. Features: eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles, but the prokaryotic cell does not; prokaryotic cell is smaller. 3. X, nucleus; Y, cell membrane Section The nucleoplasm is the jellylike liquid that fills the nucleus. The nuclear envelope is a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus. 2. The cytoskeleton is the network of tubes and filaments that give a cell its shape and serves as tracks for the movement of organelles in the cell. Microtubules are one of three structural elements that make up the cytoskeleton. 3. Both are hairlike organelles that extend from the surface of a eukaryotic cell, but cilia are shorter and are present in larger numbers on a cell. 1. d 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. c 1. Some proteins form channels or pores through which certain substances can pass. Other proteins bind to a substance on one side of the membrane and carry it to the other side. 2. Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA. They are involved in protein synthesis. 3. The cytoskeleton is a network of long protein strands located in the cytosol. Three major components are microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. 4. Cilia and flagella are composed of nine pairs of microtubules arranged around a central pair. 5. The detergent would cause the cells to disintegrate because it would break up the plasma membrane as well as organelle membranes, all of which are largely composed of lipid. a. mitochondrion; b. nucleus; c. nucleolus; d. Golgi apparatus; e. rough endoplasmic reticulum; f. ribosome Section A cell wall is a rigid layer that lies outside the plasma membrane of a plant cell. 2. A plastid is an organelle that is surrounded by a double membrane and contains DNA. 3. Thylakoids are flattened membranous sacs that contain chlorophyll. 4. Chlorophyll is a green pigment that absorbs light and captures energy for a plant cell. 5. A central vacuole is a large, fluid-filled organelle that stores water, enzymes, and wastes in plant cells. 1. b 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. c 1. Primary cell walls are assembled on the surface of the plasma membrane while the cell is growing. They can grow as the cell grows. Secondary cell walls are produced after the cell has stopped growing. Secondary cell walls cannot expand. 2. Plant cell walls are made of cellulose embedded in proteins and carbohydrates. Cell walls help support and protect the plant. 3. When water is plentiful, the central vacuole expands. The other organelles are pushed against the plasma membrane in a thin layer. 4. The nucleoid is not surrounded by a membrane and is therefore not a nucleus. Bacteria do not have an internal membrane system or membranebound organelles. a, Golgi apparatus; b, cell wall; c, vacuole; d, nucleus; e, nucleolus; f, mitochondrion; g, ribosome; h, chloroplat; i, endoplasmic reticulum Section A difference in the concentration of molecules in two areas, called a concentration gradient, can result in diffusion, the movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration. 2. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a cell membrane. When osmosis results in water molecules entering a plant cell, the molecules exert a pressure against the cell wall, called turgor pressure. 3. A hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration than the cytosol of a cell. In a hypertonic solution a plant cell will lose water and shrink away from the cell wall, a process called plasmolysis. 1. d 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. b 4 Modern Biology Study Guide Answer Key

Cell Structure & Function

Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure & Function The Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Bacteria Nerve Cell Red Blood Cell Microscopes and Cells 1600 s. Anton

More information

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 UNIT 1: Biochemistry Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 Organelles are internal structures that carry out specialized functions, interacting and complementing each other. Animal and plant

More information

Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life. The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope

Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life. The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope Robert Hooke = first to observe small compartments in dead

More information

Name Class Date. What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What is the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell?

Name Class Date. What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What is the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell? CHAPTER 1 2 SECTION Cells: The Basic Units of Life Eukaryotic Cells BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What

More information

Cell Theory. Notes Answers

Cell Theory. Notes Answers Cell Theory Notes Answers Cell Discovery 1. Coined term cell = Robert Hooke 2. Observe plant cells = Schleiden 3. Observe animal cells = Schwann 4. Cell from pre-existing cells = Rudolf Virchow Cell Theory

More information

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics:

More information

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular Chapter 4- Cells Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells Unicellular Multicellular Multicellular organisms are composed of one or more types of tissues Different types of tissues are grouped

More information

Table of Contents. North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart... 6

Table of Contents. North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart... 6 Table of Contents North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart........ 6 Objectives Chapter 1 Cell Biology................................. 9 Lesson 1 Cell Structure...............................

More information

A Tour of the Cell. An Overview of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are fundamentally similar.

