The Cell Grade Ten. Estimated Duration: Three hours

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1 Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark A Explain that cells are the basic unit of structure and function of living organisms, that once life originated all cells come from pre-existing cells, and that there are a variety of cell types. Indicator 2 Compare the structure, function and interrelatedness of cell organelles in eukaryotic cells (e.g., nucleus, chromosome, mitochondria, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplast, cilia, flagella) and prokaryotic cells. Lesson Summary: The lesson is designed to teach students the basics of cell biology. Students will create informative books for middle school students, or construct a cell model displaying and detailing cell morphology and function. Estimated Duration: Three hours Commentary: This lesson covers the basics of cell biology. Students can create the traditional model of a cell or a book that covers the basics of cellular structure and function. The unique twist to this lesson is the opportunity to take the show on the road and present what students have learned to middle school students. This helps to reinforce the information that students have just studied. Pre-Assessment: Copy and distribute Attachment A, Pre-Assessment, to students and have them complete the questions. Go over the questions in class and monitor responses to guide instruction. Scoring Guidelines: See Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Key, to evaluate student responses. Observe any students who have difficulty understanding the cellular structure and function and provide interventions as necessary. Post-Assessment: Have the students complete one activity on Attachment E, Cell Book or Model to demonstrate their knowledge of cellular structure and function. Scoring Guidelines: Use Attachment F, Cell Book or Model Rubric to evaluate student performance. 1

2 Instructional Procedures: The instructional procedures can be divided into two major parts. The first part is a lecture and lab activity where all students participate. The second part gives students an opportunity to choose one of two assignments. 1. Show the students how to employ a two-column note-taking system. Use Attachment C, Two-Column Note-Taking Instructions to guide the students. See Attachment D, Two- Column Note-Taking Example for an example of two-column notes. 2. Use a lecture format to cover the major concepts of cellular structure, function and interrelatedness of cell organelles. Make sure to address the information featured in Attachment D, Two-Column Note-Taking Example. 3. Have the students view and label the organelles and types of cells. Provide students with a variety of eukaryotic (plant and animal) and prokaryotic cells (bacterium and blue green algae). If time permits, have students prepare slides to view. If available, provide prepared slides for viewing also. If microscopes and slides are not available, show pictures of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. These can be obtained from text books and the Internet. 4. Allow students the opportunity to choose one of the following two activities. (Step 5 or 6) 5. Have students create a story that is designed for middle school students. Guidelines are located in Attachment E, The Cell Book or Model. Evaluate the book using Attachment F, The Cell Book or Model Rubric. Instructional Tip: This project can be done in pairs. Stress that it is very important to include all of the components of the assignment. You may want to have students submit (or, exchange with each other) a rough draft for editing, and then return for revision and resubmission. 6. Construct a model of a eukaryotic cell. Allow the students to be creative in the ways they make the cell and what they use. For example, a shoebox, paper mache, or gelatin can be used as the cell. Items such as candy or plastic spheres can be the organelles. Students can draw and cut out organelles and tape or glue the organelles inside the box. Distribute Attachment E, Cell Book or Model, to guide student work. Instructional Tip: Before students submit their final product allow time for peer editing. Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). Make the rubric available to all students. This will allow students to clearly understand what is expected. 2

3 Create a set of study cards for the lesson. Have students draw pictures of the organelles on one side and descriptions of structure and function on the other. Have students working beyond the indicator, examine specific cells within the body and determine the specific need of that cell (e.g. muscle cells will have more mitochondria to provide ATP for energy.) Have students examine different types of bacterial cells and note the structures present. Extensions: Arrange to have students meet with a middle school audience to share their cell books. Compare and contrast cells with viruses. Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes: Research the use of this DNA and how it can be used to design pedigrees as well as tracing back certain paternal and maternal relationships over time. Have students look at a variety of cells in different types of organisms. Create a skit, song, or poem about cell anatomy. Read a biography about an early cell researcher and read another one about a current cellular biologist. Notice how scientific practices and knowledge have changed. Homework Options and Home Connections: Students can share the books they created with younger family members. Visit a hospital laboratory and find out how they use what we know about cell structure and function to identify and treat diseases. Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the teacher: For the students: Markers, colored pencils, crayons, scissors, constructions paper, glue, shoe box, pipe cleaners, balloons. Markers, colored pencils, crayons, scissors, constructions paper, glue, shoe box, pipe cleaners, balloons. 3

