From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains

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1 Proteins From DNA to Protein Chapter 13 All proteins consist of polypeptide chains A linear sequence of amino acids Each chain corresponds to the nucleotide base sequence of a gene The Path From Genes to Proteins Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 1. Transcription Enzymes use the base sequence of a gene as a template to make a strand of RNA 2. Translation Information in the RNA strand is decoded (translated) into a sequence of amino acids In prokaryotic cells (no nucleus) Transcription and translation occur in cytoplasm In eukaryotic cells Genes are transcribed in the nucleus Resulting mrna is translated in the cytoplasm 1

2 Key Concepts: INTRODUCTION 13.1 Transcription: DNA to RNA Life depends on enzymes and other proteins All proteins consist of polypeptide chains Two DNA strands unwind in a specific region Chains are sequences of amino acids that correspond to sequences of nucleotide bases in DNA called genes The path leading from genes to proteins has two steps: transcription and translation RNA polymerase assembles a strand of RNA Covalently bonds RNA nucleotides (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil) according to the nucleotide sequence of the exposed gene Three Types of RNA RNA and DNA Compared Messenger RNA (mrna) Carries protein-building codes from DNA to ribosomes Ribosomal RNA (rrna) Forms ribosomes (where polypeptide chains are assembled) Transfer RNA (trna) Delivers amino acids to ribosomes 2

3 RNA Base Pairing Fig. 13.3, p.198 gene region newly forming RNA transcript RNA polymerase, the enzyme that catalyzes transcription DNA template winding up DNA template unwinding Fig. 13.3, p.198 Fig. 13.3, p.198 3

4 Fig. 13.3, p.198 Fig. 13.3, p.198 Key Concepts: TRANSCRIPTION 13.2 The Genetic Code During transcription, the two strands of the DNA double helix are unwound in a gene region Exposed bases of one strand become the template for assembling a single strand of RNA (a transcript) Messenger RNA (mrna) carries DNA s proteinbuilding information to ribosomes for translation mrna s genetic message is written in codons Sets of three nucleotides along mrna strand Messenger RNA is the only type of RNA that carries DNA s protein-building instructions 4

5 Genetic Code: RNA Triplets From DNA to Polypeptide 13.3 trna and rrna Function in Translation trna Transfer RNA (trna) Anticodon binds to mrna codon Also binds amino acid specified by codon Different trnas carry different amino acids trnas deliver free amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis 5

6 rrna Ribosomal RNA (rrna) and proteins make up the two subunits of ribosomes 13.4 Three Stages of Translation mrna-transcript information directs synthesis of a polypeptide chain during translation Translation proceeds in three stages Initiation Elongation Termination Initiation Initiation One initiator trna, two ribosomal subunits, and one mrna come together as an initiation complex 6

7 Elongation Elongation trnas deliver amino acids to the ribosome in the order specified by mrna codons Ribosomal rrna catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between amino acids Elongation Elongation 7

8 Termination Termination Translation ends when RNA polymerase encounters a STOP codon in mrna New polypeptide chain and mrna are released Ribosome subunits separate from each other Elongation Initiation A mature mrna leaves the nucleus and enters cytoplasm, which has many free amino acids, trnas, and ribosome subunits. An initiator trna binds to a small ribosomal subunit and the mrna. mrna initiator small trna ribosomal subunit An initiator trna carries the amino acid methionine, so the first amino acid of the new polypeptide chain will be methionine. A second trna binds the second codon of the mrna (here, that codon is GUG, so the trna that binds carries the amino acid valine). A peptide bond forms between the first two amino acids (here, methionine and valine). A large ribosomal subunit joins, and the cluster is now called an initiation complex. large ribosomal subunit The first trna is released and the ribosome moves to the next codon in the mrna. A third trna binds to the third codon of the mrna (here, that codon is UUA, so the trna carries the amino acid leucine). A peptide bond forms between the second and third amino acids (here, valine and leucine). Fig. 13.8, p.202 Fig. 13.8, p.202 8

9 The second RNA is released and the ribosome moves to the next codon. A fourth trna binds the fourth mrna codon (here, that codon is GGG, so the trna carries the amino acid glycine). Termination Steps d and e are repeated over and over until the ribosome encounters a STOP codon in the mrna. The mrna transcript and the new polypeptide chain are released from the ribosome. The two ribosomal subunits separate from each other. Translation is now complete. Either the chain will join the pool of proteins in the cytoplasm or it will enter rough ER of the endomembrane system (Section 4.8). A peptide bond forms between the third and fourth amino acids (here, leucine and glycine) Key Concepts: TRANSLATION During translation, amino acids become bonded together into a polypeptide chain in a sequence specified by base triplets in messenger RNA Transfer RNAs deliver amino acids one at a time to ribosomes Ribosomal RNA catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds between the amino acids Fig. 13.8, p Mutated Genes and Their Protein Products Common Gene Mutations Mutations are permanent, small-scale changes in the base sequence of a gene Common mutations include insertions, deletions, and base-pair substitutions 9

10 Some Causes of Mutations Transcription Assembly of RNA on unwound regions of DNA molecule Natural and synthetic chemicals Cigarette smoke mrna processing mrna mature mrna transcripts proteins rrna ribosomal subunits trna mature trna Environmental agents Translation At an intact ribosome, synthesis of a polypeptide chain at the binding sites for mrna and trnas Convergence of RNAs cytoplasmic pools of amino acids, ribosomal subunits, and trnas Final protein Fig , p

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