A Tour of the Cell. An Overview of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are fundamentally similar. A Tour of the Cell Microscopes as Windows on the World of Cells Light microscopes can be used to explore the structures and functions of cells. When scientists examine a specimen on a microscope slide

More information

Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Section 7-3 p.179-187

Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Section 7-3 p.179-187 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Section 7-3 p.179-187 Group work vs. Cell Parts? Plasma membrane Cell wall Cellular Boundaries Fairly rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane that provides additional

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Being Eu-nique What are the characteristics of eukaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells differ from each other depending on their structure and function. Structure is the arrangement of parts. Function is the

More information

Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a

Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a plant and an animal cell Know the functions of cell organelles

More information

Principles of Modern Cell Theory. Cell Structure and Function. The Microscope: Viewing Cells. Relative Sizes in Biology. Chapter 4

Principles of Modern Cell Theory. Cell Structure and Function. The Microscope: Viewing Cells. Relative Sizes in Biology. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Principles of Modern Cell Theory Every living organism is made up of one or more cells. The smallest living organisms are single cells. Cells are the functional units

More information

Bacteria. Prokaryotic Cells. Very small cells Have cell wall No nucleus No membrane bound organelles

Bacteria. Prokaryotic Cells. Very small cells Have cell wall No nucleus No membrane bound organelles Cells Chapter 7 The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things New cells are produced from existing cells Bacteria Prokaryotic

More information

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell 1. Cell Basics 2. Prokaryotic Cells 3. Eukaryotic Cells 1. Cell Basics Limits to Cell Size There are 2 main reasons why cells are so small: If cells get too large: 1) there

More information

Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes

Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes P All cells have Cell membrane - phospholipid bilayer surrounding cell parts Cytoplasm - everything between cell membrane + nucleus P Most cells have Nucleus - brain of

More information

Biol 101 Exam 2: Cells & Cell Membranes Fall 2008

Biol 101 Exam 2: Cells & Cell Membranes Fall 2008 MULTIPLE CHOICE. There are 60 questions on this exam. All answers go on the Scantron. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The cell theory is one of

More information

Quiz: Cell Organelles and Their Functions 1. This organelle functions in cellular respiration: lysosome endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion golgi

Quiz: Cell Organelles and Their Functions 1. This organelle functions in cellular respiration: lysosome endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion golgi Quiz: Cell Organelles and Their Functions 1. This organelle functions in cellular respiration: lysosome mitochondrion 2. The organelle functions to package and deliver proteins: lysosome mitochondrion

More information

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure 2 of 49 Eukaryotic Cell Structures Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org Chapter 3 Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 3.1: Introduction to Cells Lesson 3.2: Cell

More information

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life AP Biology 2008-2009 animal cells Eukaryotes - organelles Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial

More information

Nucleus Cell Control Center

Nucleus Cell Control Center Nucleus Cell Control Center Contains the directions to make proteins (DNA) Two main jobs is to protect the DNA and make sure that DNA is always available for use. Found in all cells 1 Nucleolus Located

More information

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems All organisms

More information

Cells and Their Organelles

Cells and Their Organelles Cells and Their Organelles The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell membrane is semi-permeable, allowing

More information

Cells and Organelles The building blocks of Life. Mrs. Dignan s Science Class

Cells and Organelles The building blocks of Life. Mrs. Dignan s Science Class Cells and Organelles The building blocks of Life Mrs. Dignan s Science Class The Cell Theory All living things are made of cells. New cells are only produced from existing cells. Cells are made of chemical

More information

The correct answer is d A. Answer a is incorrect. The cell theory states that all living things are composed of one or more cells.

The correct answer is d A. Answer a is incorrect. The cell theory states that all living things are composed of one or more cells. 1. Which of the following statements is NOT part of the cell theory? a. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. b. Cells come from other cells by division. c. Cells are the smallest living things.

More information

Cell Structure & Function!

Cell Structure & Function! Cell Structure & Function! Chapter 3! The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' but 'That's funny.! -- Isaac Asimov Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell

More information

Cell Organelles. a review of structure and function

Cell Organelles. a review of structure and function Cell Organelles a review of structure and function TEKS and Student Expectations (SE s) B.4 Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function Cellular Basis of Life, Homeostasis Q: How are cell structures adapted to their functions? 7.1 Why is it important to study cells? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Cells make up living

More information

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage?