4 Vocabulary: cell cell wall centrioles chloroplast cytoplasm cytosol DNA endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough) eukaryote Golgi apparatus microfilament microtubules mitochondria nucleus organelle plasma membrane (cell membrane) prokaryote ribosome vacuole Technology Connections: Use a computer drawing program to draw the cell for your pamphlet/mini-booklet. If possible, view pictures of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells from the Internet. Research Connections: Marzano, R., Pickering, D., Pollock, J. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, Va.,: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Identifying similarities and differences enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge. This process includes comparing, classifying, creating metaphors and creating analogies and may involve the following: Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences. Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences. Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form. Two column notes are adapted from the Cornell Note-Taking System. Walter Pauk. How to Study in College, 2nd ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.,

5 General Tips: Have students share their books and model with middle school students if possible. Sharing the information they have just studied will help to reinforce the concepts and build communication skills. Students enjoy sharing information with others and it provides them with a role of responsibility. The sharing could be designed as if the students were teaching the class for the day with their projects as a means of sharing information. Attachments: Attachment A, Pre-Assessment Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Key Attachment C, Two-Column Note-Taking Instructions Attachment D, Two-Column Note-Taking Example Attachment E, Cell Book or Model Attachment F, Cell Book or Model Rubric 5

6 Attachment A Pre-Assessment Take a moment to answer the following questions. 1. What is a cell? 2. What are eukaryotes? 3. What are prokaryotes? 4. List cellular structures and organelles and explain their functions. 5. Compare the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells. 6

7 Attachment B Pre-Assessment Key The following are sample answers that illustrate what to expect from student responses. Student responses may go beyond what is stated here. 1. What is a cell? The smallest unit of life capable of carrying out all the functions of living things. 2. What are eukaryotes? An organism with cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. 3. What are prokaryotes? An organism whose cells do not contain a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. 4. List five cellular organelles and explain their functions. Nucleus: A large cellular organelle that contains DNA. Cell membrane: Thin layer of lipid and protein that separates the cell s contents from the world around it. Ribosome: An organelle located in the cytoplasm of cells; site of RNA translation. Golgi apparatus: A membrane bound organelle that packages and secretes products. Mitochondria: An organelle of eukaryotic cells; the site of ATP production and cellular respiration. 5. Compare the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells. Both plant and animal cells have much of the same organelles and they both have a cell membrane. However, plants have both a cell wall and chloroplast whereas animal cells do not. 7

8 Attachment C Two-Column Note-Taking Instructions 1. Divide your notebook/journal page into two columns. A vertical line should be drawn three inches from the left edge of the page. 2. Main ideas, key concepts, or key terms should be placed in the left column. 3. Class lecture notes, reading notes, and lab notes should be placed in the right column. Lines should be skipped between main ideas or concepts to allow room to add to the notes at a later time. 4. Source of notes (class lecture, textbook, lab exercises) should be indicated at the top of the page along with any learning objectives for the lesson. 5. After reading, lecture or lab do the following: Read through the notes. Make any scribbles more legible. Fill in any incomplete areas. Clarify any areas that are confusing. Underline or highlight any key vocabulary words. Fill in any key ideas or terms that you might have missed putting in the left column. Compare your notes with a classmate and discuss them with your peer. Fill in any additional information. 6. Recall and recite: Cover up the right column of your paper Look at one key concept at a time and recall the details about that concept as fully as you can in your own words. Recite your thoughts out loud. Uncover the notes on the left and check to see if you have remembered the essential ideas. 7. Before each class, take a few minutes to review your notes. 8

9 Cell Theory Definition of a cell Prokaryote Eukaryote Organelles Nucleus DNA Chromosome Mitochondria Cell membrane Chloroplast Cilia Flagella Attachment D Two-Column Note-Taking Example There are three components of the Cell Theory All living things are made of cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of organisms. Cells are produced from pre-existing cells. The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. A cellular organism (such as a bacterium or a blue green algae) that does not have a distinct nucleus. An organism composed of one or more cells containing visibly evident nuclei and organelles. A defined structure within a cell that is specialized to perform cellular functions within eukaryotic cells. The portion of a eukaryotic cell that is surrounded by a nuclear membrane and contains DNA. Deoxyribonucleic Acid, a double strand of nucleotides, that is selfreplicating material present in living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It contains the genetic code and transmits the heredity pattern. A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. Cell structure responsible for cellular respiration. The bounding membrane of cells which controls the entry of molecules and the interaction of cells with their environment, also called plasma membrane. A plastid that contains chlorophyll and is the site for photosynthesis. Fine hair-like protrusions of the cell surface, which beat in unison to create currents of liquid over cell surface or propel the cell through the medium. Long hair-like extensions from the cell surface whose movement is used for locomotion. 9