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage? Energy Transport Study Island 1. During the process of photosynthesis, plants use energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. These products are, in turn, used by the

More information

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 5 THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following can be made into crystal? (a) A Bacterium (b) An Amoeba (c) A Virus (d) A Sperm 2. A cell will swell up if (a)

More information

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

More information

Post-test questions. 1. What does the cell theory state?

Post-test questions. 1. What does the cell theory state? Post-test questions 1. What does the cell theory state? All living things are made up of cells The cell is also the functional unit of life All living cells come from pre-existing cells 2. What are cells?

More information

Name Date Class. This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria.

Name Date Class. This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria. Looking Inside Cells This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria. Use Target Reading Skills Before you read, preview Figure 12. Then write two questions

More information

Biology. Biology. Slide 1 of 49. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Biology. Slide 1 of 49. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology Biology 1 of 49 2 of 49 Comparing the Cell to a Factory 1. Eukaryotic Cell Structures A.Organelles: Structures within a eukaryotic cell perform important cellular functions B. Cytoplasm: * Gel/liquid

More information

Organelles. Organelles. Two Types of Cell. Cell Organelle. Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Both cells function similarly

Organelles. Organelles. Two Types of Cell. Cell Organelle. Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Both cells function similarly Cell Organelle Two Types of Cell Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells 1. Animal Cell 2. Plant Cell Both cells function similarly Organelles Organelle

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell

More information

The Cell. Mader: Chapter 3. Introduction: Cells on the Move. 4.1 Microscopes reveal the world of the cell. Introduction: Cells on the Move

The Cell. Mader: Chapter 3. Introduction: Cells on the Move. 4.1 Microscopes reveal the world of the cell. Introduction: Cells on the Move The Cell Mader: Chapter 3 Introduction: Cells on the Move! Cells, the simplest collection of matter that can live, were first observed by Robert Hooke in 1665! Antoni van Leeuwenhoek later described cells

More information

Biology Cell Biology: Cell Structure I

Biology Cell Biology: Cell Structure I a place of mind F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy Biology Cell Biology: Cell Structure I Science and Mathematics Education Research Group Supported by UBC Teaching

More information

The Structure and Function of Cells

The Structure and Function of Cells The Structure and Function of Cells The Cell is the basic functional unit of ALL living things. There are 2 basic types of cells: 1. Eukaryotic Cells = contain plasma membrane (cell membrane), organelles,

More information

Biology I. Chapter 7

Biology I. Chapter 7 Biology I Chapter 7 Interest Grabber NOTEBOOK #1 Are All Cells Alike? All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1.

More information

PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS reflect Think for a moment about all the living things on Earth. There is great diversity among organisms, from microscopic bacteria to massive blue whales, the largest animals on the planet. Despite the

More information

Bell Ringer. What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? Do you know what kind of cell this is?

Bell Ringer. What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? Do you know what kind of cell this is? Bell Ringer Do you know what kind of cell this is? What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? WHAT CELL IS IT? In your groups, look at the picture of a cell you have been

More information

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three

More information

The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope.

The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Cell Theory The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Many scientists contributed to the cell theory. More was learned about cells as microscopes improved.

More information

Cytology. Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells.

Cytology. Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells. CYTOLOGY Cytology Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells. A. two major cell types B. distinguished by structural organization See table on handout for differences.

More information

NOTES: CELLS. All cells have as well as unique functions and features. In this lesson we will focus on the similarities in the cell.

NOTES: CELLS. All cells have as well as unique functions and features. In this lesson we will focus on the similarities in the cell. NOTES: CELLS Name Introduction to the Cell The is the smallest unit of life. The adult human body is made up of. For example, there are, just to name a few. Just like our bodies contain different organs,

More information

CELL ORGANELLES. Functions

CELL ORGANELLES. Functions CELL ORGANELLES Functions CELL WALL PLANT CELL ONLY The cell walls of plants provide strength and protection, keeping the cells from bursting or rupturing. They also protect against insects and parasites,

More information

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads The Parts of the Cell 3 main parts in ALL cells: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material this is about the parts of a generic eukaryotic cell Plasma Membrane -is a fluid mosaic model membrane is fluid

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS

Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN B1. Analyze the functional inter-relationships of cell structures. 1) Describe the function and structure of these organelles.

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Introduction to the cell Answer the following questions as you read modules 4.1 4.4: 1. A(n) light microscope uses a beam of

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C. Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Cell. Common features of all cells. Tour of the Cell. Eukaryotic Cell. Plasma Membrane defines inside from outside

Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Cell. Common features of all cells. Tour of the Cell. Eukaryotic Cell. Plasma Membrane defines inside from outside www.denniskunkel.com Tour of the Cell www.denniskunkel.com Today s Topics Properties of all cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Functions of Major Cellular Organelles Information, Synthesis&Transport,, Vesicles

More information

Test Booklet. Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes. Student name:

Test Booklet. Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes. Student name: Test Booklet Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes Student name: Author: Jennifer Holm School: Lincoln High School Printed: Tuesday February 09, 2016 1 Which describes the cell theory? A Cells are

More information

The Tour of the Cell. Chapter 6

The Tour of the Cell. Chapter 6 The Tour of the Cell Chapter 6 The Fundamental Units of Life All living things composed of cells Cell structure correlated to cell function All cells descend from existing cells Microscopy Light microscope

More information

The Cell Interior and Function

The Cell Interior and Function The Cell Interior and Function 5 5.0 CHAPTER PREVIEW Investigate and understand the organization and function of the cell interior. Define the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure.

More information

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells Comparing Plant And Animal Cells http://khanacademy.org/video?v=hmwvj9x4gny Plant Cells shape - most plant cells are squarish or rectangular in shape. amyloplast (starch storage organelle)- an organelle

More information

Robert Hooke: Mid 1600 s English scientist who looked at Cork under a microscope

Robert Hooke: Mid 1600 s English scientist who looked at Cork under a microscope CELLS Robert Hooke: Mid 1600 s English scientist who looked at Cork under a microscope Early Compound Microscope 1 CORK He described what he saw as a CELL Another scientist: Anton van Leeuwenhoek Dutch

More information

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following?

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? Organic Molecules and Water 1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? A. organization B. shape C. movement D. all of these 2. Technology Enhanced Questions

More information

Microscopes. Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having: DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope

Microscopes. Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having: DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope CH 6 The Cell Microscopy Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye. In a light microscope (LM), visible light is passed through a specimen and then through glass

More information

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we will discuss the following: The Cell Theory Terminology Parts of Plant Cells: Organelles Difference between plant and animal cells

More information

Instructional Resources/Materials: Cell vocabulary cards printed (class set) Enough for each student (See card sort below)

Instructional Resources/Materials: Cell vocabulary cards printed (class set) Enough for each student (See card sort below) Grade Level/Course: 7 th grade Life Science Lesson/Unit Plan Name: Cell Card Sort Rationale/Lesson Abstract: Cell vocabulary building, students identify and share vocabulary meaning. Timeframe: 10 to 20

More information

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. 7.2 Cell Structure Lesson Summary Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. Cytoplasm is the fluid portion of a cell. Organelles are structures that have specialized

More information

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. 7.2 Cell Structure Lesson Objectives Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus. Describe the role of vacuoles, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton. Identify the role of ribosomes, endoplasmic

More information

Section 7 2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Section 7 2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Section 7 2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure (pages 174 181) Key Concept What are the functions of the major cell structures? Comparing a Cell to a Factory (page 174) 1. What is an organelle? It is a structure

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

Organelle Description Function Animal, Plant or Both. that contains organelles. Thin covering over the nucleus

Organelle Description Function Animal, Plant or Both. that contains organelles. Thin covering over the nucleus Biology Name: Date: Period: Organelle Description Function, or CELL WALL Rigid, tough, made of cellulose Protects and supports CELL MEMBRANE Thin, covering, protects cells Protects, performs active transport

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions. thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

More information

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells a. Explain that cells take in nutrients in order to grow, divide and to make needed materials. S7L2a b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and

More information

Organelles and Their Functions

Organelles and Their Functions Organelles and Their Functions The study of cell organelles and their functions is a fascinating part of biology. The current article provides a brief description of the structure of organelles and their

More information

Given these characteristics of life, which of the following objects is considered a living organism? W. X. Y. Z.