10 Attachment E Cell Book or Model You will have the option of producing a book or a model to display your knowledge about cells. Read the descriptions listed below and make your decision. Make sure to address all points in your project. Construct a book designed for middle school students. Be prepared to actually share this information with a younger student. Be creative and include the following: 1. An introduction of cell history, (i.e. who discovered the cell, how it was defined.) 2. A drawing and description of animal, plant, and bacterial cells. 3. A section listing the following cellular structures and organelles: mitochondria, nucleus, DNA, chromosome, cell membrane, flagella, cell wall, chloroplast. 4. A section explaining the functions of each structure and organelle from Step An explanation of how the organelles work together within the cell. 6. A section comparing and contrasting different types of cells. Examine prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and plant and animal cells. You could use a Venn diagram to display the similarities and differences. 7. Reference section including three references. Or Construct a model of a eukaryotic cell. Be creative! You may use a variety of materials, for example, a shoebox, paper mache, or gelatin can be used as the cell. Items such as candy or plastic spheres can be the organelles. You can draw and cut out organelles and tape or glue the organelles inside the box. The model should include the following: 1. Organelles to be incorporated in the model include mitochondria, nucleus, DNA, chromosome, cell membrane, ribosome, Golgi apparatus, cytoplasm, vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough). If you choose a plant or animal cell to represent, make sure to include the appropriate organelles (e.g., centrioles, flagella, cilia, cell wall, chloroplast). 2. On a separate sheet of paper address the following items. a. A description of cell history, (i.e. who discovered the cell, how it was defined.) b. A legend describing the cell type, cellular structures and organelles of your eukaryotic cell. c. A section explaining the functions of each structure and organelle from Step 1. d. An explanation of how the organelles work together within the cell. e. A drawing of a prokaryotic cell with the parts properly labeled. f. A section comparing and contrasting eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and plant and animal cells. Use a Venn diagram to display the similarities and differences. 10

11 Drawings or Model of Cells The Cell Grade Ten Attachment F Cell Book or Model Rubric Item Clear, detailed Clear drawings or Drawings or models drawings or models of models of the cell are of the cell are the cell are present. present. The book has present. The book The book has a drawing two of the required has a drawing of a of a plant, animal, and cells. The model is plant, animal, or bacterial cell. The correctly identified as bacterial cell. The model is correctly plant or animal and has model is not identified as plant or most organelles correctly identified animal and has all present. The as plant or animal organelles present. The prokaryotic cell and has organelles prokaryotic cell drawing is present and present. The drawing is present and correct. prokaryotic cell correct. drawing is missing. No drawings or model present. Identification of cell organelles and cellular structures Description of cell organelles and cellular structures An explanation of how the organelles work together within the cell Comparing and contrasting between different types of cells Drawings and models have all the organelles present and correctly labeled. All the descriptions of the organelles and cellular structures are present and correct. The connection between all the organelles is described in detail demonstrating understanding of how and why the cell is a functional unit. A graphic organizer or description is used effectively to illustrate the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and plant and animal cells. Drawings and models have most of the organelles present and correctly labeled Most of the descriptions of the organelles and cellular structures are present and correct. The connection between most of the organelles is described demonstrating understanding of how and why the cell is a functional unit. A graphic organizer or description is used to illustrate the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and plant and animal cells. Drawings and models have some of the organelles present and labeled Some of the descriptions of the organelles and cellular structures are correct. The connection between all the organelles is vague demonstrates little understanding of how and why the cell is a functional unit is not clearly shown. A graphic organizer or description is used to illustrate the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells or plant and animal cells. Organelles not identified at all or everything is mislabeled. No description of organelles present. The explanation of how the organelles work together in the cell is missing or over simplified. No evidence of comparison or contrast between cells. TOTAL POINTS 11

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