Given these characteristics of life, which of the following objects is considered a living organism? W. X. Y. Z. Cell Structure and Organization 1. All living things must possess certain characteristics. They are all composed of one or more cells. They can grow, reproduce, and pass their genes on to their offspring.

More information

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Biology Learning Centre Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Tips for most effective learning of this material: Memorize the names and structures over several days. This will help you retain what you

More information

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells Cell Scientists Hans and Zacharias Janssen Dutch lens grinders, father and son produced first compound microscope (2 lenses) Robert Hooke (1665) English Scientist looked at a thin

More information

Eukaryotic Cellular Organelles. A detailed description of each organelle s structure and function

Eukaryotic Cellular Organelles. A detailed description of each organelle s structure and function Eukaryotic Cellular Organelles A detailed description of each organelle s structure and function Recall the similarities and differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. What kind of human cells are

More information

Biol115 The Thread of Life

Biol115 The Thread of Life Biol115 The Thread of Life Lecture 13 A panoramic tour of the cell It is the cells which create and maintain in us, during the span of our lives, our will to live and survive, to search and experiment,

More information

3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport

3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport 3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport Module 1: Cells 1.1.1 Cell Structure Candidates should be able to: (a) state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

7.2 Cells: A Look Inside

7.2 Cells: A Look Inside CHAPTER 7 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 7.2 Cells: A Look Inside Imagine a factory that makes thousands of cookies a day. Ingredients come into the factory, get mixed and baked, then the cookies are packaged.

More information

CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE

CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE MULTICELLULAR. THE CELL THEORY STATES: 1. ALL ORGANISMS RE COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS,

More information

Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students

Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students Activity Title: Quick Hit Goal of Activity: To perform formative and summative assessments

More information

1.1.1 Cell Structure. Relevant Past Paper Questions. Condensed Notes By Specification Point. 2013 January 5 e f i j. 2012 June 2 e f g i

1.1.1 Cell Structure. Relevant Past Paper Questions. Condensed Notes By Specification Point. 2013 January 5 e f i j. 2012 June 2 e f g i 1.1.1 Cell Structure Relevant Past Paper Questions Paper Question Specification point(s) tested 2013 January 5 e f i j 2012 June 2 e f g i 2012 January 4 a b d f 2011 June 1 part a only f 2011 January

More information

Directions for Animal Cell 3-Part Cards

Directions for Animal Cell 3-Part Cards Directions for Animal Cell 3-Part Cards 1. Print out copy of 3 part cards and control cards Laminate for durability. Cut apart description and labels from 3 part cards. 2. As an introductory lesson, students

More information

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta Compartmentalization of the Cell Professor Alfred Cuschieri Department of Anatomy University of Malta Objectives By the end of this session the student should be able to: 1. Identify the different organelles

More information

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole Name: ate: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains N?. chromosome. gene. mitochondrion. vacuole 2. potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure below. Which

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives)

Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives) Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives) Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. List their similarities and differences. Learn the three domains of living organisms and the 6 emergent

More information

Cells (ScienceGHSGT1) 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration?

Cells (ScienceGHSGT1) 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration? Name: Date: 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration? A. cell wall B. cytoplasm C. mitochondrion D. cell membrane 2. All cells must have a A. cell membrane.

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

The Discovery of the Cell

The Discovery of the Cell The Discovery of the Cell 7-1 Life Is Cellular Review the cell in relation to: - Its definition - The origin of life - The characteristics of life - The hierarchy of biological organization - The science

More information

Written and Illustrated by Eric R. Russell Photomicrography by Bruce J. Russell

Written and Illustrated by Eric R. Russell Photomicrography by Bruce J. Russell Intro to the Human Machine 1 BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES Learning Programs for Biology Education Visualizing Human Physiology: Introduction to the Human Machine Study Guide Supplement to Video Program All Text

More information

The Cell: Organelle Diagrams

The Cell: Organelle Diagrams The Cell: Organelle Diagrams Fig 7-4. A prokaryotic cell. Lacking a true nucleus and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell, the prokaryotic cell is much simpler in structure. Only

More information

Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles

Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles Structure of Animal Cells The Phospholipid Structure Phospholipid structure Encases all living cells Its basic structure is represented by the fluidmosaic model Phospholipid

More information

cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic

cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of cells. 1 The interior contents

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information